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Optimization of etching and reading procedures for the Autoscan 60 track etch system

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory is charged with measuring the occupational exposure to radiological workers and contractors throughout the Laboratory, which includes many different sites with multiple and varied radiation fields. Of concern here are the high energy neutrons such as those generated during accelerator operations at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). In 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory purchased an Autoscan 60 automated reader for use with chemically etched CR39 detectors. The dosimeter design employed at LANL uses a plastic, hemispherical case, encompassing a polystyrene pyramidal detector holder. The pyramidal holder supports three detectors at a 35{degree} angle. Averaging the results of the three detectors minimizes the angular dependence normally associated with a planar dosimeter. The Autoscan 60 is an automated reading system for use with CR39 chemical etch detectors. The detectors are immersed in an etch solution to enhance the visibility of the damage sites caused by recoil proton impact with the hydrogen atoms in the detector. The authors decided to increase the etch time from six hours to 15 hours, while retaining the 70 C temperature. The reason for the change in the etch is to enhance the sensitivity and precision of the CR39 detector as indicated by this study.
Date: February 11, 1997
Creator: McKeever, R.; Devine, R. & Coennen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.
Date: November 13, 2007
Creator: Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A & Scott Bowser, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radiological control performance indicator report. Fourth quarterly calendar year 1994

Description: This document provides a report and analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of calendar year 1994 (CY-1994) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) under the direction of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). The Radiological Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEL Radiological Control Manual.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Aitken, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

Description: Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J. & Viet, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

Description: In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Bivins, S R & Stoetzel, G A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Skin dose measurement with MICROSPEC-2{trademark}

Description: For many years, the Eberline HP-260{trademark} beta detectors were used for skin dose measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This detector does not measure the beta spectrum and the skin dose can only be determined if the contaminating radioactive isotope is known. A new product MICROSPEC-2{trademark}, has been developed which consists of a small portable computer with a multichannel analyzer and a beta probe consisting of a phoswich detector. The system measures the beta spectrum and automatically folds in the beta fluence-to-dose conversion function to yield the skin dose.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Hsu, H.H.; Chen, J.; Ing, H.; Clifford, E.T.H. & McLean, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New PAMTRAK features

Description: Sandia is developing a Personnel and Material Tracking System (PAMTRAK) which uses a variety of techniques to monitor material inside a vault in real-time. It can detect material movement using video cameras inside the vault or motion sensors attached to the material. It also contains two prototype attribute monitoring systems that continuously measure material weight, temperature or movement. A site can use any of these alone or together to extend physical inventory intervals. PAMTRAK can reduce the cost of storing material by reducing inventory frequency and radiation exposure to workers. Analysis at Savannah River in 1992 estimated that installing PAMTRAK in the 7 active and future vaults at that site would save $1,073,000 per year by reducing inventory frequency from monthly to yearly. Performing similar calculations now, assuming lower radiation exposure limits of 700m Rem per year, new inventory reduction guidelines allowing a baseline interval of 6 months, and an achieved inventory interval of 3 years, results in an estimated average savings of $400,000 per year. PAMTRAK, since it is real-time, can detect theft or diversion soon enough to give the guard force a chance of recovering the material and apprehending the perpetrator. In performing an inventory a site typically checks only a fraction of the material using random, statistical sampling, while PAMTRAK monitors all material in the vault. In addition to static environments such as vaults, PAMTRAK can be used to protect material in active work areas. Several of the sensor types can ignore activity around material but still report alarms if the material is moved or handled. PAMTRAK includes a personnel tracking capability that allows a site to monitor and restrict personnel movements. It can exclude workers from designated areas unless they have explicit permission to be there. It can also enforce the 2-person rule by requiring a ...
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Dahly, B. & Anspach, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adjusting external doses from the ORNL and Y-12 facilities for the Oak Ridge Nuclear Facilities mortality study

Description: This report presents specific procedures used for adjusting radiation doses to radiation personnel at the ORNL and Y-12 plants during the early years. Topics discussed include: background information; selection of employment years to be considered; hardcopy monitoring methods and records; pocket meter data; and replacement of 1943 unmonitored employment years. These topics were discussed for both years.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Watkins, J.P.; Cragle, D.L.; West, C.M.; Tankersley, W.G.; Frome, E.L. & Crawford-Brown, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal dosimetry performing dose assessments via bioassay measurements

