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Summary Technical Report for the Period July 1, 1956 to September 1, 1956

Description: The activities of the Technical Division, including the HNO/sub 3/ recovery process, a study of UO/sub 3/ factors as related to the production of metal-grade UF/sub 4/, a thermobalance investigation of starch as a reducing agent for UO/sub 3/, reduction of UF/sub 4/ to uranium by a thermite type reaction, melting and casting of Nb-U alloy, uranium recovery from scrap materials, preparation of uranium shot, cal cium reduction of ThO/sub 2/ production of thorium ingots, "wet chemical" and spectrochemical development, ammonia precipitation and filtration studies from uranyl nitrate solutions and preparation of active UO/sub 2/ from UF/sub 6/ are reviewed. (W.L.H.)
Date: October 15, 1956
Creator: Simmons, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Generalized {ital K} Correction for Type Ia Supernovae: Comparing {ital R}-band Photometry Beyond {ital z=9.2} with B,V, and {ital R}-band Nearby Photometry

Description: Photometric measurements show that, as a group, nearby Type Ia supernovae follow similar light curves and reach similar peak magnitudes (Branch & Tammann 1992). Thus, these supernovae may serve as standard candles or calibrated candles at cosmological distances. Magnitudes of local and distant supernovae, both in the same filter band, are compared using a K correction to account for the different spectral regions incident on that filter. A generalized approach compares magnitudes in different bands for the nearby and distant supernovae, bands that are selected to give sensitivity in corresponding regions of the unredshifted and redshifted spectra. Thus, R magnitudes for supernovae at z {approx} 0.5 are compared with B magnitudes of local supernovae. We compute these generalized K corrections over a range of redshifts and bandpass pairs and discuss their advantages over the traditional single-band K correction. In particular, errors near maximum light can be kept below 0.05 mag out to at least z = 0.6, whereas the traditional K correction is less accurate and can be difficult to determine beyond z > 0.2.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Kim, Alex; Goodbar, Ariel & Perlmutter, Saul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Analysis of TBP Process Streams for Calcium with the Flame Photometer

Description: Summary: A method was found for determining calcium concentrations in TBP process streams in spite of serious interferences bysodium, ferrous, uranyl, sulfate, phosphate, and sulfamate ions as well as by TBP. The precision attainable varied from sample to sample, depending upon its composition. In general, errors of 20% or greater occurred. The smallest determinable amount of calcium was about 10 mg/1.
Date: February 20, 1953
Creator: Brite, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray Photometric Determination of Uranium in Metal Oxides

Description: The following report describes the procedures developed for the x-ray photometric determination of uraniuim in metal oxides and sludge and compares results, precision, and length of time of analyses by the General Electric X-Ray Photometer with analyses by the present titration method.
Date: November 6, 1950
Creator: Lambert, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of Measuring the Cosmological Constant [LAMBDA]and Mass Density [Omega]using Type Ia Supernovae

Description: We explore the feasibility of resurrecting the apparent magnitude-redshift relation for a 'standard candle' to measure the cosmological constant and mass density. We show that type Ia supernovae, if measured with 0.15 mag uncertainty out to a redshift of z = 1, may provide a good standard candle or calibrated candle for this purpose. The recent discovery of probable type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.3 to 0.5 (Perlmutter et al. 1994a, and 1994b) indicates that the flux of optical photons from these events can be measured this accurately. The 7 distant supernovae discovered to date do not by themselves distinguish between different cosmological models, however the further discovery of about 50 type Ia supernovae at redshifts in the range 0.5 < z {approx} 1.0 could strongly constrain the allowed range of these parameters. We estimate that the follow-up photometry necessary for this measurement would be on the order of 20 - 70 hours of time on a lO-meter class telescope at a site with good seeing.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Goobar, A. & Perlmutter, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dithering Strategies and Point-Source Photometry

