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Coherent Resonant Interaction and Harmonic Generation in Atomic Vapors

Description: This work examines the use of higher order multiphoton resonances in higher harmonic generation together with judicious exploitation of coherent interaction properties to achieve efficient harmonic generation. A detailed experimental study on third harmonic generation in two photon resonant coherent interaction and a theoretical study on four photon resonant coherent interaction have been conducted. Two photon resonant coheren propagation in lithium vapor (2S-4S and 2S-3D interaction) has been studied in detail as a function of phase and delay of the interacting pulse sequence. Under coherent lossless propagation of 90 phase shifted pulse pair, third harmonic generation is enhanced. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 1% was measured experimentally. This experiment shows that phase correlated pulse sequence can be used to control multiphoton coherent resonant effects. A larger two photon resonant enhancement does not result in more efficient harmonic generation, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. An accurate (to at least 0.5 A°) measurement of intensity dependent Stark shift has been done with the newly developed "interferometric wavemeter." Stark shifts as big as several pulse bandwidths (of picosecond pulses) result in a poor tuning of multiphoton resonance and become a limiting factor of resonant harmonic generation. A complete theory has been developed for harmonic generation in a four photon resonant coherent interaction. A numerical application of the theory to the Hg atom successfully interprets the experimental observations in terms of the phase dependent stimulated Raman scattering. With the intensity required for four photon resonant transition, the calculation predicts a dramatic Stark shift effect which completely destroys the resonance condition. This model provides a basis for the development of future schemes for efficient higher order coherent upconversion.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Mukherjee, Nandini
Partner: UNT Libraries

Two Photon Resonant Picosecond Pulse Propagation in Lithium Vapor

Description: The work of this dissertation has been to prove that the coherence of multiphoton excitation can be studied by an appropriately phased and time delayed sequence of pulses. An application of this fundamental study of coherence has been made for the enhancement of third harmonic generation. The coherent recovery of the energy lost to the two photon absorption process enalled a larger propagation distance for the fundamental than in an interaction which is incoherent or coherent, but not using a 90 degree phase shifted pulse pair. Phase matching over this longer propagation distance gave an enhancement of third harmonic generation.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Mukherjee, Anadi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Top pair production in e+e- and {gamma}{gamma} processes

Description: We analyze spin correlations between top quark and anti-top quark produced at polarized e{sup +} e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} colliders. We consider a generic spin basis to find a strong spin correlation. Optimal spin decompositions for top quark pair are presented for e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} colliders. We show the cross- section in these bases and discuss the characteristics of results.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Hori, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Kodaira, J.; Nasuno, T. & Parke, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exclusive photon-photon processes

Description: Exclusive gamma gamma right arrow hadron pairs are among the most fundamental processes in QCD, providing a detailed examination of Compton scattering in the crossed channel. In the high momentum transfer domain (s, t, large, Theta cm for t/s fixed), these processes can be computed from first principles in QCD, yielding important information on the nature of the QCD coupling data and the form of hadron distribution amplitudes. Similarly, the transition form factors gamma star gamma, gamma star gamma right arrow pi(o), Eta (0), Eta`, Eta(c)... provide rigorous tests of QCD and definitive determinations of the meson distribution amplitudes Phi H(x,Q). We show that the assumption of a frozen coupling at low momentum transfers can explain the observed scaling of two-photon exclusive processes.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Brodsky, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photon Exchange Between a Pair of Nonidentical Atoms with Two Forms of Interactions

Description: A pair of nonidentical two-level atoms, separated by a fixed distance R, interact through photon exchange. The system is described by a state vector which is assumed to be a superposition of four "essential states": (1) the first atom is excited, the second one is in the ground state, and no photon is present, (2) the first atom is in its ground state, the second one is excited, and no photon is present, (3) both atoms are in their ground states and a photon is present, and (4) both atoms are excited and a photon is also present. The system is initially in state (1). The probabilities of each atom being excited are calculated for both the minimally-coupled interaction and the multipolar interaction in the electric dipole approximation. For the minimally-coupled interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom has a probability of being instantaneously excited, so the interaction is not retarded. For the multipolar interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom is not excited before the retardation time, which agrees with special relativity. For the minimally-coupled interaction the nonphysical result occurs because the unperturbed Hamiltonian is not the energy operator in the Coulomb gauge. For the multipolar Hamiltonian in the electric dipole approximation the unperturbed Hamiltonian is the energy operator. An active view of unitary transformations in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics is used to derive transformation laws for the potentials of the electromagnetic field and the static Coulomb potential. For a specific choice of unitary transformation the transformation laws for the potentials are used in the minimally-coupled second-quantized Hamiltonian to obtain the multipolar Hamiltonian, which is expressed in terms of the quantized electric and magnetic fields.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Golshan, Shahram Mohammad-Mehdi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Search for chameleon particles via photon regeneration