Description: The Internal Dosimetry Department at the Y-12 Plant maintains a state-of-the-art bioassay program managed under the guidance and regulations of the Department of Energy. The two major bioassay techniques currently used at Y-12 are the in vitro (urinalysis) and in vivo (lung counting) programs. Fecal analysis (as part of the in vitro program) is another alternative; however, since both urine and fecal analysis provide essentially the same capabilities for detecting exposures to uranium, the urinalysis is the main choice primarily for aesthetic reasons. The bioassay frequency is based on meeting NCRP 87 objectives which are to monitor the accumulation of radioactive material in exposed individuals, and to ensure that significant depositions are detected.
Date: May 11, 1993
Creator: Bailey, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a remote vital signs sensor

Description: This paper describes the work at Sandia National Laboratories to develop sensors that remotely detect unique life-form characteristics, such as breathing patterns or heartbeat patterns. This paper will address the Technical Support Working Group`s (TSWG) objective: to develop a remote vital signs detector which can be used to assess someone`s malevolent intent. The basic concept of operations for the projects, system development issues, and the preliminary results for a radar device currently in-house and the implications for implementation are described. A survey that identified the in-house technology currently being evaluated is reviewed, as well as ideas for other potential technologies to explore. A radar unit for breathing and heartbeat detection is being tested, and the applicability of infrared technology is being explored. The desire for rapid prototyping is driving the need for off-the-shelf technology. As a conclusion, current status and future directions of the effort are reviewed.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Ladd, M. D.; Pacheco, M. S. & Rivas, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cold Vacuum Drying facility personnel monitoring system design description (SYS 12)

Description: This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) instrument air (IA) system that provides instrument quality air to the CVDF. The IA system provides the instrument quality air used in the process, HVAC, and HVAC instruments. The IA system provides the process skids with air to aid in the purging of the annulus of the transport cask. The IA system provides air for the solenoid-operated valves and damper position controls for isolation, volume, and backdraft in the HVAC system. The IA system provides air for monitoring and control of the HVAC system, process instruments, gas-operated valves, and solenoid-operated instruments. The IA system also delivers air for operating hand tools in each of the process bays.
Date: July 6, 1999
Creator: PITKOFF, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

Description: This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem).
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Thomas, M.L. & Hagemeyer, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical basis for implementing the use of the PCM-1B for personnel releases at tank farms

Description: Currently, Tanks Farms Transition Projects require personnel to perform a whole body survey with portable survey instrumentation prior to entering an automated counting system capable of performing a whole body survey. This practice is redundant since automated whole body survey devices are, in most cases, more sensitive and are less likely to be used incorrectly than portable instrumentation. Additionally, Article 221.2 of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) states ``Monitoring for contamination should be performed using frisking equipment that under laboratory conditions can detect total contamination of at least the values specified in Table 2-2.`` Based on this criteria implementing the use of an automated whole body survey device would save significant time, money and reduce the current crowding and potential loss of contamination control that now occurs during peak times at step off pads. This document describes implementation process for applying PCM-1B instruments to perform personnel release surveys.
Date: April 15, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

Description: This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.
Date: June 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whole body personnel monitoring via ionization detection.

Description: A project between Fernald EMP and LANL is to field a monitor for the detection of alpha-emitting contamination on a human body. Traditional personnel monitoring for alpha emitters involves either frisking with a probe or pressing against large detectors in order to overcome the short range of alpha particles. These methods have a low alpha collection efficiency, and can miss contamination on less accessible surfaces. The authors have investigated the sensitivity and practicality of measuring the entire subject simultaneously using the technique of ionization monitoring. The goal is to create a booth that personnel step into quickly during egress from radiological facilities. The detection technique relies on a breeze of air passing over the subject. Alpha emission produces copious ions in the ambient air which are transported by the air current to an ion collector, resulting in a small electrical current proportional to the amount of contamination. Results indicate a conservative sensitivity of 3,000 disintegrations per minute localized to one of five areas of the body in a measurement lasting less than 2 minutes.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Koster, J.E.; Bounds, K.A.; Kerr, P.L.; Steadman, P.A. & Whitley, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of nasal swipe analysis methods at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: The Health Physics Analysis Laboratory (HPAL) performs around 30,000 nasal swipe analyses for transuranic nuclides each year in support of worker health and safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The analysis method used employs cotton swabs swiped inside a nostril and liquid scintillation analyses of the swabs. The technical basis of this method was developed at LANL and has been in use for over 10 years. Recently, questions regarding the usefulness of a non-homogeneous mixture in liquid scintillation analyses have created a need for re-evaluation of the method. A study of the validity of the method shows it provides reliable, stable, and useful data as an indicator of personnel contamination. The study has also provided insight into the underlying process which occurs to allow the analysis. Further review of this process has shown that similar results can be obtained with different sample matrices, using less material than the current analysis method. This reduction can save HPAL the cost of materials as well as greatly reduce the waste created. Radionuclides of concern include Am-241, Pu-239, and Pu-238.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Metcalf, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D

