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Polo-like Kinase I is involved in Invasion through Extracellular Matrix

Description: Polo-like kinase 1, PLK1, has important functions in maintaining genome stability and is involved in regulation of mitosis. PLK1 is up regulated in many invasive carcinomas. We asked whether it may also play a role in acquisition of invasiveness, a crucial step in transition to malignancy. In a model of metaplastic basal-like breast carcinoma progression, we found that PLK1 expression is necessary but not sufficient to induce invasiveness through laminin-rich extracellular matrix. PLK1 mediates invasion via Vimentin and {beta}1 integrin, both of which are necessary. We observed that PLK1 phosphorylates Vimentin on serine 82, which in turn regulates cell surface levels of {beta}1 integrin. We found PLK1 to be also highly expressed in pre-invasive in situ carcinomas of the breast. These results support a role for the involvement of PLK1 in the invasion process and point to this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for pre-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma treatment.
Date: April 2, 2008
Creator: Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mott, Joni D. & Bissell, Mina J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with DistinctSubcellular Locations

Description: Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency. (c) 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.Published by Elsevier B.V.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lydikis, Athanasios; Stevens,Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Wenner, Brett R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer

Description: There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behaviors that are frequently observed in aggressive breast cancers. We report here the isolation and initial characterization of a spontaneously arising variant of MCF-10A cells, NeoST, which provides a new model to study cell adhesion and signal transduction in breast cancer. NeoST cells recapitulate important biological and biochemical features of metastatic breast cancer, including anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness in threedimensional reconstituted membranes, loss of E-cadherin expression, and increased tyrosine kinase activity. A comprehensive analysis of tyrosine kinase expression revealed overexpression or functional activation of the Axl, FAK, and EphA2 tyrosine kinases in transformed MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A and these new derivatives provide a genetically matched model to study defects in cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to cellular behaviors that often typify aggressive breast cancer cells.
Date: August 22, 2001
Creator: Zantek, Nicole Dodge; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Stewart, Jane; Hansen, Rhonda K.; Robinson, Daniel; Miao, Hui et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-organization of engineered epithelial tubules by differential cellular motility

Description: Patterning of developing tissues arises from a number of mechanisms, including cell shape change, cell proliferation, and cell sorting from differential cohesion or tension. Here, we reveal that differences in cell motility can also lead to cell sorting within tissues. Using mosaic engineered mammary epithelial tubules, we found that cells sorted depending on their expression level of the membrane-anchored collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14. These rearrangements were independent of the catalytic activity of MMP14 but absolutely required the hemopexin domain. We describe a signaling cascade downstream of MMP14 through Rho kinase that allows cells to sort within the model tissues. Cell speed and persistence time were enhanced by MMP14 expression, but only the latter motility parameter was required for sorting. These results indicate that differential directional persistence can give rise to patterns within model developing tissues.
Date: February 4, 2009
Creator: Mori, Hidetoshi; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Inman, Jamie L; Bissell, Mina J & Nelson, Celeste M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coordinateendonucleolytic 5' and 3' trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase

Description: Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5' {yields} 3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent, and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nucleotides from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.
Date: February 18, 2008
Creator: Povirk, Lawrence; Yannone, Steven M.; Khan, Imran S.; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

Description: Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.
Date: September 15, 2006
Creator: Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suppression of Apoptosis by Basement Membrane Requires three-dimensional Tissue Organization and Withdrawal from the Cell Cycle

Description: The basement membrane (BM) extracellular matrix induces differentiation and suppresses apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, whereas cells lacking BM lose their differentiated phenotype and undergo apoptosis. Addition of purified BM components, which are known to induce {beta}-casein expression, did not prevent apoptosis, indicating that a more complex BM was necessary. A comparison of culture conditions where apoptosis would or would not occur allowed us to relate inhibition of apoptosis to a complete withdrawal from the cell cycle, which was observed only when cells acquired a three-dimensional alveolar structure in response to BM. In the absence of this morphology, both the G1 cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/WAF-I and positive proliferative signals including c-myc and cyclin Dl were expressed and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) continued to be hyperphosphorylated. When we overexpressed either c-myc in quiescent cells or p21 when cells were still cycling, apoptosis was induced. In the absence of three-dimensional alveolar structures, mammary epithelial cells secrete a number of factors including transforming growth factor a and tenascin, which when added exogenously to quiescent cells induced expression of c-myc and interleukin-{beta}1-converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA and led to apoptosis. These experiments demonstrate that a correct tissue architecture is crucial for long-range homeostasis, suppression of apoptosis, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype.
Date: December 28, 1995
Creator: Boudreau, N.; Werb, Z. & Bissell, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engagement of CD81 induces ezrin tyrosine phosphorylation and its cellular redistribution with filamentous actin

