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Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

Description: This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium-containing ceramic forms within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2006 and be ...
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Kan, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-power vacuum window in WR10

Description: Results are presented for fabrication and test of a WR10 waveguide window, for use in ultra-high vacuum at 91.4 GHz. Low-power bench measurements are compared with analytic and simulation results. Operation at approximately equal to 4-kW peak power, duty factor 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}9}-scale vacuum is noted.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Hill, Marc E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A transportable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and analysis system applicable to mobile, autonomous or unattended applications

Description: The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing systems based on a compact electro-mechanically cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This detector system broadens the practicality of performing high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the field. Utilizing portable computers, multi-channel analyzers and software these systems greatly improve the ease of performing mobile high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Using industrial computers, we can construct systems that will run autonomously for extended periods of time without operator input or maintenance. These systems can start or make decisions based on sensor inputs rather than operator interactions. Such systems can provide greater capability for wider domain of safeguards, treaty verification application, and other unattended, autonomous or in-situ applications.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Buckley, W.M. & Neufeld, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

Description: A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.
Date: August 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Sample Properties of an Adaptive Filter with Application to Low Volume Statistical Process Control

Description: In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards while building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper we address the issue of low volume statistical process control. We investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. We develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, we study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. We show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. We also demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.
Date: September 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous removal of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this study is to develop advanced high-temperature coal gas desulfurization mixed-metal oxide sorbents with stable ammonia decomposition materials at 550--800 C. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) develop combined sorbent-catalyst materials which shall be capable of removing hydrogen sulfide to less than 20 ppmv and ammonia by at least 90%; (2) carry out comparative fixed-bed studies of absorption and regeneration with various formulations of sorbent-catalyst systems and select the most promising sorbent-catalyst type; and (3) conduct long-term (at least 30 cycles) durability and chemical reactivity in the fixed-bed with the superior sorbent-catalyst. The activities of the HART 42 and HART 41 sorbent-catalysts were tested using the simulated coal gas. Figures show the H{sub 2}S removal ability, its ammonia decomposition activity, and the H{sub 2}S breakthrough profiles as a function of time. The pre-breakthrough H{sub 2}S level was below 100 ppm. Nearly complete sorbent conversion (100%) was observed at breakthrough. The HART 42 sorbent-catalysts showed moderate catalytic activity (50% average conversion) for ammonia decomposition. The average conversion decreased from 66 to 47% as the temperature was increased from 600 to 750 C for HART 41 sorbent-catalysts.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A. & Gangwal, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized beams at RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 {times} 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes, which will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Roser, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Life tests of Nichia AlGaN/InGaN/GaN blue-light-emitting diodes

Description: We report on results of life testing Nichia NLPB500 blue LEDs in a temperature controlled chamber, with computer automation of equipment operation and data collection. The tests began with 18 newer (Nichia batch 4B0001) and two older (Nichia batch S403024, acquired a year earlier) LEDs, operated at 20 mA continuous wave (CW) and 23{degree}C. Light from each LED was coupled to an optical fiber and fed directly to individual photodetectors. General trend for the 18 newer LEDs was for the output intensity to increase at a faster rate within the first 50 h and then at a slower rate of the remainder of the first test. The output intensity of the two older LEDs increase within the first 50 h then decreased during the remainder of the first 1000 h. All 20 of the LEDs in the first 1000-h test were subjected to a second 1650-h test at 23{degree}C and at currents 20-70 mA CW. Only one LED, an older device, suffered a soft failure during this second test. The remaining LEDs underwent a third test at 30{degree}C and a fourth test at 35{degree}C, all at various currents. We will perform failure analysis.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Helms, C.J.; Berg, N.H.; Barton, D.L. & Osinski, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of ceramic membrane filters

Description: CeraMem Corp.`s ceramic-membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters offer a promising alternative to ceramic candle filters providing long-term operational and reliability issues are resolved: regenerability of filter passages by back pulse cleaning, tolerance to alkali-containing combustion gas and thermal/chemical aging. ANL is responsible for analytical modeling of filtration and pulse cleaning operations, flow-through testing, and prediction of filter response to thermal cycling under realistic service conditions. A test apparatus was built to expose ceramic filter specimens to chemical environments simulating operation of pressurized fluidized bed and integrated gasification combined cycle plants. Four long-duration tests have been conducted in which 100-cpsi channel filters were exposed to ash collected downstream of the cyclone separator at the PFBC plant at Tidd. Results are discussed. Focus has now shifted to exposing the advanced candle filter specimens to reducing gas environments containing NaCl, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and gasification ash.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Ahluwalia, R. K.; Im, K. H.; Geyer, H. K.; Shelleman, D. L. & Tressler, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Topographical mapping system for hazardous and radiological environments

