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Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

Description: The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Somasundaran, Prof. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

Description: In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Redelius, Per
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Description: The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three ...
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: McInerney, M. J.; Knapp, R. M.; Duncan, Kathleen; Simpson, D. R.; Youssef, N.; Ravi, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy oil upgrading. Semi annual report {number_sign}2, April 1--September 30, 1996

Description: For the period April 1 to September 30, 1996, research efforts were focused on the synthesis and characterization of large quantities of Metal Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves Catalysts of type 36 structure (MeAPO-36) for use in the upgrading of petroleum residuum. So far the authors have succeeded in synthesizing catalysts samples containing magnesium, zinc, cobalt and manganese in the frameworks of the respective molecular sieve. Preliminary characterization studies done by Infrared Spectroscopy demonstrated that these materials contains the Bronsted acid sites that they proposed will be active centers in the Mild Hydrocracking Process. Recently, a range of interesting aluminosilicates mesoporous materials was synthesized by Mobil R and D. These materials, known as MCM-41 type materials, contain ultra large pore unidimensional channels ranging from 20 angstrom to 100 angstrom and therefore have tremendous potential for Resid upgrading since their acid strengths are milder than zeolite. To broaden the scope of the project, MCM 41 was synthesized in the laboratory according to published procedures and the structure was confirmed by XRD. In addition, an ultra large pore high silica zeolite, UTD-1, containing a 14 angstrom tetrahedral atom pore opening was recently synthesized by Researchers at Texas A and M University. Like MCM-41, this material also has tremendous potential for Resid Upgrading since the pores are capable of accommodating larger organic molecules. The authors are currently characterizing samples of this zeolite that they intend to use in conjunction with the MeAPOs to form composite catalysts for use in resid upgrading.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

Description: The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the January to March 1995 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in non-catalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manjii, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results are reported herein. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at equivalent liquefaction conditions and at the same conditions as when the resids were reacted individually.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

Description: An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.
Date: October 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

Description: The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.
Date: April 4, 2001
Creator: Somasundaran, Prof. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

Description: This is the Technical Progress Report for the tenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1996. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized two HTI coal/petroleum coprocessing samples for Ni and V concentrations, as requested by DOE. The results are reported in Appendix 1. (2) CONSOL began work to evaluate the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers, and specifically ethylphenyl ethers, from coal liquefaction phenols. The work includes a literature review and experimentation. The status of this ongoing work is described in this report. (3) A set of samples was requested from HTI Run ALC-2 (Appendix 2). (4) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is developing a kinetic mechanistic model of resid reactivity. A summary of Delaware`s progress is appended to this report (Appendix 3). (5) A paper was submitted for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997, in San Francisco, CA, (Appendix 4).
Date: March 31, 1997
Creator: Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D. & Winschel, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Research guidance studies]. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

Description: The overall objectives of this contract are to: (1) evaluate the technical and economic merits of current direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies, (2) monitor progress in these technologies, (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R and D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) preliminarily investigate best configurations and associated costs for refining coal-derived and other non-conventional liquids in existing petroleum refineries. During this quarter, work was continued in the area of coal/oil coprocessing with existing petroleum refineries.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Gray, D. & Tomlinson, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview of resid characterization by mass spectrometry and small angle scattering techniques.

Description: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss what is known about the molecular structures found in petroleum resid from mass spectrometry and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering methods. The question about molecular size distributions and the occurrence of aggregation in the asphaltene fraction will be examined. Our understanding of this problem has evolved with the application of new analytical methods. Also, correlations with results from other approaches will be discussed. In addition, the issue of the nature of the heteroatom-containing molecules will be examined and the challenges that remain in this area.
Date: July 14, 1999
Creator: Hunt, J. E. & Winans, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

Description: This technical progress report describes work performed from January 1 through March 31, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history matching techniques. During this period, previous analysis of experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation was verified by comparison among analytic, dual-porosity simulation, and fine-grid simulation. We continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured porous media at high pressure and high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. A new experiment was conducted on diatomite core. Significantly, we show that elevated temperature induces fines release in sandstone cores and this behavior may be linked to wettability. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Kovscek, Anthony R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