Description: CD81 is a tetraspanin family member involved in diverse cellular interactions in the immune and nervous systems and in cell fusion events. However, the mechanism of action of CD81 and of other tetraspanins has not been defined. We reasoned that identifying signaling molecules downstream of CD81 would provide mechanistic clues. We engaged CD81 on the surface of Blymphocytes and identified the induced tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins by mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that the most prominent tyrosine phosphorylated protein was ezrin, an actin binding protein and a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family. We also found that CD81 engagement induces spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and that Syk was involved in tyrosine phosphorylation of ezrin. Ezrin colocalized with CD81 and F-actin upon stimulation and this association was disrupted when Syk activation was blocked. Taken together, these studies suggest a model in which CD81 interfaces between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton by activating Syk, mobilizing ezrin, and recruiting F-actin to facilitate cytoskeletal reorganization and cell signaling. This may be a mechanism explaining the pleiotropic effects induced in response to stimulating cells by anti-CD81 antibodies or by the hepatitis C virus, which uses this molecule as its key receptor.
Date: June 9, 2009
Creator: Coffey, Greg P.; Rajapaksa, Ranjani; Liu, Raymond; Sharpe, Orr; Kuo, Chiung-Chi; Wald Krauss, Sharon et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Genetics of Bacteria That Oxidize On-Carbon Compounds

Description: Facultative methanol oxidizing bacteria contain large amounts of methanol dehydrogenase which is expressed only in the presence of methanol. This technical report describes two-two component regulatory systems encoding histidine kinases and response regulators and another response regulator all of which are required for the expression of mxaF, the open reading frame encoding methanol dehydrogenase. The response regulators bind to sequences upstream of the mxaF when phosphoryled in a reaction catalyzed by the histidine kinases. The binding of the response regulators is required for the transcription of mxaF.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Hanson, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: Our team of investigators from MIT (Michael Laub) and Stanford (Harley McAdams and Lucy Shapiro) conducted a multi-faceted, systematic experimental analysis of the 106 Caulobacter two-component signal transduction system proteins (62 histidine kinases and 44 response regulators) to understand how they coordinate cell cycle progression, metabolism, and response to environmental changes. These two-component signaling proteins were characterized at the genetic, biochemical, and genomic levels. The results generated by our laboratories have provided numerous insights into how Caulobacter cells sense and respond to a myriad of signals. As nearly all bacteria use two-component signaling for cell regulation, the results from this project help to deepen our general understanding of bacterial signal transduction. The tools and approaches developed can be applied to other bacteria. In particular, work from the Laub laboratory now enables the systematic, rational rewiring of two-component signaling proteins, a major advance that stands to impact synthetic biology and the development of biosensors and other designer molecular circuits. Results are summarized from our work. Each section lists publications and publicly-available resources which result from the work described.
Date: December 29, 2008
Creator: Laub, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basal-subtype and MEK-Pl3K feedback signaling determine susceptibility of breast cancer cells to MEK inhibition

Description: Specific inhibitors of MEK have been developed that efficiently inhibit the oncogenic RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. We employed a systems-based approach to identify breast cancer subtypes particularly susceptible to MEK inhibitors and to understand molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to such compounds. Basal-type breast cancer cells were found to be particularly susceptible to growth-inhibition by small-molecule MEK inhibitors. Activation of the PI3 kinase pathway in response to MEK inhibition through a negative MEK-EGFR-PI3 kinase feedback loop was found to limit efficacy. Interruption of this feedback mechanism by targeting MEK and PI3 kinase produced synergistic effects, including induction of apoptosis and, in some cell lines, cell cycle arrest and protection from apoptosis induced by proapoptotic agents. These findings enhance our understanding of the interconnectivity of oncogenic signal transduction circuits and have implications for the design of future clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in breast cancer by guiding patient selection and suggesting rational combination therapies.
Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Mirzoeva, Olga K.; Das, Debopriya; Heiser, Laura M.; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Siwak, Doris; Gendelman, Rina et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GROWTH REGULATION IN ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS INFECTED CHICKEN EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS: THE ROLE OF THE src GENE

Description: We report here a study of the mechanisms leading to loss of growth control in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). We have been particularly concerned with the role of the src gene in this process, and have used RSV mutants temperature sensitive (ts) for transformation to investigate the nature of the growth regulatory lesion. The two principal findings were (1) the stationary phase of the cell cycle (G{sub 1}) in chick embryo fibroblasts seems to have two distinct regulatory compartments (using the terminology of Brooks et al. we refer to these as 'Q' and 'A' states). When rendered stationary at 41.5 C by serum deprivation, normal cells enter a Q state, but cells infected with the ts-mutant occupy an A state. (2) Whereas normal cells can occupy either state depending on culture conditions, the ts-infected cells, at 41.5 C, do not seem to enter Q even though a known src gene product, a kinase, is reported to be inactive at this temperature. We discuss the possibility that viral factors other than the active src protein kinase influence growth control in infected cultures.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Parry, G.; Bartholomew, J.A. & Blssell, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

