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The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

Description: This report begins by looking at the current production capacity of the oil refineries operating in the United States, and the sources and changes in crude oil supply. It then examines the changing characteristics of petroleum and petroleum product markets and identifies the effects of these changes on the refining industry. The report concludes with discussion of the policy and regulatory factors that are likely to affect the structure and performance of the industry during the next decade.
Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Andrews, Anthony; Pirog, Robert & Sherlock, Molly F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

Description: This report begins by looking at the current production capacity of the oil refineries operating in the United States, and the sources and changes in crude oil supply. It then examines the changing characteristics of petroleum and petroleum product markets and identifies the effects of these changes on the refining industry. The report concludes with discussion of the policy and regulatory factors that are likely to affect the structure and performance of the industry during the next decade.
Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum Refineries, Including Cracking Plants in the United States, January 1, 1948

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the petroleum refineries and cracking plants throughout the United States. As stated in the introduction, "in this publication the capacities of petroleum refineries and cracking plants in the United States on January 1, 1948, are listed, according to the latest annual survey of the Bureau of Mines" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and a map.
Date: August 1948
Creator: Lott, F. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

Description: Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Palou-Rivera, I. & Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating hazardous waste management into a multimedia pollution prevention paradigm. A protoype regulatory program for petroleum refinesments

Description: An emerging trend in environmental regulatory management promises enhanced environmental protection and more flexibility for regulated entities. This trend reflects three concepts. First, regulations designed to reduce one type of environmental pollution (e.g., air pollution) should not increase other types of pollution (e.g. hazardous waste). Second, pollution prevention is an important alternative to end-of-pipe control requirements. Third, offering polluting entities the flexibility of meeting certain performance criteria may produce better environmental results than prescribing specific technologies or approaches. A significant body of literature supports the need to develop regulatory programs that incorporate these concepts. However, there is little evidence that these concepts have been integrated into actual multimedia regulatory programs. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy are developing a prototype regulatory program for petroleum refineries that embraces these concepts. The development approach in this case study comprises several steps: (1) identifying and evaluating existing regulations governing petroleum refineries (if any); (2) characterizing expected future operating conditions of refineries; (3) setting goals for the regulatory program; (4) identifying and evaluating options for the program; (5) developing a prototype based on selected options; (6) identifying and addressing implementation issues; and (7) testing the prototype on a pilot basis. The approach being used in the U.S. effort is flexible and can be used in environmental management efforts throughout the Pacific Basin--in both developing and developed countries.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Elcock, D. & Gasper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

Description: The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

Description: For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: McEligot, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Exxon crude-oil-slip stream coking data

Description: Fouling of pre-heat train heat exchangers and process heaters used for the crude-distillation unit is a major unsolved problem which costs the industry in terms of energy inefficiency and productivity loss. The complexity of the fouling problem has prevented the industry from developing effective mitigation methods. Coking is a general term used for fouling at high temperatures, because the structure of the deposition resemblance to coke. Exxon Research and Engineering Co. conducted a joint research project with the US Department of Energy. One part of the research was to conduct coking experiments for crude oil subjected to heat fluxes greater than typical industrial conditions. In the present study, the coking data are re-analyzed and a simplified model is developed for predicting threshold fouling conditions. Recommendations are made for future experiments and analysis of the laboratory and field data.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Ebert, W. & Panchal, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

Description: The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.
Date: May 5, 2000
Creator: Altman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design and construction new transport reactor system. Second quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

Description: During the last quarter, the detailed mechanical design of the new reactor system was completed and construction of the unit was well underway. The new design includes a mixing zone, riser reactor, cyclone, and downcomer as well as instrumentation, heating elements, insulation, and a structural system for supporting the unit. Design modifications were also made to the hydrocarbon feed system. There were no changes required for the downstream sections which cool and condition the reactor product gas, recover liquid products (if any), and measure product gas make. Construction of the unit is expected to be completed by early May, with shakedown runs beginning immediately after. Installation of the electrical windings, insulation of the unit, erection, hook-up, and checkout are the main items yet to be completed. It is expected that the unit will be ready for test work in the latter part of May. The initial tests planned are both pyrolysis runs and partial oxidation runs using a simulated aromatic naphtha feed. Later this year, heavier hydrocarbon feeds will be tested.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

Description: A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.
Date: April 3, 2000
Creator: Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L. & Lottes, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Description: Recent congressional interest in U.S. energy policy has focused in part on ways through which the United States could secure more economical and reliable crude oil resources both domestically and internationally. Many forecasters identify petroleum refined from Canadian oil sands as one possible solution. This report discusses conclusions revealed from a survey of available literature on the matter, particularly in regards to Greenhouse Gas and Well-to-Tank emissions.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using stakeholder input to develop environmental regulatory approaches : a case study.

