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Integrated shell approach to vertical position control on PBX-M

Description: The PBX-M device produces highly shaped discharges that, because of the negative external magnetic field decay index required, are vertically unstable. Vertical positional stability in PBX-M has been achieved by directly controlling the n = 0 component of the eddy current in the passive shell instead of the commonly used function of magnetic flux signals. Because the active coil is controlled via currents in the passive shell we call this an ``integrated shell`` approach to vertical position control. We present results of these experiments and make comparisons between the two methods of control.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Hatcher, R.E. & Okabayashi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of radial electric field on Alfven-type instabilities

Description: The influence of the large scale radial electric field, E{sub r}{sup (0)} on the frequency of shear-Alfven-type instability is analyzed. A frozen-in-flux constraint and the moderate-{beta} ion gyrokinetic equation are used in the derivation. The analysis indicates that the frequency predicted by a theory with E{sub r}{sup (0)} effect should be Doppler-shifted by k {center_dot} V{sub E} for comparison to the experimentally observed frequency. A specific example of the practical relevance of the result is given regarding possible identification of the edge-localized-mode-associated magnetic activity recently observed in PBX-M tokamak experiment.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Hahm, T.S. & Tang, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spreading of wave-driven currents in a tokamak

Description: Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in the tokamak Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) is computed with a dynamic model in order to understand an actual discharge aimed at raising the central q above unity. Such configurations offer advantages for steady-state operation and plasma stability. For the particular parameters of this PBX-M experiment, the calculation found singular profiles of plasma current density J and safety factor q developing soon after LHCD begins. Smoothing the lower hybrid-driven current and power using a diffusion-Eke equation and a velocity-independent diffusivity for fast-electron current brought the model into reasonable agreement with the measurements if D{sub fast} {approx} 1.0 m{sup 2}/s. Such a value for D{sub fast} is in the range suggested by other work.
Date: January 1996
Creator: Ignat, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Jardin, S. C. & Okabayashi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the hot electrical conductivity in the PBX-M tokamak

Description: A new method for the analysis of tokamak discharges in which the plasma current is driven by the combination of high-power rf waves and a dc electric field is presented. In such regimes, which are the most usual in rf current drive experiments, it is generally difficult to separate the different components of the plasma current, i.e., purely Ohmic, purely noninductive and cross terms. If the bilinear (in wave power and electric field) cross term is the dominant one, an explicit relation between the loop voltage drop and the injected power can be found. This relation involves two parameters, the purely rf current drive efficiency and the hot (power dependent) electrical conductivity. These can be simultaneously determined from a simple two-parameter fit, if the loop voltage drop is measured at several rf power levels. An application to lower hybrid current drive experiments in the PBX-M tokamak is presented. It is shown that the method also allows the independent evaluation of the average power absorption fraction and n{sup {parallel}} upshift.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Giruzzi, G.; Barbato, E.; Cardinali, A. & Bernabei, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Synergy between Ion Bernstein and Lower Hybrid Waves in PBX-M

Description: The synergistic behavior of lower hybrid and ion Bernstein waves on the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified tokamak [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1271 (1990)] is experimentally studied using a 2-D hard X-ray camera. The hard X-ray bremsstrahlung emission from suprathermal electrons, generated with lower hybrid current drive, is enhanced during ion Bernstein wave power injection. This enhancement is observed in limited regions of space suggesting the formation of localized current channels. The effects on plasma electrons during combined application of these two types of waves are theoretically investigated using a quasilinear model. The numerical code simultaneously solves the 3-D (R, Z, {Phi}) toroidal wave equation for the electric field (in the WKBJ approximation) and the Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function in two dimensions (v{sub parallel}, v{sub perpendicular}) with an added quasilinear diffusion coefficient. The radial profile of the non-inductively generated current density, the transmitted power traces and the total power damping curve are calculated. The beneficial effects of a combined utilization of ion Bernstein and lower hybrid waves on the current drive are emphasized. The numerical results are compared with the experimental observations.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Cardinali, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Paoletti, F.; Bernabei, S.; Goeler, S. Von & Tighe, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons using oblique electron cyclotron emission

Description: It is shown that radial localization of optically tin Electron Cyclotron Emission from superthermal electrons can be imposed by observation of emission upshifted from the thermal cyclotron resonance in the horizontal midplane of a tokamak. A new and unique diagnostic has been proposed and operated to make radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons during Lower Hybrid Current Drive on the PBX-M tokamak. The superthermal electron density profile as well as moments of the electron energy distribution as a function of radius are measured during Lower Hybrid Current Drive. The time evolution of these measurements after the Lower Hybrid power is turned off are given and the observed behavior reflects the collisional isotropization of the energy distribution and radial diffusion of the spatial profile.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C. & Kaye, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of electron energy distribution from X-rays diagnostics - foil techniques used with the hard X-ray camera on PBX-M