Description: We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. The chameleons are assumed to have matter effects sufficiently strong that they reflect from all solid surfaces of the apparatus, thus evading detection in our previous search for weakly-interacting axion-like particles. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Chou, Aaron S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy photon-neutrino interactions

Description: A general decomposition of the amplitudes for the 2 {r_arrow} 2 processes {gamma}{nu} {r_arrow} {gamma}{nu} and {gamma}{gamma} {r_arrow} {nu}{bar {nu}} is obtained using gauge invariance and Bose symmetry. The restrictions implied by this decomposition are investigated for the reaction {gamma}{gamma} {r_arrow} {nu}{bar {nu}} by computing the one-loop helicity amplitudes in the standard model. In the center of mass, where {radical}s = 2{omega}, the cross section grows roughly as {omega}{sup 6} up to the threshold for W-boson production, {radical}s = 2m{sub W}. Astrophysical implications of very high energy photon-neutrino interactions are discussed.
Date: July 14, 1998
Creator: Abbasabadi, A.; Devoto, A.; Dicus, D.A. & Repko, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future colliders

Description: The high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, pp), of lepton (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}}) and photon-photon colliders are considered. Technical arguments for increased energy in each type of machine are presented. Their relative size, and the implications of size on cost are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Palmer, R.B. & Gallardo, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QCD sum rule calculation of {gamma}{gamma}{sup *} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0} transition form factor

Description: The authors develop a QCD sum rule analysis of the form factor F{sub {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0}}(q{sup 2},Q{sup 2}) in the region where virtuality of one of the spacelike photons is small q{sup 2} {much_lt} 1 GeV{sup 2} while another is large: Q{sup 2} {approx_gt} 1 GeV{sup 2}. They construct the operator product expansion suitable for this kinematic situation and obtain a QCD sum rule for F{sub {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0}}(0, Q{sup 2}). Their results confirm expectation that the momentum transfer dependence of F{sub {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0}}(0,Q{sup 2}) is close to interpolation between its Q{sup 2}=0 value fixed by the axial anomaly and Q{sup {minus}2} pQCD behavior for large Q{sup 2}. Their approach, in contrast to pQCD, does not require additional assumptions about the shape of the pion distribution amplitude {var_phi}{sub {pi}}(x). The absolute value of the 1/Q{sup 2} term obtained in this paper favors {var_phi}{sub {pi}}(x) close to the asymptotic form {var_phi}{sub {pi}}{sup as}(x) = 6f{sub {pi}}x(1{minus}x).
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: A.V.Radyushkin & R.T.Ruskov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photon-photon and electron-photon colliders with energies below a TeV

Description: We investigate the potential for detecting and studying Higgs bosons in {gamma}{gamma} and e{gamma} collisions at future linear colliders with energies below a TeV. Our study incorporates realistic {gamma}{gamma}spectra based on available laser technology, and NLC and CLIC acceleration techniques. Results include detector simulations. We study the cases of: (a) a SM-like Higgs boson based on a devoted low energy machine with {radical}s{sub ee} {le} 200 GeV; (b) the heavy MSSM Higgs bosons; and (c) charged Higgs bosons in e{gamma} collisions.
Date: November 29, 2001
Creator: al., Mayda M. Velasco et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photon-photon colliders

Description: Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Sessler, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New results for a photon-photon collider

Description: We present new results from studies in progress on physics at a two-photon collider. We report on the sensitivity to top squark parameters of MSSM Higgs boson production in two-photon collisions; Higgs boson decay to two photons; radion production in models of warped extra dimensions; chargino pair production; sensitivity to the trilinear Higgs boson coupling; charged Higgs boson pair production; and we discuss the backgrounds produced by resolved photon-photon interactions.
Date: September 26, 2002
Creator: al., David Asner et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The escape of > MeV photons from cosmological gamma-ray bursts

Description: The recent BATSE result indicates that gamma-ray bursts may be at cosmological distances. AS such one must reconcile the high photon densities with the observations of spectra to energies well above the pair production threshold. We have investigated two models of relativistic flows that could provide the requiste beaming to allow the escape of 100 MeV photons: a stationary relativistic wind with a photosphere and a relativistic expanding shell. For typical cosmological gamma-ray burst parameters, the expanding shell model requires a Lorentz factor ({gamma}) of only 10{sup 2} compared with 3 {times} 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} for the relativistic wind. For the expanding shell model, events separated in time at the central source produce peaks observed to be separated by the same time. However, the shape and duration of the peaks are determined by the expansion. The expansion can occur over a much longer time (by {gamma}{sup 2}) then the duration that the observer sees so gamma-ray burst could be larger than 10{sup 2} light-seconds. We have made two crucial assumptions need require further study. The spectrum has been assumed to a be a power law and a two component power law or a power law with a high-energy cut-off would decrease the required {gamma}. The expanding shell model uses a infinitely thin emitting surface and one with a finite thickness could increase the required {gamma}.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Fenimore, E. E.; Epstein, R. I. & Ho, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