Description: The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M. & Shuman, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences with Non-traditional Bioassay Methods in a Plutonium Processing Line

Description: An incident in an Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium processing line (FB-Line) in 1999 highlighted the fact insoluble forms of plutonium exist at SRS that may not be readily monitored with the routine bioassay programs traditionally used at this site. To address this issue, a study was conducted in FB-Line with 21 participants for a year ending in July 2002. The purpose of the study was to examine the use of three non-traditional monitoring methods and, based on this experience, recommend a routine bioassay program that is capable of monitoring workers potentially exposed to insoluble plutonium. These non-traditional monitoring methods are personal air sampling (PAS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of urine samples, and routine fecal bioassay. The main conclusions and recommendations of the study are: (1) A routine TIMS urine bioassay program, which is called the enhanced bioassay program (EBP), is recommended for workers in SRS facilities that have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble forms of plutonium. (2) Under certain conditions the EBP could result in onerous work restrictions. A contingency plan involving the use of PAS is recommended in this case. PAS is also recommended for workers who have had historic intakes of plutonium that interfere with the detection and interpretation of future intakes of insoluble plutonium. (3) For the EBP to be successful it must be used only for those workers who have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble plutonium, and these workers must take all necessary precautions to avoid cross-contamination of the urine (and follow-up fecal) samples. (4) Fecal bioassay is an important tool for follow-up to abnormal events, but routine fecal bioassay is not recommended. (5) The PAS data clearly shows that workers are exposed to low levels of airborne plutonium, but the participants appear to be unlikely to exceed a committed ...
Date: October 17, 2003
Creator: La Bone, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Basis For Radiological Acceptance Criteria For Uranium At The Y-12 National Security Complex

Description: The purpose of this report is to establish radiological acceptance criteria for uranium. Other factors for acceptance not considered include criticality safety concerns, contaminants to the process stream, and impacts to the Safety Basis for the affected facilities. Three types of criteria were developed in this report. They include limits on external penetrating and non-penetrating radiation and on the internal hazard associated with inhalation of the material. These criteria are intended to alleviate the need for any special controls beyond what are normally utilized for worker protection from uranium hazards. Any proposed exceptions would require case-by-case evaluations to determine cost impacts and feasibility. Since Y-12 has set rigorous ALARA goals for worker doses, the external limits are based on assumptions of work time involved in the movement of accepted material plus the desire that external doses normally received are not exceeded, and set so that no special personnel monitoring would be required. Internal hazard controls were established so that dose contributions from non-uranium nuclides would not exceed 10% of that expected from the uranium component. This was performed using a Hazard Index (HI) previously established for work in areas contaminated with non-uranium nuclides. The radiological acceptance criteria for uranium are summarized in Table 1. Note that these limits are based on the assumption that radioactive daughter products have reached equilibrium.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Veinot, K. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

Description: New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Umbarger, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Human Reliability Program Removals Report 2004-2006

Description: This report presents results of the comprehensive data analysis and assessment of all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facilities that have positions requiring workers to be certified in the Human Reliability Program (HRP). Those facilities include: Albuquerque, Amarillo, DOE Headquarters, Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Oakland, and Savannah River. The HRP was established to ensure, through continuous review and evaluation, the reliability of individuals who have access to the DOE’s most sensitive facilities, materials, and information.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Studies, Center for Human Reliability
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department