Description: A half-screen foil technique is used with the Hard X-ray Camera on the PBX-M tokamak to determine the energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons generated during lower hybrid current drive. The ratio of perpendicular to parallel temperature of the suprathermal electrons is deduced from the anisotropy of the bremsstrahlung emission utilizing Abel inversion techniques. Results from lower hybrid current drive discharges are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Goeler, S. von; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W. & Ignat, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A folded waveguide ICRF antenna for PBX-M and TFTR

Description: The folded waveguide (FWG) antenna is an advanced ICRF launcher under development at ORNL that offers many significant advantages over current-strap type antennas. These features are particularly beneficial for reactor-relevant applications such as ITER and TPX. Previous tests of a development folded waveguide with a low density plasma load have shown a factor of 5 increase in power capability over loop antennas into similar plasma conditions. The performance and reliability of a FWG with an actual tokamak plasma load must now be verified for further acceptance of this concept. A 58 MHz, 4 MW folded waveguide is being designed and built for the PBX-M and TFTR tokamaks at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This design has a square cross-section that can be installed as either a fast wave (FW) or ion-Bernstein wave (IBW) launcher by 90{degree} rotation. Two new features of the design are: a shorter quarter-wavelength resonator configuration and a rear-feed input power coupling loop. Loading calculations with a standard shorting plate indicate that a launched power level of 4 MW is possible on either machine. Mechanical and disruption force analysis indicates that bolted construction will withstand the disruption loads. An experimental program is planned to characterize the plasma loading, heating effectiveness, power capability, impurity generation and other factors for both FW and IBW cases. High power tests of the new configuration are being performed with a development FWG unit on RFTF at ORNL.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D. & Fogelman, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear coupling of low-n modes in PBX-M

Description: In many of the medium and high beta discharges in PBX-M low-n modes with different n-numbers are observed. The probability of a low-n mode to be excited decreases with increasing n-number. If two modes of different frequency and n-number ({omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}; k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}) are simultaneously present in the plasma, these modes interact nonlinearly and create sidebands in frequency ({omega}{sub 2}{+-}{omega}{sub 1}) and wave-number (k{sub 2}{+-}k{sub 1} or n{sub 2}{+-}n{sub 1} and m{sub 2}{+-}m{sub 1}). If these fundamental modes, {omega}{sub 1}/k{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}/k{sub 2}, contain strong harmonics, the harmonics also interact nonlinearly, creating more nonlinear products: k{omega}{sub 2}{+-}l{omega}{sub 1} and kk{sub 2}{+-}lk{sub 1}, where k and l are integers describing the harmonics. These modes, the products of nonlinear interaction between two fundamental modes, most probably have a kink character. During this three-wave coupling interaction, a decrease in neutron rate and an enhanced loss of medium energy ions are observed.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Bell, R. E.; Kugel, H. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

Description: This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY93. The report is prepared to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1993. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. In 1993, PPPL had both of its two large tokamak devices in operation; the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). PBX-M completed its modifications and upgrades and resumed operation in November 1991. TFTR began the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in December 1993 and set new records by producing over six million watts of energy. The engineering design phase of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), which replaced the cancelled Burning Plasma Experiment in 1992 as PPPL`s next machine, began in 1993 with the planned start up set for the year 2001. In 1993, the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the TFRR Shutdown and Removal (S&R) and TPX was prepared for submittal to the regulatory agencies.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Finley, V. L. & Wiezcorek, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELM-related fluctuations in PBX-M H-modes

Description: Edge Localized Modes, or ELMs, are at the same time both disadvantageous and advantageous features of H-modes. ELMs can cause energy and particle losses from the plasma, with instantaneous energy losses reaching 40% of the total stored energy in the case of large-amplitude ELMs. The energy loss from these ELMs, or closely spaced smaller ELMs, may result in what is known as a beta-collapse, an event in which energy is lost over a substantial duration of the discharge. On the other hand, if controlled, the ELM related energy and, especially, impurity losses can lead to near steady-state discharge conditions with relatively low radiative power losses. The importance of ELMs in the development of the H-phase has led to numerous studies which attempt to uncover their nature. The purpose of the present work is to present additional observations of, most notably, high frequency magnetic fluctuations associated with ELMS. There are some observations here that are consistent with previously reported ones, namely the appearance of high frequency ({ge}250 kHz) activity prior to the D{sub {alpha}} increase, suggesting again that the rise in D{sub {alpha}} is some delayed response to an instability occurring farther inside the plasma edge. While this high frequency activity is global, with high coherence for all coil pairs both on the inside and outside midplane, there is no identifiable mode structure. Reported here for the first time are observations of a very intense outward ballooning feature that appears simultaneously with the D{sub {alpha}} increase and lasts for about 5 msec. The toroidal mode structure of this feature is clearly identifiable, consisting of a series of toroidal harmonics from n=3 to 8, at frequencies given by f{sub n}=f{sub 0}+n{Delta}f, with f{sub 0}=30 to 50 kHz and A{Delta}=20 to 30 kHz.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Kaye, S. M.; Hahm, T. S.; Sesnic, S.; Tang, W.; Roney, P.; Davis, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of the external kink and control of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks

