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[Slingshot Milligan. The Closer. Two Fingers and a Slingshot Ball]

Description: Photograph of two seemingly dismembered fingers, with globs of a red substance on their ends. A silver-colored pellet is placed just in front of the fingers, with small bits of the red substance on it as well. Narrative by Junebug Clark: Check out the other Slingshot John Milligan photos in this series and you will learn that my father, Joe Clark, HBSS, allowed to Slingshot John Milligan to shoot three dozen eggs off of the back of Joe's hand. When presenting these stunning photos it was inevitable for someone to ask, "Did he ever miss?" "Just once..." Joe would reply and pull out this photo of two of his fingers poked through a white background and a slingshot ball covered obviously in ketchup. Timing and the reactions... Priceless. Photo by: Joe Clark, HBSS.
Date: 19uu
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Co-synthesis of LiFePO4 and Carbon Nanotubes

Description: The rate capabilities of LiFePO{sub 4} composites are dependent on the structure of the carbon that coats the powders, formed during co-calcination with carbon containing precursors. The addition of readily decomposed pyromellitic acid and graphitization catalysts such as ferrocene during synthesis results in coatings with low D/G (disordered/graphene) ratios, while maintaining the carbon content of the powders below 2 wt. %. This is important to avoid adversely affecting the tap density. The good correlation between the pressed pellet conductivities of the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites and their rate capability in lithium cells is further confirmation of the importance of the carbon structure, because graphitic carbons generally have higher conductivities than disordered ones.
Date: May 26, 2006
Creator: Wilcox, James & Doeff, Marca M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

Description: Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Swansiger, T.G. & Pearson, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prereduced Iron Ore Pellets: Preparation, Properties, Utilization

Description: Report discussing the a new agglomerated raw material: partially reduced, hardened iron ore pellets. The pellets are a versatile product suitable for adaptation to both ironmaking and steelmaking. Includes discussion of the technology involved in making prereduced pellets, laboratory techniques, problems of production, data from blast furnace smelting, the economics of production, and the future of the industry.
Date: 1970
Creator: Fine, M. M. & Melcher, N. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

Description: A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described.
Date: December 4, 2003
Creator: Gettelfinger, G.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Kugel, H.; Sichta, P. & Timberlake, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote fabrication of nuclear fuel pellets

Description: The equipment for remote fabrication of pellet fuels is in various stages of design, testing and evaluation. A pellet gaging system specifically designed to be maintained remotely has been demonstrated and is currently being interfaced with a programmable electro-mechanical manipulator to demonstrate completely automatic and remote disassembly and reassembly of the inspection unit. Pulsed magnetic welding of fuel rod end closures have been demonstrated. The solid-state welding technique allows the use of ultrasonics for weld inspection in place of traditional x-radiography. This welding and inspection method provides an attractive alternative for remote fuel fabrication. A new batch sintering furnace concept based upon aerospace technology is being developed. The furnace will have five to ten times the through-put of conventional batch furnaces and is easier to maintain than the horizontal furnaces in use today. Two high-speed mechanical press concepts (anvil and rotary) are currently being evaluated for remote operation and maintenance. The anvil press is especially attractive for remote fabrication due to its simplicity in set up and die change methods. All pellet fuel fabrication operations will be developed for remote operation and maintenance and representative fabrication rates will be demonstrated.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Nyman, D.H.; Dahl, R.E. & Claudson, T.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Pellet Industry Analysis

Description: This report is a survey of the U.S. Pellet Industry, its current capacity, economic drivers, and projected demand for biomass pellets to meet future energy consumption needs. Energy consumption in the US is projected to require an ever increasing portion of renewable energy sources including biofuels, among which are wood, and agrictulrual biomass. Goals set by federal agencies will drive an ever increasing demand for biomass. The EIA projections estimate that renewable energy produced by 2035 will be roughly 10% of all US energy consumption. Further analysis of the biofuels consumption in the US shows that of the renewable energy sources excluding biofuels, nearly 30% are wood or biomass waste. This equates to roughly 2% of the total energy consumption in the US coming from biomass in 2009, and the projections for 2035 show a strong increase in this amount. As of 2009, biomass energy production equates to roughly 2-2.5 quadrillion Btu. The EIA projections also show coal as providing 21% of energy consumed. If biomass is blended at 20% to co-fire coal plants, this will result in an additional 4 quadrillion Btu of biomass consumption. The EISA goals aim to produce 16 billion gal/year of cellulosic biofuels, and the US military has set goals for biofuels production. The Air Force has proposed to replace 50% of its domestic fuel requirements with alternative fuels from renewable sources by 2016. The Navy has likewise set a goal to provide 50% of its energy requirements from alternative sources. The Department of Energy has set similarly ambitious goals. The DOE goal is to replace 40% of 2004 gasoline use with biofuels. This equates to roughly 60 billion gal/year, of which, 45 billion gal/year would be produced from lignocellulosic resources. This would require 530 million dry tons of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic biomass per ...
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Nichol, Corrie I.; Jacobsen, Jacob J. & Boardman, Richard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

