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A Study of Mechanisms to Engineer Fine Scale Alpha Phase Precipitation in Beta Titanium Alloy, Beta 21S

Description: Metastable b-Ti alloys are titanium alloys with sufficient b stabilizer alloying additions such that it's possible to retain single b phase at room temperature. These alloys are of great advantage compared to a/b alloys since they are easily cold rolled, strip produced and can attain excellent mechanical properties upon age hardening. Beta 21S, a relatively new b titanium alloy in addition to these general advantages is known to possess excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. A homogeneous distribution of fine sized a precipitates in the parent b matrix is known to provide good combination of strength, ductility and fracture toughness. The current work focuses on a study of different mechanisms to engineer homogeneously distributed fine sized a precipitates in the b matrix. The precipitation of metastable phases upon low temperature aging and their influence on a precipitation is studied in detail. The precipitation sequence on direct aging above the w solvus temperature is also assessed. The structural and compositional evolution of precipitate phase is determined using multiple characterization tools. The possibility of occurrence of other non-classical precipitation mechanisms that do not require heterogeneous nucleation sites are also analyzed. Lastly, the influence of interstitial element, oxygen on a precipitation during the oxidation of Beta 21S has been determined. The ingress of oxygen and its influence on microstructure have also been correlated to measured mechanical properties.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Behera, Amit Kishan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phase Separation and Second Phase Precipitation in Beta Titanium Alloys

Description: The current understanding of the atomic scale phenomenon associated with the influence of beta phase instabilities on the evolution of microstructure in titanium alloys is limited due to their complex nature. Such beta phase instabilities include phase separation and precipitation of nano-scale omega and alpha phases in the beta matrix. The initial part of the present study focuses on omega precipitation within the beta matrix of model binary titanium molybdenum (Ti-Mo) alloys. Direct atomic scale observation of pre-transition omega-like embryos in quenched alloys, using aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography (APT) was compared and contrasted with the results of first principles computations performed using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) to present a novel mechanism of these special class of phase transformation. Thereafter the beta phase separation and subsequent alpha phase nucleation in a Ti-Mo-Al ternary alloy was investigated by coupling in-situ high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction with ex-situ characterization studies performed using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy and APT to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanism of transformation. Subsequently the formation of the omega phase in the presence of simultaneous development of compositional phase separation within the beta matrix phase of a Ti-10V-6Cu (wt%) alloy during continuous cooling has been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The results of these investigations provided novel insights into the mechanisms of solid-state transformations in metallic systems by capturing the earliest stages of nucleation at atomic to near atomic spatial and compositional resolution.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Devaraj, Arun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influence of High Strain Rate Compression on Microstructure and Phase Transformation of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

Description: Since NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) was discovered in the early 1960s, great progress has been made in understanding the properties and mechanisms of NiTi SMA and in developing associated products. For several decades, most of the scientific research and industrial interests on NiTi SMA has focused on its superelastic applications in the biomedical field and shape memory based “smart” devices, which involves the low strain rate (around 0.001 s^-1) response of NiTi SMA. Due to either stress-induced martensite phase transformation or stress induced martensite variant reorientation under the applied load, NiTi SMA has exhibited a high damping capacity in both austenitic and martensitic phase. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in exploitation of the high damping capacity of NiTi SMA to develop high strain rate related applications such as seismic damping elements and energy absorbing devices. However, a systematic study on the influence of strain, strain rate and temperature on the mechanical properties, phase transformation, microstructure and crystal structure is still limited, which leads to the difficulties in the design of products being subjected to high strain rate loading conditions. The four main objectives of the current research are: (1) achieve the single loading and the control of strain, constant strain rate and temperature in high strain rate compression tests of NiTi SMA specimens using Kolsky (split Hopkinson) compression bar; (2) explore the high strain rate compressive responses of NiTi SMA specimens as a function of strain (1.4%, 1.8%, 3.0%, 4.8%, and 9.6%), strain rate (400, 800 and 1200 s^-1), and temperature (room temperature (294 K) and 373 K); (3) characterize and compare the microstructure, phase transformation and crystal structure of NiTi SMAs before and after high strain rate compression; and (4) correlate high strain rate deformation with the changes of microstructure, phase transformation characteristics and crystal structure. ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Qiu, Ying
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evolution of Precipitates and Their Influence on the Mechanical Properties of β-Titanium Alloys