Description: One promising approach to maintaining stability of high beta tokamak plasmas is the use of a conducting wall near the plasma to stabilize low-n ideal MHD instabilities. However, with a resistive wall, either plasma rotation or active feedback control is required to stabilize the more slowly growing resistive wall modes (RWMs). Experiments in the DIII-D, PBHX-M, and HBT-EP tokamaks have demonstrated that plasmas with a nearby conducting wall can remain stable to the n = 1 ideal external kink above the beta limit predicted with the wall at infinity, with durations in DIII-D up to 30 times {tau}{sub w}, the resistive wall time constant. More recently, detailed, reproducible observation of the n = 1 RWM has been possible in DIII-D plasmas above the no-wall beta limit. The DIII-D measurements confirm characteristics common to several RWM theories. The mode is destabilized as the plasma rotation at the q = 3 surface decreases below a critical frequency of 1 to 7 kHz. The measured mode growth times of 2 to 8 ms agree with measurements and numerical calculations of the dominant DIII-D vessel eigenmode time constants, {tau}{sub w}. From its onset, the RWM has little or no toroidal rotation and rapidly reduces the plasma rotation to zero. Both DIII-D and HBT-EP have adopted the smart shell concept as an initial approach to control of these slowly growing RWMs; external coils are controlled by a feedback loop designed to make the resistive wall appear perfectly conducting by maintaining a net zero radial field at the wall. Initial experiment results from DIII-D have yielded encouraging results.
Date: January 1999
Creator: Garofalo, A. M.; Turnbull, A. D. & Strait, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

Description: The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project is well into the experimental phase of its deuterium-tritium (D-T) program, with the objective to derive the maximum amount of experimental data on the behavior of tokamak plasmas containing a significant population of energetic alpha particles. Since the initial D-T experiments in December 1993, the operational performance of the TFTR, as well as the required tritium-handling and machine maintenance procedures in an activated environment, have improved markedly, so that D-T operation has now become essentially routine, while fully conforming with all of the safety and environmental requirements. During the D-T phase, the machine and auxiliary-systems parameters have also been increased, most notably the toroidal field (to 5.6 T) and the neutral-beam power (to 40 MW). The radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron-range of frequencies (ICRF) has been increased to 11 MW.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soft x-ray imaging system for measurement of noncircular tokamak plasmas

Description: A soft x-ray camera and image processing system has been constructed to provide measurements of the internal shape of high temperature tokamak plasmas. The camera consists of a metallic-foil-filtered pinhole aperture and a microchannel plate image intensifier/convertor which produces a visible image for detection by a CCD TV camera. A wide-angle tangential view of the toroidal plasma allows a single compact camera to view the entire plasma cross section. With Be filters 12 to 50 ..mu..m thick, the signal from the microchannel plate is produced mostly by nickel L-line emissions which orignate in the hot plasma core. The measured toroidal image is numerically inverted to produce a cross-sectional soft x-ray image of the plasma. Since the internal magnetic flux surfaces are usually isothermal and the nickel emissivity depends strongly on the local electron temperature, the x-ray emission contours reflect the shape of the magnetic surfaces in the plasma interior. Initial results from the PBX tokamak experiment show clear differences in internal plasma shapes for circular and bean-shaped discharges.
Date: August 1, 1986
Creator: Fonck, R.J.; Reusch, M.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Hulse, R. & Roney, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

Description: Plasmas exhibiting the ``fishbone`` instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Roberts, D. W.; Powell, E.; Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY93 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

Description: This is the annual report from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for the period October 1, 1992 to September 30, 1993. The report describes work done on TFTR during the year, as well as preparatory to beginning of D-T operations. Design work is ongoing on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) which is to test very long pulse operations of tokamak type devices. PBX has come back on line with additional ion-Bernstein power and lower-hybrid current drive. The theoretical program is also described, as well as other small scale programs, and the growing effort in collaboration on international design projects on ITER and future collaborations at a larger scale.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for Calendar Year 1992