Description: This report focuses on the results of the acceptance test of the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) delivered to the Hanford site. The TMS was tested for accuracy over the specified range of 45 feet. The TMS was also tested to ensure that the unit could be deployed through multiple risers and maintain accuracy and registration of the surface mapping data. In addition, the TMS was disassembled and reassembled and redeployed to test field replacement of modules that make up the sensor head that is deployed in the vapor space of Underground Storage Tanks such as those located at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. The results from these tests along with temperature testing on the complete system and radiation testing of selected susceptible components are covered in this report. The primary purpose of the TMS is to generate reliable and accurate three-dimensional maps of the internal surfaces of storage tank. One use for these mapping systems is in creating and maintaining a current map of the tank interior as input to a robotic ``world model`` that is used to test remediation strategies or plan robot trajectories. Another use is tracking the movement of the waste surface as it responds to expanding bubbles of trapped Gas. A third use of the TMS is to perform a volumetric analysis of the amount of waste removed from the tanks during remediation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E. & Pardini, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy data. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

Description: The purpose of this field test was to evaluate cotton stalk removal and burial equipment developed by the Pegasus Corporation. The test field was located at the USDA Cotton Research Station, Shafter, CA. The treatments were: stalks standing, stalks shredded, irrigated and non-irrigated.
Date: February 5, 1996
Creator: Thacker, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FENIX experimental results of large-scale CICC made of bronze-processed Nb{sub 3}Sn strands

Description: The Fusion ENgineering International eXperiments (FENIX) Test Facility recently has successfully complete the testing of a pair of Nb{sub 3}rSn cable-in-conduit conductors developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These conductors, made of bronze-processed strands, were designed to operate stably with 40-kA transport current at a magnetic field of 13 T. In addition to the measurements of major design parameters such as current-sharing temperature, FENIX provided several experiments specifically designed to provide results urgently needed by magnet designers. Performed experiments include measurements of ramp-rate limit, current-distribution, stability, and joint performance. This paper presents the design and results of these special experiments.
Date: October 13, 1994
Creator: Shen, S.S.; Felker, B.; Moller, J.M.; Parker, J.M.; Isono, T.; Yasukawa, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New solid state lasers from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared

Description: The authors discuss three new laser materials that offer improved access to the ultraviolet, near infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions. In order for each of these materials to have been identified, a particular hurdle needed to be overcome with respect to the fundamental laser physics impacting the material. In the case of the 280-320nm Ce:LiSAF laser, the main issue is the need to reduce the loss associated with excited state absorption, while for 1047nm Yb:S-FAP it is the ground state absorption at the laser wavelength that must be minimized. Cr:ZnSe has been down-selected from a number of potential candidates which could lase in the 2200-3000nm region, in order to mitigate the detrimental impact of nonradiative decay. In all three cases the authors discuss how appropriate consideration of fundamental concerns has led to the identification and understanding of the new laser system.
Date: August 15, 1995
Creator: Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F. & Beach, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected site contamination history. Final topical report

Description: This is the Final Report that contains the ``Selected Site Contamination History`` for the project titled ``Development of an On-line, Real-time Alpha Radiation Monitor for Liquid Streams.`` It consists of a summary of sampling data for nine locations at the Oak Ridge Reservation. These nine locations were chosen to be representative of those expected across the DOE Complex, and were selected from three distinct Oak Ridge facilities: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); the Y-12 Plant; the K-25 Plant (the old Gaseous Diffusion Plant). The location selected from ORNL is the influent to the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). This location is representative of those Wastewater Treatment Plants that process water that is known to be radionuclide-containing. The location selected from the Y-12 Plant is the City Flow Monitoring Station. This location represents those sanitary sewer discharges from the DOE Complex that are routed off-site to a civilian waste water treatment plant. The seven locations selected from the K-25 Plant consist of various storm drains and surface waters that are tested during the normal course of K-25`s environmental monitoring program. These locations represent the varied surface waters that are tested for radioactivity levels across the DOE Complex. Final ranking and prioritization of these sites will result in a final selection of at least four sites for testing of the Thermo Alpha Monitor during Phase 2 (the Optional Phase) of the current program. It is anticipated that testing will include the ORNL, PWTP, the Y-12 City Flow Monitoring Station, and two of the K-25 surface water sites.
Date: September 29, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production-scale LLW and RMW solidification system operational testing at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E)