Description: The accuracy in the photometry of a point source depends on the point-spread function (PSF), detector pixelization, and observing strategy. The PSF and pixel response describe the spatial blurring of the source, the pixel scale describes the spatial sampling of a single exposure, and the observing strategy determines the set of dithered exposures with pointing offsets from which the source flux is inferred. In a wide-field imaging survey, sources of interest are randomly distributed within the field of view and hence are centered randomly within a pixel. A given hardware configuration and observing strategy therefore have a distribution of photometric uncertainty for sources of fixed flux that fall in the field. In this article we explore the ensemble behavior of photometric and position accuracies for different PSFs, pixel scales, and dithering patterns. We find that the average uncertainty in the flux determination depends slightly on dither strategy, whereas the position determination can be strongly dependent on the dithering. For cases with pixels much larger than the PSF, the uncertainty distributions can be non-Gaussian, with rms values that are particularly sensitive to the dither strategy. We also find that for these configurations with large pixels, pointings dithered by a fractional pixel amount do not always give minimal average uncertainties; this is in contrast to image reconstruction for which fractional dithers are optimal. When fractional pixel dithering is favored, a pointing accuracy of better than {approx}0.15 {approx}0.15 pixel width is required to maintain half the advantage over random dithers.
Date: February 22, 2011
Creator: Samsing, Johan & Kim, Alex G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An investigation was conducted to compare the flame emission spectrum of Fe as recorded by the Beckman DU and the ORNL flame spectrophotometers. It was found that the ORNL instrument is best suited to the application. Optimum operating conditions are described as well as results of investigations to determine interferences. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 1, 1959
Creator: Menis, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of the MACHO photometry database

Description: The MACHO Project is a microlensing survey that monitors the brightnesses of -60 million stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud, and Galactic bulge. The database presently contains more photometric measurements than previously recorded in the history of astronomy. We describe the calibration of the MACHO two-color photometry and transformation to the standard Kron-Cousins V and R system. This allows for proper comparison with all other observations on the Kron-Cousins standard system. The highest precision calibrations are for -9 million stars in the LMC bar. For these stars, independent photometric measurements in field-overlap regions indicate standard deviations {sigma}{sub V} = {sigma}{sub R} = 0.020 mag. Calibrated MACHO photometry data are compared with published photometric sequences and with new Hubble Space Telescope observations. We additionally describe the first application of these calibrated data: the construction of the ´┐Żefficiency´┐Ż color-magnitude diagram which will be used to calculate our experimental sensitivity for detecting microlensing in the LMC.
Date: October 23, 1998
Creator: Alcock, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compact light source performance in recessed type luminaires

Description: Photometric comparisons were made with an indoor, recessed, type luminaire using incandescent, high intensity discharge and compact fluorescent lamps. The test results show substantial performance advantages, as expected, for the discharge light sources where the efficacy gains can be in the order for 400% even when including the ballast losses associated with the discharge lamps. The candlepower distribution patterns emerging from these luminaries are also different from those associated with the baseline incandescent lamps, and which are in some ways, even more desirable from a uniformity of illuminance perspective. A section on fluorescent lamp starting is also included which describes a system having excellent starting characteristics in terms of electrode starting temperature (RH/RC technique), proper operating frequency to minimize unwanted IR interactions, and satisfactory current crest factor values to help insure life performance.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Hammer, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

Description: In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.
Date: October 13, 2006
Creator: Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near infrared detectors for SNAP

Description: Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.
Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Type Ia Supernova Spectral Line Ratios as LuminosityIndicators

Description: Type Ia supernovae have played a crucial role in thediscovery of the dark energy, via the measurement of their light curvesand the determination of the peak brightness via fitting templates to theobserved lightcurve shape. Two spectroscopic indicators are also known tobe well correlated with peak luminosity. Since the spectroscopicluminosity indicators are obtained directly from observed spectra, theywill have different systematic errors than do measurements usingphotometry. Additionally, these spectroscopic indicators may be usefulfor studies of effects of evolution or age of the SNe~;Ia progenitorpopulation. We present several new variants of such spectroscopicindicators which are easy to automate and which minimize the effects ofnoise. We show that these spectroscopic indicators can be measured byproposed JDEM missions such as snap and JEDI.
Date: December 7, 2005
Creator: Bongard, Sebastien; Baron, E.; Smadja, G.; Branch, David & Hauschildt, Peter H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another TypeIa Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