Description: This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY92. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Finley, V. L. & Wieczorek, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-time boronization in PBX-M using erosion of solid boronized targets

Description: Thirty one real-time boronizations were applied to PBX-M using the plasma ablation of solid target probes. More than 17 g of boron was deposited in PBX-M using this technique. The probes were positioned at the edge plasma to optimize ablation and minimize spallation. Auger depth profile analysis of poloidal and toroidal deposition sample coupon arrays indicate that boron was transported by the plasma around the torus and deep into the divertors. During discharges with continuous real-time boronization, low-Z and high-Z impurities decreased rapidly as plasma surfaces were covered during the first 20--30 discharges. After boronization, a short-term improvement in plasma conditions persisted prior to significant boron erosion from plasma surfaces, and a longer term, but less significant, improvement persisted as boron farther from the edge continued gettering. Real-time solid target boronization has been found to be very effective for accelerating conditioning to new regimes and maintaining high performance plasma conditions.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Kugel, H. W.; Timberlake, J. & Bell, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview of PBX-M H-mode results

Description: PBX-M is a tokamak operated with indented plasmas, a close-fitting conducting shell, and various RF systems in order to study the physics of current and pressure profile control, and ease the access to the second stability regime. In addition to these uncommon and unique features, PBX-M, because of its divertor operation, has also proved to be a valuable contributor to identifying and understanding various features of H-mode physics. Time stationary H-modes (t>{tau}{sub E}) at high power ({approximately}5 MW) have been obtained, and these discharges have attained {beta}{sub t}/(I/aB) values of 4.5 simultaneously with {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E}{sup ITER-89P} values of up to 3.5. In this paper, results of recent H-mode studies will be presented. These studies focused on specific aspects of H-mode physics. To be reported here are results of studies of bias induced H-modes, L- to H- transitions, including the suppression of turbulent transport, ELMs and other related energy loss mechanisms, and, finally, Ion Bernstein Wave modification of H-mode discharges.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Kaye, S. M.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Sesnic, S.; Dunlap, J. L.; Schmitz, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of emitted power in the divertor region in PBX

Description: In strongly indented PBX plasmas, radiated power profiles are calculated by combining data obtained from two bolometer arrays in order to study poloidal asymmetries arising from plasma indentation and characterize emission from the divertor region. A compact, 15-channel bolometer array that views the plasma tangentially along the midplane complements a 19-channel array that scans the plasma vertically in a poloidal plane. Assuming that radiated power density is constant along a magnetic flux surface, the contributions to the irradiance viewed by the poloidal array from the region inside the separatrix can be calculated from the midplane measurements. The difference between this contribution and the measured poloidal distribution is assumed to originate in the expanded boundary divertor. In general, the total radiated power loss constitutes 40% of the total input power, and is independent of beam geometry. However, the radiation profiles in the main plasma and divertor region depend on operating conditions such as beam geometry and gas puffing rates. Radiation from the main plasma accounts for 20% of the input power and radiation from the divertor region accounts for 20%. Accumulation of impurities during neutral-beam-heated discharges can cause peak radiation levels to exceed 1 W/cm/sup 3/, leading to a thermal collapse of the plasma.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Paul, S.F.; Fonck, R.J. & Schmidt, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic modeling of transport and positional control of tokamaks

Description: We describe here a numerical model of a free boundary axisymmetric tokamak plasma and its associated control systems. The plasma is modeled with a hybrid method using two-dimensional velocity and flux functions with surface-averaged MHD equations describing the evolution of the adiabatic invariants. Equations are solved for the external circuits and for the effects of eddy currents in nearby conductors. The method is verified by application to several test problems and used to simulate the formation of a bean-shaped plasma in the PBX experiment.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N. & DeLucia, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PBX experimental results in 1984

Description: Experimental activities of the PBX project during its first seven months of operation are summarized.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Takahashi, H.; Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-disruptive plasma loss in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX)

Description: The free-boundary, axisymmetric tokamak simulation code TSC is used to model the transport time scale evolution and positional stability of PBX. A disruptive thermal quench will cause the plasma column to move inward in major radius. It is shown that the plasma can then lose axisymmetric stability, causing it to displace exponentially off the midplane, terminating the discharge. We verify the accuracy of the code by modeling several controlled experiments shots in PBX.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Jardin, S.C.; DeLucia, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Pomphrey, N.; Reusch, M.; Kaye, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department