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Effect of Permafrost on Cultivated Fields, Fairbanks Area, Alaska

Description: From introduction: This report describes the destructive effect of permafrost on cultivated fields and delineates the parts of the Fairbanks area which are least suitable for agriculture because of the character of the underlying permafrost. Studies by the author indicate that agriculture will be affected by similar permafrost conditions throughout areas on the north side of the Tanana Valley within 100 miles of Fairbanks.
Date: 1954
Creator: Péwé, Troy Lewis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TOUGH+/GasH20 study of the effects of a heat source buried in theMartian permafrost

Description: We use TOUGH+/GasH2O to study the effects of a heat sourceburied in the Martian permafrost to evaluate the possibility ofestablishing a wet zone of liquid water, in which terrestrialmicroorganisms could survive and multiply. Analysis of the problemindicates that (1) only a limited permafrost volume (not exceeding 0.35 min radius) is affected, (2) a "wet" zone with limited amounts of liquidwater de-velops (not exceeding 8 and 0.7 kg for a 250 W and a 62.5 Wsource, respectively), (3) the wet zone per-sists for a long time,becomes practically stationary after t = 20 sols because of venting intothe Martian atmosphere, and its thickness is limited and decreases slowlyover time, (4) a "dry" zone (where SG>0.9) evolves, continues toexpand (albeit slowly) with time, but its extent remains limited, and (5)the ice front surrounding the wet zone is self-sharpening. For a range ofinitial conditions investigated, evolution of the liquid water massoccurs at approximately the same rate, reaches roughly the same maximum,and occurs at about the same time (10 to 20 sols; 1 sol = 24.39hours).
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Moridis, George J. & Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Snow, Water, Ice, and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate Change and the Cryosphere

Description: Report presenting the findings of the Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate Change and the Cryosphere assessment performed by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) in close cooperation with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the World Climate Research Programme/Climate and Cryosphere (WCRP/CliC) Project and the International Arctic Social Sciences Association (IASSA).
Date: 2011
Creator: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (Part 3)

Description: Various laboratory tests were carried at the R & D facility of BJ Services in Tomball, TX with BJ Services staff to predict and evaluate the performance of the Ceramicrete slurry for its effective use in permafrost cementing operations. Although other standards such as those of the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) and Construction Specification Institute (CSI) exist, all these tests were standardized by the API. A summary of the tests traditionally used in the cement slurry design as well as the API tests reference document are provided in Table 7. All of these tests were performed within the scope of this research to evaluate properties of the Ceramicrete.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: 960443, See OSTI ID Number
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

Description: We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Freifeld, B. M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T. C.; Toole, P. & Pratt, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

Description: Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Williams, Thomas E.; Millheim, Keith & King, Buddy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proteomic Insights: Cryoadaption of Permafrost Bacteria

Description: The permafrost microbial community has been described as 'a community of survivors' (Friedman 1994). Because of the permanently cold condition and the long term isolation of the permafrost sediments, the permafrost microorganisms have acquired various adaptive features in the membrane, enzymes, and macromolecular synthesis. This chapter reviews the different adaptive mechanisms used by permafrost microorganisms with a focus on the proteomic level of cryoadaptation that have recently been identified during the low temperature growth in permafrost bacteria.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Qiu, Yinghua; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A. & Lubman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the upper limit of gas production from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 2. Alternative well designs and sensitivity analysis

Description: In the second paper of this series, we evaluate two additional well designs for production from permafrost-associated (PA) hydrate deposits. Both designs are within the capabilities of conventional technology. We determine that large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates (several MMSCFD) for long times using either well design. The production approach involves initial fluid withdrawal from the water zone underneath the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL). The production process follows a cyclical pattern, with each cycle composed of two stages: a long stage (months to years) of increasing gas production and decreasing water production, and a short stage (days to weeks) that involves destruction of the secondary hydrate (mainly through warm water injection) that evolves during the first stage, and is followed by a reduction in the fluid withdrawal rate. A well configuration with completion throughout the HBL leads to high production rates, but also the creation of a secondary hydrate barrier around the well that needs to be destroyed regularly by water injection. However, a configuration that initially involves heating of the outer surface of the wellbore and later continuous injection of warm water at low rates (Case C) appears to deliver optimum performance over the period it takes for the exhaustion of the hydrate deposit. Using Case C as the standard, we determine that gas production from PA hydrate deposits increases with the fluid withdrawal rate, the initial hydrate saturation and temperature, and with the formation permeability.
Date: January 15, 2011
Creator: Moridis, G. & Reagan, M. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

Description: A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.
Date: September 30, 1998
Creator: Furnish, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping of top of permafrost using a direct current resistivity survey