Description: Over the last few decades, body-centered-cubic (bcc) beta (β) titanium alloys have largely been exploited as structural alloys owing to the richness in their microstructural features. These features, which lead to a unique combination of high specific strength and ductility, excellent hardenability, good fatigue performance, and corrosion resistance, make these alloys viable candidates for many applications, including aerospace, automobile, and orthopedic implants. The mechanical properties of these alloys strongly depend on the various phases present; which can be controlled by thermomechanical treatments and/or alloy design. The two most important and studied phases are the metastable ω phase and the stable α phase. The present study focuses on the microstructural evolution and the mechanical behavior of these two phases in a model β-Ti alloy, binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy, and a commercial β-Ti alloy, β-21S. Microstructures containing athermal and isothermal ω phases in the binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The formation and the evolution of the ω-phase based microstructures are investigated in detail via various characterization techniques such as SEM, TEM, and 3D atom probe tomography. The mechanical behavior was investigated via quasi-static tensile loading; at room and elevated temperatures. The effect of β phase stability on the deformation behavior is then discussed. Similar to the Ti-12wt. %Mo, the formation and the evolution of the athermal and isothermal ω phases in the commercial β-21S alloy was studied under controlled heat treatments. The structural and compositional changes were tracked using SEM, TEM, HR-STEM, and 3D atom probe tomography (3D-APT). The presence of additional elements in the commercial alloy were noted to make a considerable difference in the evolution and morphology of the ω phase and also the mechanical behavior of the alloys. The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) like effect was observed in iii this alloy at ...
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Mantri, Srinivas Aditya
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling of Developing Inhomogeneities in the Ferrite Microstructure and Resulting Mechanical Properties Induced by Deformation in the Two-Phase Region

Description: The differences in microstructure development of hot deformed steels in the austenite and two-phase region have been effectively described using an integrated computer modeling process. In general, the complete model presented here takes into account kinetics of recrystallization, precipitation, phase transformation, recrystallized austenite grain size, ferrite grain size, and the resulting mechanical properties. The transformation submodel of niobium-microalloyed steels is based on the nucleation and grain growth theory and additivity rule. The thermomechanical part of the modeling process was effectively carried out using the finite element method. Results were obtained in different temperatures, strain rates, and range of deformation. The thermomechanical treatments are different for two grades of niobium-steels to make possible analysis of the resulting structure and properties for different histories of deformation and chemical composition.
Date: July 13, 1999
Creator: Majta, J; Zurek, A.K. & Pietrzyk, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAGNETIC FIELD AND PHASE TRANSITION IN THIN FILM SUPERCONDUCTORS

Description: It is found, on the basis of calculations extended from the bulk- superconductor case, that for thin-film superconductors: the superconducting- normal phase transition induced by a magnetic field is second-order at all temperatures; a simple scaling rule exists concerning the field and temperature dependence of the energy gap; and the critical field depends on the thickness and temperature according to a certain formula for thicknesses above about 0.5 x 10/ sup -6/ cm. (T.F.H.)
Date: August 1, 1963
Creator: Nambu, Y. & Tuan, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

Description: A matrix of variably processed Fe-30at%Ni was deposited with variations in laser travel speeds as well and laser powers. A complete shift in phase stability occurred as a function of varying laser travel speed. At slow travel speeds, the microstructure was dominated by a columnar fcc phase. Intermediate travel speeds yielded a mixed microstructure comprised of both the columnar fcc and a martensite-like bcc phase. At the fastest travel speed, the microstructure was dominated by the bcc phase. This shift in phase stability subsequently affected the magnetic properties, specifically saturation magnetization. Ni-Fe-Mo and Ni-Fe-V permalloys were deposited from an elemental blend of powders as well. Both systems exhibited featureless microstructures dominated by an fcc phase. Magnetic measurements yielded saturation magnetizations on par with conventionally processed permalloys, however coercivities were significantly larger; this difference is attributed to microstructural defects that occur during the additive manufacturing process.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Mikler, Calvin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Combinatorial Assessment of the Influence of Composition and Exposure Time on the Oxidation Behavior and Concurrent Oxygen-induced Phase Transformations of Binary Ti-x Systems