Description: Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Genomics and Evolution of Eukaryotic Phospholipid biosynthesis

Description: Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Lykidis, Athanasios
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Structural studies of archatelthermophilic adenylate kinase, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1998

Description: Through this DOE sponsored program Konisky has studied the evolution and molecular biology of microbes that live in extreme environments. The emphasis of this work has been the determination of the structural features of thermophilic enzymes that allow them to function optimally at near 100%. The laboratory has focused on a comparative study of adenylate kinase (ADK), an enzyme that functions to interconvert adenine nucleotides. Because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of members of the methanococci, differences in the structure of their ADKs will be dominated by structural features that reflect contributions to their optimal temperature for activity, rather than differences due to phylogenetic divergence. The authors have cloned, sequenced and modeled the secondary structure for several methanococcal ADKs. using molecular modeling threading approaches that are based on the solved structure for the porcine ADK, they have also proposed a general low resolution three dimensional structure for each of the methanococcal enzymes. These analyzes have allowed them to propose structural features that confer hyperthermoactivity to those enzymes functioning in the hyperthermophilic members of the Methanococci. Using protein engineering methodologies, they have tested their hypotheses by examining the effects of selective structural changes on thermoactivity. Despite possessing between 68--83% sequence identity, the methanococcal AKs had significantly different stability against thermal denaturation, with melting points ranging from 69--103 C. The construction of several chimerical AKs by linking regions of the MVO and MJA AKs demonstrated the importance of cooperative interactions between amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions in influencing thermostability. Addition of MJA terminal fragments to the MVO AK increased thermal stability approximately 20 C while maintaining 88% of the mesophilic sequence. Further analysis using structural models suggested that hydrophobic interactions are largely responsible for determining the thermostability of the methanococcal AKs. Construction of chimerical enzyme also demonstrated a distinct separation between thermostability and ...
Date: September 14, 1998
Creator: Konisky, Jordan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and Characterization of a Human DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Complex

Description: The authors have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the assembly and structure of the macromolecular assemblies involved in DNA repair. They have demonstrated using AFM that the DNA-dependent protein kinase can play a structural role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by physically holding DNA ends together. They have extended these studies to include other DNA damage response proteins, these efforts have resulted in important and novel findings regarding the ATM protein. Specifically, the work has demonstrated, for the first time, that the ATM protein binds with specificity to a DNA end. This finding is the first to implicate the ATM protein in the detection of DNA damage by direct physical interaction with DSBs.
Date: July 12, 1999
Creator: Chen, D.J. & Cary, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

Description: Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.
Date: February 29, 2000
Creator: Jacobs, Thomas W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

Description: Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.
Date: November 5, 1994
Creator: Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The long term goal of this laboratory is to elucidate a detailed molecular description of the process of initiation of protein synthesis and its regulation. The specific goals of the project were: (1) development of an in vivo [{sup 32}P]- and/or [{sup 35}S]-labeling system for proteins using Arabidopsis suspension cells; (2) develop an in vitro protein synthesis assay from Arabidopsis suspension cells; (3) develop an assay for locating Arabidopsis kinases that phosphorylate the initiation factors; and (4) begin to identify Arabidopsis kinases that are involved in phosphorylation of the initiation factors.
Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Browning, Karen S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defining interactions between DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4

Description: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ligase IV, and XRCC4 are all critical components of the NHEJ repair pathway. DNA-PK is composed of a heterodimeric DNA-binding component, Ku, and a large catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs. Ligase IV and XRCC4 associate to form a multimeric complex that is also essential for NHEJ. DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4 interact at DNA termini which results in stimulated ligase activity. Here we define interactions between the components of these two essential complexes, DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4. We find that ligase IV/XRCC4 associates with DNA-PK in a DNA-independent manner. The specific protein-protein interactions that mediate the interaction between these two complexes are further identified. Direct physical interactions between ligase IV and Ku as well as between XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs are shown. No direct interactions are observed between ligase IV and DNA-PKcs or between XRCC4 and Ku. Our data defines the specific protein pairs involved in the association of DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4, and suggests a molecular mechanism for coordinating the assembly of the DNA repair complex at DNA breaks.
Date: April 10, 2001
Creator: Hsu, Hsin-Ling; Yannone, Steven M. & Chen, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GROWTH REGULATION IN RSV INFECTED CHECKEN EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS: THE ROLE OF THE src GENE