Description: Data from a direct current resistivity survey and geologic logs from boreholes were used to map the top of permafrost at a remote Air Force installation in Alaska. This study resulted from a remedial investigation that was conducted at Eielson Air Force base near Fairbanks, Alaska under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. The depth and continuity of the permafrost was important in determining the fate of petroleum contamination that was inadvertently discharged to the ground during earlier Air Force operations. The results indicate that the top of permafrost forms a highly irregular surface. In general, however, the top of permafrost forms a diagonal ridge at the center of the contour grid that is bordered on each side by troughs.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Gilmore, T.J. & Clayton, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bacteria in Permafrost

Description: Significant numbers of viable ancient microorganisms are known to be present within the permafrost. They have been isolated in both polar regions from the cores up to 400 m deep and ground temperatures of -27 C. The age of the cells corresponds to the longevity of the permanently frozen state of the soils, with the oldest cells dating back to {approx}3 million years in the Arctic, and {approx}5 million years in the Antarctic. They are the only life forms known to have retained viability over geological time. Thawing of the permafrost renews their physiological activity and exposes ancient life to modern ecosystems. Thus, the permafrost represents a stable and unique physicochemical complex, which maintains life incomparably longer than any other known habitats. If we take into account the depth of the permafrost layers, it is easy to conclude that they contain a total microbial biomass many times higher than that of the soil cover. This great mass of viable matter is peculiar to permafrost only.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Gilichinsky, David A.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Petrova, Maya A.; Spirina, Elena V.; Mamikin, Vladimir & Rivkina, Elizaveta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness

Description: This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with low growth rate. Spectral studies of ancient cyanobacteria and green algae did not reveal any significant differences between them and their contemporary relatives. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that permafrost photoautotrophs were closely related to strains and more often to uncultured environmental clones from cold regions.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

Description: Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Patil, Shirish; Chukwu, Godwin A.; Chen, Gang & Khataniar, Santanu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of High Resolution P- and S-Wave Seismic Reflection to Detect Methane Hydrate

Description: In March, 1999, a combined geophysical field team from the Kansas Geological Survey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Geological Survey of Canada, performed some experimental high resolution seismic testing at the Mallik drill site in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, where drilling and sampling had previously identified gas hydrates at depth beneath a thick permafrost zone. In this information document, we show data from this seismic test, along with comparisons and observations significant to the effective use of high resolution imaging and important considerations about high resolution operations in this environment. Included are discussions and examples based on previous studies at this site, data acquisition, processing, correlation of results with other data sets and some recommendations for future surveying.
Date: August 2, 2000
Creator: Hunter, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

Description: The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept ...
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Patil, Shirish; Haut, Rich; Williams, Tom; Shur, Yuri; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Hanks, Cathy et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits

Description: Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George & Zhang, Keni
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U-tube sampling methodology and real-time analysis of geofluids

Description: The U-tube geochemical sampling methodology, an extension of the porous cup technique proposed by Wood [1973], provides minimally contaminated aliquots of multiphase fluids from deep reservoirs and allows for accurate determination of dissolved gas composition. The initial deployment of the U-tube during the Frio Brine Pilot CO{sub 2} storage experiment, Liberty County, Texas, obtained representative samples of brine and supercritical CO{sub 2} from a depth of 1.5 km. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time analysis of dissolved gas composition. Since the initial demonstration, the U-tube has been deployed for (1) sampling of fluids down gradient of the proposed Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository, Armagosa Valley, Nevada (2) acquiring fluid samples beneath permafrost in Nunuvut Territory, Canada, and (3) at a CO{sub 2} storage demonstration project within a depleted gas reservoir, Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia. The addition of in-line high-pressure pH and EC sensors allows for continuous monitoring of fluid during sample collection. Difficulties have arisen during U-tube sampling, such as blockage of sample lines from naturally occurring waxes or from freezing conditions; however, workarounds such as solvent flushing or heating have been used to address these problems. The U-tube methodology has proven to be robust, and with careful consideration of the constraints and limitations, can provide high quality geochemical samples.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Freifeld, Barry; Perkins, Ernie; Underschultz, James & Boreham, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Penetration equations

Description: In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Young, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report

Description: Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, which is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, and is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. Depending on the nature, rate, and magnitude of global environmental change, the arctic may have a positive or negative feedback on global change. Results from the DOE- funded research efforts of 1990 and 1991 indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Measurements made in the Barrow, Alaska region during 1992 support these results. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. There are obvious potential errors in scaling plot level measurements to landscape, mesoscale, and global spatial scales. In light of the results from the recent DOE-funded research, and the remaining uncertainties regarding the change in arctic ecosystem function due to high latitude warming, a revised set of research goals is proposed for the 1993--94 year. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long- term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, ...
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Oechel, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

Description: Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core ...
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: McGuire, Donn; Runyon, Steve; Sigal, Richard; Liddell, Bill; Williams, Thomas & Moridis, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

Description: Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand ...
Date: April 30, 2011
Creator: Santamarina, J. Carlos & Tsouris, Costas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

Description: This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was ...
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Hirasaki, George; Chapman, Walter; Dickens, Gerald; Zelt, Colin; Dugan, Brandon; Mohanty, Kishore et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department