Description: Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields which act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a {gamma}p energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the {rho}{sup 0}, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of ''new physics''.
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Bertulani, Carlos A.; Klein, Spencer R. & Nystrand, Joakim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Latest results on bottom spectroscopy and production with CDF

Description: Using data collected with the CDF Run II detector, new measurements on bottom production cross-sections are presented. The latest achievements in bottom hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The results are based on a large sample of semileptonic and hadronic decays of bottom states made available by triggers based on the precise CDF tracking system.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Gorelov, Igor V. & U., /New Mexico
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relativistic Quark Clustering in the gamma gamma -> pi^+ pi^- and pi^0 pi^0 reactions

Description: Cross section for pion pair production by photon-photon collisions are estimated near the threshold using a relativitic quark clustering model.A realistic qq wave function of the pion was determined by fitting the pion charge form factor up to q^2 = 4 ~ 6 GeV^2/c^2, the weak decay constant and the pion charge radius.The composite structure of the pion provides a simple explanation for the energy dependence and magnitudes of pi^+pi^- and pi^0 pi^0 pair productions.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Gross, Franz; Ito, Hiroshi & Buck, Warren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photonic Equations of Motion

Description: Although the concept of the photon as a quantum particle is sharpened by the quantization of the energy of the classical radiation field in a cavity, the photon's spin has remained a classical degree of freedom. The photon is considered a spin-1 particle, although only two classical polarization states transverse to its direction of propagation are allowed. Effectively therefore the photon is a spin-1/2 particle, although it still obeys Bose-Einstein statistics because the photon-photon interaction is zero. Here they show that the two polarization states of the photon can be quantized using Pauli's spin vector, such that a suitable equation of motion for the photon is Dirac's relativistic wave equation for zero mass and zero charge. Maxwell's equations for a free photon are inferred from the Dirac-field formalism and thus provide proof of this claim. For photons in the presence of electronic sources for electromagnetic fields we posit Lorentz-invariant inhomogeneous photonic equations of motion. Electro-dynamic operator equations are inferred from this modified Dirac-field formalism which reduce to Maxwell's equations if spin-dependent terms in the radiation-matter interaction are dropped.
Date: September 17, 2004
Creator: Ritchie, A B & Crenshaw, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction and Performance of the BaBar DIRC

Description: The new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov detector technology called DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (Light)) has been used successfully for hadronic particle identification in the BABAR experiment at the B Factory (PEP-II) located at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. This paper describes the R&D for and the construction of the DIRC radiator bars and the performance of the DIRC during more than eight years of B Factory operation.
Date: October 30, 2009
Creator: Schwiening, Jochen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser optics for a {gamma}-{gamma} collider

Description: The constraints on an optical system to convert the electron beams to {gamma}-ray beams for a {gamma}-{gamma} collider are considered. We show that the range of possible designs is limited by the requirement of near head-on collisions and present a design which achieves two passes of the laser pulse with arbitrary control of the polarization. For certain polarization combinations, four passes appear possible. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Klem, D.E. & Seppala, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High luminosity particle colliders

Description: The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p{anti p}), lepton (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Palmer, R.B. & Gallardo, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QCD sum rules and virtual Compton scattering

Description: In this talk the author reports on recent progress in a few areas closely related to the virtual Compton scattering studies. In particular, he discusses the quark-hadron duality estimate of the {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {Delta}{sup +} transition, QCD sum rule calculation of the {gamma}{gamma}{sup *} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0} form factor, and application of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering at small t.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Radyushkin, A. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positron production in multiphoton light-by-light scattering

Description: A signal of 106 {+-} 14 positrons above background has been observed in collisions of a low-emittance 46.6-GeV electron beam with terawatt pulses from a Nd:glass laser at 527 nm wavelength in an experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC. Peak laser intensities of {approximately} 1.3 {times} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.3 for the parameter {Upsilon} = {var_epsilon}*/{var_epsilon}{sub crit} where {var_epsilon}* = 2{gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub lab} is the electric field strength of the laser transformed to the rest frame of the electron beam and {var_epsilon}{sub crit} = m{sup 2}c{sup 3}/e{bar h} = 1.3 {times} 10{sup 16} V/cm is the QED critical field strength. The positrons are interpreted as arising from a two-step process in which laser photons are backscattered to GeV energies by the electron beam followed by a collision between the high-energy photon and several laser photons to produce an electron-positron pair. These results are the first laboratory evidence for a light-by-light scattering process involving only real photons.
Date: March 1997
Creator: Bula, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department