Description: Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) has begun production-scale testing of a low-level waste and radioactive mixed waste solidification system. This system will be used to treat low-level and mixed radioactive waste to meet land burial requirements. The system can use any of several types of solidification media, including a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic developed by ANL-E scientists. The final waste product will consist of a solidified mass in a standard 208-liter drum. The system uses commercial equipment and incorporates several unique process control features to ensure proper treatment. This paper will discuss the waste types requiring treatment, the system configuration, and operation results for these waste streams.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Wescott, J.; Wagh, A.; Singh, D.; Nelson, R. & No, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CAVE: the design of a precision metrology instrument for studying performance of KDP crystals

Description: A device has been developed to measure the frequency conversion performance of large aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. Third harmonic generation using ICDP is critical to the function of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. The crystals in the converter can be angularly or thermally tuned but are subject to larger aperture inhomogeneities that are functions of growth manufacturing and - mounting. The CAVE (Crystal Alignment Verification Equipment) instrument scans the crystals in a thermally and mechanically controlled environment to determine the local peak tuning angles. The CAVE can then estimate the optimum tuning angle and conversion efficiency over the entire aperture. Coupled with other metrology techniques, the CAVE will help determine which crystal life-cycle components most affect harmonic conversion.
Date: March 30, 1998
Creator: Hibbard, R.L., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S. & Larsen, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceptance test report for the Tank 241-C-106 in-tank imaging system

Description: This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-C-106 in-tank video camera imaging system. The purpose of this imaging system is to monitor the Project W-320 sluicing of Tank 241-C-106. The objective of acceptance testing of the 241-C-106 video camera system was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with procurement specification requirements and original equipment manufacturer`s (OEM) specifications. This document reports the results of the testing.
Date: May 22, 1998
Creator: Pedersen, L.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote moving target indication assessment

Description: The objective of this project was to design and test key components of a sensor to be used on remotely piloted vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for the detection of moving vehicles in cluttered backgrounds. The proposed sensor uses modern large-array focal planes to provide multiple infrared observations of moving targets and capable on-board computers to integrate multiple observations to detect moving targets in background clutter. This combination reduces the size, weight, and cost of the sensor to levels that can be flown on many small unmanned platforms. This effort selected the actual components, integrated them into a test bed, tested the performance of the sensor against realistic generated scenes, and designed a proof-of-concept prototype.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report for the period July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

Description: Two slurry reactor tests were completed in continuation of our studies on the effect of pretreatment conditions on catalyst reactivity and selectivity. Exceptionally good performance was obtained in run SA-2186, using the new pretreatment developed at Texas A&M University. The work on catalyst characterization by temperature programmed and isothermal reduction on a variety of iron catalysts, with different amounts of promoters, has been continued. These studies are complementing our work on pretreatment effect research, and provide additional insights into the effect of pretreatment procedures on the reduction behavior of iron catalysts. The overall objectives are to: (1) demonstrate repeatability of performance and preparation procedure of two high activity, high alpha iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts synthesized at Texas A&M University; (2) seek potential improvements in the catalysts performance through variation in process condition, pretreatment procedures and/or modifications in catalyst synthesis; (3) investigate performance of catalysts in a small bubble column slurry reactor; and (4) investigate feasibility of producing catalysts on a large scale in collaboration with a catalyst manufacturer.
Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: Bukur, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

Description: The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W. & Peterson, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of coal wastes into waste-cleaning materials. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

Description: Besides working on the conversion of fly ash to zeolites, we have been studying the possibility of converting fly ash to mesoporous molecular sieves. It was reported in previous reports that fly ash can participate in the formation of mesoporous materials. However, fly ash has not been converted to mesoporous materials directly. In the last report, we showed that by fusing the fly ash with sodium hydroxide, the yield of zeolites increased significantly. The fusion process increases the amount of silicates and aluminates that are dissolved in the precursor solutions. Therefore, in the last three months, we have been studying the conversion of fly ash into mesoporous materials using the fusion process. As expected, we succeeded in converting fly ash into mesoporous molecular sieves. Due to their uniform molecular pore sizes and large surface areas, the mesoporous materials are very useful materials for a wide range of applications such as molecular sieves, adsorbents, and catalysts. Therefore converting fly ash into mesoporous materials not only eliminates the disposal problem but also turns an otherwise waste material into a useful one. The successful conversion of fly ash into mesoporous molecular sieves broadens the possible application of fly ash.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Shih, Wei-Heng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department