Description: The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.
Date: May 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

Description: We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.
Date: October 20, 2003
Creator: Samtaney, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Colella, P. & Martin, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel compliance model for pellet-cladding mechanical interaction

Description: This paper describes two aspects of fuel pellet deformation that play significant roles in determining maximum cladding hoop strains during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction: compliance of fragmented fuel pellets and influence of the pellet end-face design on the transmission of axial compressive force in the fuel stack. The latter aspect affects cladding ridge formation and explains several related observations that cannot be explained by the hourglassing model. An empirical model, called the fuel compliance model and representing the above aspects of fuel deformation, has been developed using the results from two Halden experiments and incorporated into the FRAP-T6 fuel performance code.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Shah, V.N. & Carlson, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated inspection of nuclear fuel pellets

Description: The evolutionary development of the automated fuel pellet inspection system has involved several man years of effort and the testing of five different engineering prototypes. Experience gained from the process testing of this latest generation of the automated fuel pellet gaging system will be used to design and build a production unit which is completely automated and can be maintained remotely.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: McLemore, D. R.; Wilks, R. S.; Nyman, D. H. & Brady, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated in-line measurement of nuclear fuel pellets

Description: HEDL is currently developing, fabricating, and evaluating automated fuel fabrication equipment with the goals of reduced personnel exposure, improved safeguards/accountability and improved fuel performance. One of the automated equipment items which has been fabricated is a fuel pellet inspection system. This system inspects fuel pellets for surface flaws and measures pellets for length, diameter, and weight at a rate of one pellet per second. The inspected pellets are sorted automatically and the results of the inspection are transmitted to a central computer for trend analysis and verification of accountability data. 11 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: McLemore, D. R. & Nyman, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

Description: Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory.
Date: May 25, 1979
Creator: Hendricks, C.D. & Johnson, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion targets using target free-fall technique. Report No. 2-82

Description: Techniques for fabricating cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets (i.e., spherical shells containing a uniform layer of DT ice) are investigated using target free-fall concept. Detection and characterization of the moving targets are effected by optoelectronic means, of which the principal is an RF ac-interferometer. This interferometer system demonstrates, for the first time, the speed capabilities of the phase-modulation ac-interferometry. New techiques developed for handling, holding, launching, and transporting targets are also described. Results obtained at both room and cryogenic temperatures are presented.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Kim, K. & Murphy, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Commercial-scale inertial-fusion power can be generated by producing a steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of small pellet targets whose ignition requires supplying a few magajoules in a few nanoseconds, a goal well beyond the present single-shot capabilities of high-power pulsed laser and electron-beam systems which also lack the needed repetition-rate capability of order one per second. However, existing high-energy accelerator technology with straightforward engineering extrapolations, applied to pulsed beams of heavy ions in low charge states, can meet all requirements. The relevant accelerator capabilities are discussed; three widely differing types of accelerators show promise. Needed developmental work is mostly on lower-energy components and can be conducted at relatively low cost. Some of the work started at several accelerator laboratories on this new approach within the past year are described, and possible goals of an early demonstration construction project are indicated.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Judd, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propagation or failure of detonation across an air gap in an LX-17 column: continuous time-dependent detonation or shock speed using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique

Description: The detailed history of the shock/detonation wave propagation after crossing a room-temperature-room-pressure (RTP) air gap between a 25.4 mm diameter LX-17 donor column and a 25.4 mm diameter by 25.4 mm long LX-17 acceptor pellet is investigated for three different gap widths (3.07, 2.08, and 0.00 mm) using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique. The 2.08 mm gap propagated and the 3.07 mm gap failed and this can be seen clearly and unambiguously in the EFO data even though the 25.4 mm-long acceptor pellet would be considered quite short for a determination by more traditional means such as pins.
Date: January 16, 2008
Creator: Hare, D E; Chandler, J B; Compton, S M; Garza, R G; Grimsley, D A; Hernandez, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In reduction reactions of CeO/sub 2/, with calcium and a CaCl/sub 2/ flux, the use of vibrational energy was shown to have a marked effect on the yield of coalesced metal. Buttons of 40 to 50% theoretical yield were obtained from the vibrated reductions. As the flux concentration is decreased, the slag becomes more viscous containing undissolved CaO. The undissolved CaO present prevents the metal from completely coalescing, but the metal can be recovered from the slag and coalesced under CaCl/sub 2/ containing a small amount of calcium to reduce any oxide skin present. Cerium pellet yields of 50 to 60% metal were obtained by the procedure and were not difficult to handle in air. Cerium was used as a stand-in material for plutonium. (B.O.G.)
Date: February 13, 1956
Creator: Tolley, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department