Description: The relatively low oxidation resistance and subsequent surface embrittlement have often limited the use of titanium alloys in elevated temperature structural applications. Although extensive effort is spent to investigate the high temperature oxidation performance of titanium alloys, the studies are often constrained to complex technical titanium alloys and neither the mechanisms associated with evolution of the oxide scale nor the effect of oxygen ingress on the microstructure of the base metal are well-understood. In addition lack of systematic oxidation studies across a wider domain of the alloy composition has complicated the determination of composition-mechanism-property relationships. Clearly, it would be ideal to assess the influence of composition and exposure time on the oxidation resistance, independent of experimental variabilities regarding time, temperature and atmosphere as the potential source of error. Such studies might also provide a series of metrics (e.g., hardness, scale, etc) that could be interpreted together and related to the alloy composition. In this thesis a novel combinatorial approach was adopted whereby a series of compositionally graded specimens, (Ti-xMo, Ti-xCr, Ti-xAl and Ti-xW) were prepared using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) technology and exposed to still-air at 650 °C. A suite of the state-of-the-art characterization techniques were employed to assess several aspects of the oxidation reaction as a function of local average composition including: the operating oxidation mechanisms; the structure and composition of the oxides; the oxide adherence and porosity; the thickness of the oxide layers; the depth of oxygen ingress; and microstructural evolution of the base material just below the surface but within the oxygen-enriched region. The results showed that for the Ti-Mo, Ti-Al and Ti-W systems a parabolic oxidation rate law is obeyed in the studied composition-time domain while Ti-Cr system experiences a rapid breakaway oxidation regime at low solute concentrations. The only titanium oxide phase present in ...
Date: May 2015
Creator: Samimi, Peyman
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling of High Strain Rate Compression of Austenitic Shape Memory Alloys

Description: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the ability to absorb large dynamic loads and, therefore, are excellent candidates for structural components where impact loading is expected. Compared to the large amount of research on the shape memory effect and/or pseudoelasticity of polycrystalline SMAs under quasi-static loading conditions, studies on dynamic loading are limited. Experimental research shows an apparent difference between the quasi-static and high strain rate deformation of SMAs. Research reveals that the martensitic phase transformation is strain rate sensitive. The mechanism for the martensitic phase transformation in SMAs during high strain rate deformation is still unclear. Many of the existing high strain rate models assume that the latent heat generated during deformation contributes to the change in the stress-strain behavior during dynamic loading, which is insufficient to explain the large stress observed during phase transformation under high strain rate deformation. Meanwhile, the relationship between the phase front velocity and strain rate has been studied. In this dissertation, a new resistance to phase transformation during high strain rate deformation is discussed and the relationship between the driving force for phase transformation and phase front velocity is established. With consideration of the newly defined resistance to phase transformation, a new model for phase transformation of SMAs during high strain rate deformation is presented and validated based on experimental results from an austenitic NiTi SMA. Stress, strain, and martensitic volume fraction distribution during high strain rate deformation are simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS/standard. For the first time, this dissertation presents a theoretical study of the microscopic band structure during high strain rate compressive deformation. The microscopic transformation band is generated by the phase front and leads to minor fluctuations in sample deformation. The strain rate effect on phase transformation is studied using the model. Both the starting stress for transformation and ...
Date: December 2017
Creator: Yu, Hao
Partner: UNT Libraries

TRANSFORMATION KINETICS OF PLUTONIUM. PART III

Description: Isothermal reaction curves and T-T-T curves showing the effect of different variables on the beta-alpha transformations in plutonium are presented. Impurity content, stresses, beta heat-treating time and temperature, hydrostatic pressing, specimen size, and thermal cycling influenced the kinetics of the beta- alpha transformation. Decreasing the impurlty content increased the rate of transformation. High tensile stress retarded the beta-alpha transformation. Increasing the beta heat-treating time and temperature markedly decreased the rate of transformation. Hydrostatic pressing at 90,000 psi accelerated the beta- alpha transformation under pressure but decreased any subsequent beta-alpha transformations by as much as two orders of magnitude. Specimen size had no effect on the start of the transformation but increasing the specimen size from 0.010 to 0.37 inch decreased the rate of completion of transformation several orders of magnitude. Thermal cycling less than 15 cycles did not affect the rate of transformation. The density of high purity plutonium during hydrostatic pressing at l80 deg C and cooling under pressure increased from 19.60 to 19.65 g/ cm/sup 3/to 19.70 to 19.75 g/cm/sup 3/. This increase was shown to be attributed to decreasing the volume of microcracks rather than transformation of any metastable beta phase. A T-T-T curve of the alpha-beta transformation is given which shows the start of the transformation is 16 hours at 116.5 deg C with the rate decreasing extremely rapidly with decreasing temperature. The times for the start and completion of the transformation were significantly shorter than the early work reported. The faster rate was attributed to less impurities, The gamma-beta-alpha and alpha-beta-gamma transformations are discussed also. Isothermal reaction curves and T-T-T curves for these transformation are included. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1961
Creator: Nelson, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural Phase Evolution In Laser Deposited Compositionally Graded Titanium-Chromium Alloys

