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Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactants

Description: This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to April 01, 1998 which covers the first six months of the project. During this reporting period, laboratory space to set up the surfactant characterization measurement system in the Research Science Center was made available. A Ph.D. student in Chemistry was identified and is supported as a Graduate Research Assistant in this project. Her contribution towards this project will form her Ph.D. thesis. The test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans was established. Supply requests to obtain refined hydrocarbon, surfactant, and crude were processed and supplies obtained. A temperature bath with a control unit to perform temperature scans was obtained on loan from Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV. The setting up of the temperature control unit, and associated chiller with water circulation lines is in progress. Tests were conducted on several hybrid surfactants to identify the best surfactants for future experimental work that yield almost equal volumes of top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. The student reviewed the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena. These activities resulted in one published conference paper, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Moeti, Lebone T. & Sampath, Ramanathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period April 01, 1998 to October 01, 1998 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress at the EOR Laboratory, Clark Atlanta University (CAU), to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for a novel, hybrid (ionic/non-ionic), alcohol ethoxycarboxylate surfactant (NEODOX 23-4 from Shell Chemical Company). During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 mM salt concentrations at 20, 25, and 30 °C to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this surfactant. Temperature scans were also performed at 20 mM salt concentration for various surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 weight percent at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 °C to identify optimal surfactant concentration and temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist. This resulted in an "alpha" curve with an interval of temperature in which all three phases coexisted. Presently, temperature scans are being repeated at 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 5000 mM salt concentrations to see whether increase in salt concentration has any effect on the temperature interval. This will provide us better understanding and experimental control of the many variables involved in this research in the future. Following completion of the temperature scans, phase studies will be conducted at CAU, and coreflooding experiments at the facility of our industrial partner, Surtek, Golden, CO.
Date: November 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature vaporization and thermodynamic study of the scandium-- sulfur system

Description: Results of studies on the stoichiometry, structure, vaporization behavior, and thermodynamic properties of the Sc--S system are reported. The thermodynamic results for the stability of ScS(s) are compared with reported results for other transition-metal and rare-earth monosulfides. Various models are discussed in regard to their ability to describe the bonding in these refractory solids. (JRD)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Tuenge, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase diagrams of the elements

Description: A summary of the pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the elements is presented, with graphs of the experimentally determined solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. Comments, including theoretical discussion, are provided for each diagram. The crystal structure of each solid phase is identified and discussed. This work is aimed at encouraging further experimental and theoretical research on phase transitions in the elements. (auth)
Date: September 11, 1975
Creator: Young, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

Description: The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf$sub 7$O$sub 12$ as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf$sub 2$O$sub 3$ in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf$sub 2$O$sub 3$ $Yields$ Cf$sub 7$O$sub 12$ $Yields$ Cf$sub 2$O$sub 3$, observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Turcotte, R. P. & Haire, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of x-ray diffraction studies in uranium alloys

Description: Results of x-ray diffraction experiments investigating equilibrium structures of uranium-base substitutional alloys and routes of transitions between equilibrium structures are critically reviewed. Data on equilibrium alpha, beta, and gamma alloys are presented together with a resume of work on the crystal structures of relevant stable intermetallic compounds. The second part of the review is principally concerned with x-ray diffraction studies of metastable phases: their structure and their mode of formation. Particular attention is given to the sequence of transitional phases found in gamma-quenched and aged uranium alloys, depending on aging time and temperature. The influence of external stresses imposed on the alloys before and during the transitions producing these phases is described in terms of the preferred orientations that may be observed by x-ray diffraction methods. Comparisons are drawn between the general structural behavior of uranium alloys and that of other alloy systems based on metals with allotropies similar to that of uranium. (8 figures, 4 tables, 142 references) (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Yakel, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase segregation via Vlasov-Boltzmann particle dynamics

Description: In order to better understand and model the phase segregation of binary fluids we opted for a mesoscopic description that proves to be simplifying both conceptually and computationally. The system that we studied is a mixture of two kinds of particles. All particles interact with each other through strong short-range interactions modeled by hard spheres with the same mass and diameter. There is also a smooth long-range repulsion between particles of different kinds. At low overall densities and weak enough repulsion the natural dynamical description for this system is given in terms of two coupled, energy and momentum conserving Vlasov- Boltzmann equations, making it what we call a dynamical mean-field model. The computational scheme that we used is a combination of direct sim- ulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and particle-in-the-cell (PIC) evolution, that inherits the efficiency and robustness of these two algorithms. The DSMC is a stochastic algorithm due to Bird that consistently incorporates the as- sumptions behind the Boltzmann equation into the particle dynamics. The method is essentially the following: the physical space is divided into a net- work of cells containing typically tens of particles and the free flow of the particles over a small time interval {Delta}t is followed by representative collisions among pairs of particles sharing the same cell. The typical linear dimension of a cell is a fraction of the mean free path between collisions. The PIC method for integrating the equations of motion was first used to deal with the l/r potential in plasma physics. It takes advantage of the simple form of the Vlasov potential, which is a product in Fourier space, by calculating the densities on a grid through some weighting, then the potentials and forces on the same grid, and finally interpolating the forces at the position of each particle. These two ...
Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Bastea, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Formation of High-Coercivity, Oriented, Nanophase Cobalt Precipitates in Al

Description: Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 x l0{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction.
Date: November 29, 1999
Creator: Honda, S.; Modine, F.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; SOng, K.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multivariate statistical analysis of spectrum lines and images

Description: Recent developments in instrumentation and computing power have greatly improved the potential for quantitative imaging and analysis. A number of techniques are being explored for the purpose of analyzing these large data sets. Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) provides a method for analyzing the raw data set as a whole. The information that can be extracted by MSA from a series of spectra is illustrated by an application to a TEM spectrum-line acquired with a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) at the Co-L edge for a phase boundary between the periclase- (CoO) and spinel- (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) structured phases of cobalt oxide. A series of 64 spectra, each of 512 channels, has been analyzed with MSA. The following MSA information is given: (1) logarithmic plot of the information content of the MSA-identified principle components of the series of spectra; (2) the spectrum line of the Co-L edge acquired with the GIF; (3) the first component of the variation; (4) the amplitude of the first component in each spectrum of raw data; (5) a second component; and (6) its amplitudes.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Anderson, I.M. & Bentley, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase Behavior of Blends of Linear and Branched Polyethylenes on Micron-Length Scales via Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS)

Description: SANS experiments on blends of linear, high density (HD) and long chain branched, low density (LD) polyethylenes indicate that these systems form a one-phase mixture in the melt. However, the maximum spatial resolution of pinhole cameras is approximately equal to 10<sup>3</sup>Å and it has therefore been suggested that data might also be interpreted as arising from a bi-phasic melt with large a particle size (~ 1 µm), because most of the scattering from the different phases would not be resolved. We have addressed this hypothesis by means of USANS experiments, which confirm that HDPEILDPE blends are homogenous in the melt on length scales up to 20 µm. We have also studied blends of HDPE and short-chain branched linear low density polyethylenes (LLDPEs), which phase separate when the branch content is sufficiently high. LLDPEs prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalysts exhibit a wide distribution of compositions, and may therefore be thought of as a �blend� of different species. When the composition distribution is broad enough, a fraction of highly branched chains may phase separate on µm-length scales, and USANS has also been used to quantify this phenomenon.
Date: May 17, 1999
Creator: Agamalian, M.M.; Alamo, R.G.; Londono, J.D.; Mandelkern, L. & Wignall, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department