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Optical instrumentation

Description: From abstract: "the general optical systems of periscopes are discussed. Illustrative diagrams of several variations of periscopic design also included."
Date: 1952
Creator: McCorkle, Willard Homer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Study of a Visible/Infrared Periscope for Intense Radiation Applications using Reflective Optics

Description: In magnetically confined fusion devices employing deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, refractive optical components exposed to neutron and gamma radiation can be subject to degradation of the transmission characteristics, induced luminescence, and altered mechanical properties including dimensional changes. Although radiation resistant refractive optics functioned well for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) periscope system during D-T operation, this design approach is unpromising in the much more hostile radiation environment of future D-T devices such as the International Thermonumclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Under contract to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Ball Aerospace of Colorado carried out a periscope design study based on the use of reflective optics. In this design, beryllium reflective input optics supported by a fused silica optical bench were interfaced to a Cassegrain relay system to transfer plasma images to remotely located cameras. This system is also capable of measuring first-wall surface temperatures in the range of 300 - 2,000 degrees C even under projected heating of the reflective optics themselves to several hundred degrees Celsius. Tests of beryllium mirror samples, however, revealed that operation at temperatures above 700 degrees C leads to a loss of specular reflectivity, thus placing an upper limit on the acceptable thermal environment. The main results of this periscope study are presented in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Medley, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Carling, Robert W. & Singh, Gurpreet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We have built monitors for use as beam diagnostics in the narrow gap of an undulator for an FEL experiment. They utilize an intercepting screen of doped YAG scintillating crystal to make light that is imaged through a periscope by conventional video equipment. The absolute position can be ascertained by comparing the electron beam position with the position of a He:Ne laser that is observed by this pop-in monitor. The optical properties of the periscope and the mechanical arrangement of the system mean that beam can be spatially determined to the resolution of the camera, in this case approximately 10 micrometers. Our experience with these monitors suggests improvements for successor designs, which we also describe.
Date: May 7, 1998
Creator: JOHNSON,E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of High Neutron and Gamma Fluxes on the Transmission Characteristics of Some Optical Glasses

Description: The design of the Sandia Engineering Reactor Facility (SERF) presented a unique problem of finding a way to view the virtually unshielded 5 Mw reactor during operation. It was determined that periscope viewing was most feasible. The front optical elements of the periscope must withstand a total integrated radiation dose of 3 x 10/sup 9/ of gammas, and 1.4 x 10/sup 7/ n/cm/sup 2/, without excessive transmission losses. A program started to study the effects of radiation at such rates and total doses on the transmission characteristics of available optical glasses is described. Curves plotted from the study are presented to show graphically the results of irradiation on these optical glasses. (W.D.M.)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Colp, J. L. & Woodall, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

Description: The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Longhurst, Glen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department