Description: Many regulated entities today charge that environmental regulations have become inefficient and could be made more cost effective. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified several initiatives to help ''reinvent'' environmental regulations and address those charges. At the same time, the President and others are pursuing the development and use of new environmental technologies. Reflecting these trends, Argonne National Laboratory is helping develop a prototype multimedia environmental regulatory program for petroleum refineries operating in the Mure. The project differs from other regulatory reinvention efforts in that it is Mure-oriented and, as a result, may result in recommendations that depart significantly from those from existing regulatory systems. This paper notes the importance of communicating environmental information when developing and implementing regulatory approaches. Two approaches--one goal-based and the other risk-based--are being considered for the prototype regulatory program. Both are site-specific, and the implementation of both requires a significant amount of communication among refiners, regulators, and other stakeholders. Of even greater importance, however, is the communication involved in the development of these approaches. Because these new regulatory approaches could fundamentally change the way regulated entities operate, ideas and concerns of groups likely to be affected by the regulatory prototypes need to be considered. This case study focuses on the use of structured workshops involving representatives from three separate interest groups--refiners, regulators, and the environmental community--in developing regulatory approaches. At the time of this writing, workshops have been held with two groups, and a third is being scheduled. This paper describes the process for eliciting interaction, highlights the results of the workshops, and discusses ways to optimize approaches for obtaining and using environmental communications. Results and lessons learned may be applied to improve regulations in other sectors.
Date: December 8, 1997
Creator: Elcock, D. & Gasper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Description: This report discusses basic methodology of life-cycle assessments and compares several publicly-available assessments of life-cycle emissions data for Canadian oil sands crudes against each other and against those of other global reference crudes. It also includes a survey of the scientific literature and the findings of the State Department's Keystone XL Project Envoronmental Impact Statement, and concludes with a discussion of tools for policymakers who are interested in using the assessments to investigate the potential impacts of U.S. energy policy choices onthe environment.
Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial control of complex processing systems. Progress report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1994

Description: Control of a Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) was chosen. A concern in control of nonlinear processes is the potential existence of multiple steady states and other stability problems. In an FCC, choice of variables in dynamic matrix cannot be based solely on linear control theory. Considerations requiring a nonlinear model are outlined. Linearized theory is suitable and sufficient for controller tuning and design of algorithm at a given steady state. For evaluating stability considerations and for steady-state control and optimization nonlinear models are essential. While a 2 {times} 2 matrix properly chosen is sufficient for dynamic control and stabilization, additional variables available should enter the overall control scheme in a slow mode. When dealing with impact of disturbances on process while designing a control circuit, emphasis should be given to slow disturbances and changes in inputs. Fast response, while desirable, is not a main criterion in choosing a dynamic control matrix, unless the fast response relates to all crucial variables in Y{sub p}.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Shinnar, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of a catalytic fluid cracker

Description: Control offers an important tool for savings in refineries, mainly by integration of process models into on-line control. This paper is part of a research effort to better understand problems of partial control; control of a Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) is used as example. Goal is to understand better the control problems of an FCC in context of model based control of a refinery, and to understand the general problem of designing partial control systems.
Date: December 13, 1993
Creator: Arbel, A.; Huang, Z.; Rinard, I. & Shinnar, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial control of complex processing systems. Progress report, May 15, 1992--September 14, 1993

Description: The past year saw substantial advances in the development of a model of Fluidized Catalytic Crackers, which now allows one to calculate both steady state and dynamic behavior of the system as basis for control studies. The first goal was to elucidate nonlinear features using the model. The model shows that adding a combustion promoter that catalyzes the CO-CO{sub 2} reaction reduces chances for multiple steady states within the range of desirable operating conditions; by adding enough promoter, one can also eliminate them. Conventional control structure can lead to input multiplicities.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Shinnar, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department