Description: A compositionally graded Ti-xCr (10≤x≤30 wt%) alloy has been fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM) to study the microstructural phase evolution along a compositional gradient in both as-deposited and heat treated conditions (1000°C followed by furnace cooling or air cooling). The alloys were characterized by SEM BSE imaging, XRD, EBSD, TEM and micro-hardness measurements to determine processing-structure-property relations. For the as-deposited alloy, α-Ti, β-Ti, and TiCr2 (C15 Laves) phases exist in varying phase fractions, which were influential in determining hardness values. With the furnace cooled alloy, there was more homogeneous nucleation of α phase throughout the sample with a larger phase fraction of TiCr2 resulting in increased hardness values. When compared to the air cooled alloy, there was absence of wide scale nucleation of α phase and formation of ω phase within the β phase due to the quicker cooling from elevated temperature. At lower concentrations of Cr, the kinetics resulted in a diffusionless phase transformation of ω phase with increased hardness and a lower phase fraction of TiCr2. In contrast at higher Cr concentrations, α phase separation reaction occurs where the β phase is spinodally decomposed to Cr solute-lean β1 and solute-rich β2 resulting in reduced hardness.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Thomas, Jonova
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phase Equilibria Relationships of High-Tc Superconductors

Description: As an integral part of a R&D program partially supported by the Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Office of DOE, we have determined phase equilibria data and phase diagrams for the three generations of superconductor materials: 1st generation, (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca- Cu-O systems; 2nd generation, Ba-R-Cu-O systems (R=lanthanides and yttrium); and 3rd generation, MgB2 systems. Our studies involved bulk materials, single crystals and thin films. This report gives a summary of our accomplishments, a list of publications, and 15 selected journal publications
Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Wong-Ng, Winnie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study on NiTiSn Low-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and the Processing of NiTiHf High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

Description: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) operating as solid-state actuators pose economic and environmental benefits to the aerospace industry due to their lightweight, compact design, which provides potential for reducing fuel emissions and overall operating cost in aeronautical equipment. Despite wide applicability, the implementation of SMA technology into aerospace-related actuator applications is hindered by harsh environmental conditions, which necessitate extremely high or low transformation temperatures. The versatility of the NiTi-based SMA system shows potential for meeting these demanding material constraints, since transformation temperatures in NiTi can be significantly raised or lowered with ternary alloying elements and/or Ni:Ti ratio adjustments. In this thesis, the expansive transformation capabilities of the NiTi-based SMA system are demonstrated with a low and high-temperature NiTi-based SMA; each encompassing different stages of the SMA development process. First, exploratory work on the NiTiSn SMA system is presented. The viability of NiTiSn alloys as low-temperature SMAs (LTSMAs) was investigated over the course of five alloy heats. The site preference of Sn in near-equiatomic NiTi was examined along with the effects of solution annealing, Ni:Ti ratio adjustments, and precipitation strengthening on the thermomechanical properties of NiTiSn LTSMAs. Second, the thermomechanical processability of NiTiHf high-temperature SMA (HTSMA) wires is presented. The evolution of various microstructural features (grain size reduction, oxide growth, and nano-precipitation) were observed at incremental stages of the hot rolling process and linked to the thermal and mechanical responses of respective HTSMA rods/wires. This work was carried out in an effort to optimize the rolling/drawing process for NiTiHf HTSMAs.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Young, Avery W
Partner: UNT Libraries

Novel Optimization Methodology for Welding Process/Consumable Integration

Description: Advanced materials are being developed to improve the energy efficiency of many industries of future including steel, mining, and chemical, as well as, US infrastructures including bridges, pipelines and buildings. Effective deployment of these materials is highly dependent upon the development of arc welding technology. Traditional welding technology development is slow and often involves expensive and time-consuming trial and error experimentation. The reason for this is the lack of useful predictive tools that enable welding technology development to keep pace with the deployment of new materials in various industrial sectors. Literature reviews showed two kinds of modeling activities. Academic and national laboratory efforts focus on developing integrated weld process models by employing the detailed scientific methodologies. However, these models are cumbersome and not easy to use. Therefore, these scientific models have limited application in real-world industrial conditions. On the other hand, industrial users have relied on simple predictive models based on analytical and empirical equations to drive their product development. The scopes of these simple models are limited. In this research, attempts were made to bridge this gap and provide the industry with a computational tool that combines the advantages of both approaches. This research resulted in the development of predictive tools which facilitate the development of optimized welding processes and consumables. The work demonstrated that it is possible to develop hybrid integrated models for relating the weld metal composition and process parameters to the performance of welds. In addition, these tools can be deployed for industrial users through user friendly graphical interface. In principle, the welding industry users can use these modular tools to guide their welding process parameter and consumable composition selection. It is hypothesized that by expanding these tools throughout welding industry, substantial energy savings can be made. Savings are expected to be even greater in the ...
Date: January 15, 2006
Creator: Quintana, Marie A.; DebRoy, Tarasankar; Vitek, John & Babu, Suresh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department