Description: We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H{alpha} emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H{gamma}, H{beta},H{alpha} and He I {lambda}{lambda}5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] {lambda}5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}} < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a ...
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Blanc, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring Type Ia Supernova Distances and Redshifts From TheirMulti-band Light Curves

Description: The distance and redshift of a type Ia supernova can bedetermined simultaneously through its multi-band light curves. This factmay beused for imaging surveys that discover and obtain photometry forlarge numbers of supernovae; so many that it would be difficult to obtaina spectroscopic redshift for each. Using available supernova-analysistools we find that there are several conditions in which a viabledistance--redshift can be determined. Uncertainties in the effectivedistance at z~;0.3 are dominated by redshift uncertainties coupled withthe steepness of the Hubble law. By z~;0.5 the Hubble law flattens outand distance-modulus uncertainties dominate. Observations that giveS/N=50 at peak brightness and a four-day observer cadence in each ofgriz-bands are necessary to match the intrinsic supernova magnitudedispersion out to z=1.0. Lower S/N can be tolerated with the addition ofredshift priors (e.g., from a host-galaxy photometric redshift),observationsin an additional redder band, or by focusing on supernovaredshifts that have particular leverage for this measurement. Morestringent S/N requirements are anticipated as improved systematicscontrol over intrinsic color, metallicity, and dust is attempted to bedrawn from light curves.
Date: August 12, 2007
Creator: Kim, Alex G. & Miquel, Ramon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clouds and Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Extrasolar Planet HR8799b

Description: Using the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS, on the Keck II telescope, broad near-infrared H and K-band spectra of the young exoplanet HR8799b have been obtained. In addition, six new narrow-band photometric measurements have been taken across the H and K bands. These data are combined with previously published photometry for an analysis of the planet's atmospheric properties. Thick photospheric dust cloud opacity is invoked to explain the planet's red near-IR colors and relatively smooth near-IR spectrum. Strong water absorption is detected, indicating a Hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Only weak CH{sub 4} absorption is detected at K band, indicating efficient vertical mixing and a disequilibrium CO/CH{sub 4} ratio at photospheric depths. The H-band spectrum has a distinct triangular shape consistent with low surface gravity. New giant planet atmosphere models are compared to these data with best fitting bulk parameters, T{sub eff} = 1100K {+-} 100 and log(g) = 3.5 {+-} 0.5 (for solar composition). Given the observed luminosity (log L{sub obs}/L{sub {circle_dot}} {approx} -5.1), these values correspond to a radius of 0.75 R{sub Jup{sub 0.12}{sup +0.17}} and mass {approx} 0.72 M{sub Jup{sub -0.6}{sup +2.6}} - strikingly inconsistent with interior/evolution models. Enhanced metallicity (up to {approx} 10 x that of the Sun) along with thick clouds and non-equilibrium chemistry are likely required to reproduce the complete ensemble of spectroscopic and photometric data and the low effective temperatures (< 1000K) required by the evolution models.
Date: March 21, 2011
Creator: Barman, T. S.; Macintosh, B. A.; Konopacky, Q. M. & Marois, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GQ Lup Ab Visible & Near-Infrared Photometric Analysis