Description: This technical progress report describes work performed from July 1 through September, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, work focused on completing project tasks in the area of multiphase flow and rock properties. The area of interest is the production mechanisms of oil from porous media at high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on oil recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. Work continued to delineate how the wettability of reservoir rock shifts from mixed and intermediate wet conditions to more water-wet conditions as temperature increases. One mechanism for the shift toward water-wet conditions is the release of fines coated with oil-wet material from pore walls. New experiments and theory illustrate the role of temperature on fines release.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Kovscek, Anthony R. & Castanier, Louis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A three-phase centrifuge to minimize waste from production tank bottoms and sludges: An economic analysis

Description: The performance of a three-phase centrifuge process in separating tank bottoms into salable oil, brine and solids was scaled using the sigma method. The profitability was analyzed for a range of processed volumes for three business scenarios: producer owned, service company and a disposal facility. Centrifuge processes operated at full capacity in these situations may be very profitable investments but any investment decision should be heavily influenced by the annual volume to be processed, the quality of the feed and the price received for separated oil.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Graham, A.L.; Steele, R.D. & Bretz, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

Description: Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at biosurfactant ...
Date: May 31, 2004
Creator: McInerney, M.J.; Maudgalya, S.K.; Knapp, R. & Folmsbee, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of cracking kinetics for Kern River 650{degrees}F{sup +} residuum and Midway Sunset crude oil

Description: Kern River 650{degrees}F{sup +} residuum and Midway Sunset crude oil were examined by micropyrolysis at several constant-heating rates to determine pyrolysis cracking kinetics. Determined by the discrete distribution method, both feeds exhibited principal activation energies of 50 kcal/mol and frequency factors {approximately} 10{sup 13} sec{sup -1}. Energy distributions were similar ranging from 45 to 57 kcal/mol. Determined by the shift-in-T{sub max} method, E{sub approx}, A{sub approx} for Kern River 650{degrees}F{sup +} and Midway Sunset were 48 kcal/mol, 1.3 X 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}, and 46 kcal/mol, 4.6 X 10{sup 11} sec{sup -1}, respectively. These results are similar, but not identical to other kinetic parameters for heavy oils from type II source rocks.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Reynolds, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

Description: The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.
Date: February 10, 2003
Creator: Hirasaki, George J. & Mohanty, Kishore K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Description: The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.
Date: January 16, 2003
Creator: McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

Description: The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.
Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

Description: Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted ...
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Dandekar, Abhijit; Patil, Shirish & Khataniar, Santanu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

Description: There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be ...
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Mohanty, Kishore K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

Description: There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.
Date: March 31, 2004
Creator: Mohanty, Kishore K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. Tests were conducted in the Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) to study gasification and combustion of Rose Bottoms solids using the spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and petroleum coke at temperature of 1,750 F. The Rose (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) bottoms was produced in the Kellogg`s Rose unit. A dry solid feed system developed previously was used to feed petroleum coke and Rose Bottoms. Studies were also done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to investigate partial oxidation and gasification of petroleum coke over temperature range of 1,800 F to 2,100 F. Results obtained in the BRU and TRTU on petroleum coke formed the basis to develop a flowsheet to process this material in a transport reactor. Results from these studies are presented in this report.
Date: October 18, 1996
Creator: Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y. & Agrawal, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

Description: Task 4 experimental testing was continued. Six first-stage one-liter autoclave tests were made at reduced severity conditions. A device to reduce the in-line filter diameter proved difficult to use and resulted in little usable filtration data. Its use was discontinued. The second-stage reactor system was overhauled and used to process Wilsonville Run 263J resid. Resid conversion and yields were commensurate with expected results. The economic and engineering evaluation of the Novel Concept process, based on Task 2 and Task 3 experimental data, was begun. The design of a conceptual commercial plant was completed. The economic and engineering evaluation illuminated components of the process operating and capital cost estimates which, if appropriately altered, could significantly reduce the cost of product (gasoline) from the process. This provided direction for the Task 4 experimental program.
Date: February 26, 1997
Creator: Brandes, S.D. & Winschel, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department