Description: The relationship between growth regulation and cell transformation has been studied in many cultured cell lines transformed by a range of oncogenic agents. The main conclusion derived from these investigations is that the nature of the growth regulatory lesion in transformed cells is a function of the agent used to induce transformation. For example, when 3T3 fibroblasts are rendered stationary by serum deprivation, normal cells accumulate in G{sub 1} but SV40 transformed cells are arrested at all stages of the cell cycle. In contrast, 3T3 cells transformed with Rous sarcoma virus B77, accumulate in G{sub 1} upon serum deprivation. This is also true when mouse sarcoma virus (MSV) is used as the transforming agent. MSV-transformed cells accumulate in G{sub 1}, just as do normal cells. In this letter we report a detailed study of the mechanisms leading to loss of growth control in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). We have been particularly concerned with the role of the src gene in the process, and have used RSV mutants temperature sensitive (ts) for transformation to investigate the nature of the growth regulatory lesion. Two principal findings have emerged: (a) the stationary phase of the cell cycle (G{sub 1}) in chick embryo fibroblasts has two distinct compartments, (for simplicity referred to as G{sub 1} and G{sub 0} states), (b) when rendered stationary at 41.5{sup o} by serum deprivation, normal cells enter a G{sub 0}-like state, but cells infected with the ts-mutant occupy a G{sub 1} state, even though a known src gene product, a kinase, should be inactive at this temperature. The possibility is discussed that viral factors other than the active src protein kinase influence growth control.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Parry, G.; Bartholomew, J.C. & Bissell, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reciprocal interactions between Beta1-integrin and epidermal growth factor in three-dimensional basement membrane breast cultures: A different perspective in epithelial biology

Description: Anchorage and growth factor independence are cardinal features of the transformed phenotype. Although it is logical that the two pathways must be coregulated in normal tissues to maintain homeostasis, this has not been demonstrated directly. We showed previously that down-modulation of {beta}1-integrin signaling reverted the malignant behavior of a human breast tumor cell line (T4-2) derived from phenotypically normal cells (HMT-3522) and led to growth arrest in a threedimensional (3D) basement membrane assay in which the cells formed tissue-like acini (14). Here, we show that there is a bidirectional cross-modulation of {beta}1-integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling via the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The reciprocal modulation does not occur in monolayer (2D) cultures. Antibodymediated inhibition of either of these receptors in the tumor cells, or inhibition of MAPK kinase, induced a concomitant downregulation of both receptors, followed by growth-arrest and restoration of normal breast tissue morphogenesis. Crossmodulation and tissue morphogenesis were associated with attenuation of EGF-induced transient MAPK activation. To specifically test EGFR and {beta}1-integrin interdependency, EGFR was overexpressed in nonmalignant cells, leading to disruption of morphogenesis and a compensatory up-regulation of {beta}1-integrin expression, again only in 3D. Our results indicate that when breast cells are spatially organized as a result of contact with basement membrane, the signaling pathways become coupled and bidirectional. They further explain why breast cells fail to differentiate in monolayer cultures in which these events are mostly uncoupled. Moreover, in a subset of tumor cells in which these pathways are misregulated but functional, the cells could be 'normalized' by manipulating either pathway.
Date: September 30, 1998
Creator: Wang, F.; Weaver, V.M.; Petersen, O.W.; Larabell, C.A.; Dedhar, S.; Briand, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiosensitivity profiles from a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines exhibiting genetic alterations in p53 and disparate DNA-dependent protein kinase activities

Description: The variability of radiation responses in ovarian tumors and tumor-derived cell lines is poorly understood. Since both DNA repair capacity and p53 status can significantly alter radiation sensitivity, we evaluated these factors along with radiation sensitivity in a panel of sporadic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We observed a gradation of radiation sensitivity among these sixteen lines, with a five-fold difference in the LD50 between the most radiosensitive and the most radioresistant cells. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is essential for the repair of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in human somatic cells. Therefore, we measured gene copy number, expression levels, protein abundance, genomic copy and kinase activity for DNA-PK in all of our cell lines. While there were detectable differences in DNA-PK between the cell lines, there was no clear correlation with any of these differences and radiation sensitivity. In contrast, p53 function as determined by two independent methods, correlated well with radiation sensitivity, indicating p53 mutant ovarian cancer cells are typically radioresistant relative to p53 wild-type lines. These data suggest that the activity of regulatory molecules such as p53 may be better indicators of radiation sensitivity than DNA repair enzymes such as DNAPK in ovarian cancer.
Date: September 7, 2009
Creator: Langland, Gregory T.; Yannone, Steven M.; Langland, Rachel A.; Nakao, Aki; Guan, Yinghui; Long, Sydney B.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department