Description: We have re-analyzed archival HST R and I band images and Subaru CH{sub 4}, H, Ks and L{prime} data of the recently discovered planetary mass companion (PMC) GQ Lup Ab. With these we produce the first R and I band photometry of the companion and fit a radius and effective temperature using detailed model atmospheres. We find an effective temperature of 2338 {+-} 100K, and a radius of 0.37 {+-} 0.05R{sub {circle_dot}} and luminosity of log(L/L{sub {circle_dot}}) = -2.43 {+-} 0.07 (at 140pc). Since we fit wavelengths that span most of the emitted radiation from GQ Lup this luminosity estimate is robust, with uncertainty dominated by the distance uncertainty. The radius obtained for 140pc (0.37R{sub {circle_dot}}) is significantly larger than the one originally derived. The mass of the object is much more model-dependent than the radiative properties, but for the GAIA dusty models we find a mass between 9-20 M{sub Jup}, in the range of the brown dwarf and PMC deuterium burning boundary. Assuming a distance of 140pc, observations fit to 1{sigma} the Baraffe evolution model for a {approx} 15 M{sub Jup} brown dwarf. Additionally, the F606W photometric band is significantly overluminous compared to model predictions. Such overluminosity could be explained by a bright H{alpha} emission from chromospheric activity, interaction with another undetected companion, or accretion. Assuming that GQ Lup Ab has a bright H{alpha} emission line, its H{alpha} emission strength is 10{sup -1.71 {+-} 0.10} L{sub bol}, significantly larger than field late-type dwarfs. GQ Lup Ab might be strongly accreting and still be in its formation phase.
Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Marois, C; Macintosh, B & Barman, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photometric Redshifts for the Dark Energy Survey and VISTA and Implications for Large Scale Structure

Description: We conduct a detailed analysis of the photometric redshift requirements for the proposed Dark Energy Survey (DES) using two sets of mock galaxy simulations and an artificial neural network code-ANNz. In particular, we examine how optical photometry in the DES grizY bands can be complemented with near infra-red photometry from the planned VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) in the JHK{sub s} bands in order to improve the photometric redshift estimate by a factor of two at z > 1. We draw attention to the effects of galaxy formation scenarios such as reddening on the photo-z estimate and using our neural network code, calculate A{sub v} for these reddened galaxies. We also look at the impact of using different training sets when calculating photometric redshifts. In particular, we find that using the ongoing DEEP2 and VVDS-Deep spectroscopic surveys to calibrate photometric redshifts for DES, will prove effective. However we need to be aware of uncertainties in the photometric redshift bias that arise when using different training sets as these will translate into errors in the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Furthermore, we show that the neural network error estimate on the photometric redshift may be used to remove outliers from our samples before any kind of cosmological analysis, in particular for large-scale structure experiments. By removing all galaxies with a 1{sigma} photo-z scatter greater than 0.1 from our DES+VHS sample, we can constrain the galaxy power spectrum out to a redshift of 2 and reduce the fractional error on this power spectrum by {approx}15-20% compared to using the entire catalogue.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Banerji, Manda; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer; London, /University Coll.; Lin, Huan & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiaperture U BV RIzJHK Photometry of Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

Description: We present a set of UBV RIzJHKs photometry for 745 J +H band selected objects in a 22:5{prime} x 29:2{prime} region centered on the core of the Coma cluster. This includes 516 galaxies and is at least 80% complete to H = 16, with a spectroscopically complete sample of 111 cluster members (nearly all with morphological classification) for H < 14:5. For each object we present total Kron (1980) magnitudes and aperture photometry. As an example, we use these data to derive color-magnitude relations for Coma early-type galaxies, measure the intrinsic scatter of these relations and its dependence on galaxy mass, and address the issue of color gradients. We find that the color gradients are mild and that the intrinsic scatter about the color-magnitude relation is small ({approx} 0:05 mag in U-V and less than {approx} 0:03 in B-R, V-I, or J-K). There is no evidence that the intrinsic scatter varies with galaxy luminosity, suggesting that the cluster red sequence is established at early epochs over a range of {approx} 100 in stellar mass.
Date: December 5, 2006
Creator: Eisenhardt, P R; De Propris, R; Gonzalez, A H; Stanford, S A; Dickinson, M & Wang, M C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department