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Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Particle Laden Flows in Microfluidic Systems

Description: The goal of this effort was to develop dynamic simulation tools to study and characterize particulate transport in Microfluidic devices. This includes the effects of external fields and near-field particle-particle, particle-surface interactions. The unique aspect of this effort is that we focused on the particles in suspension and rigorously accounted for all of the interactions that they experienced in solution. In contrast, other numerical methods within the program, finite element and finite volume approaches, typically treat the suspended species as non-interacting point particles. Later in the program, some of these approaches incorporated approximations to begin to account for particle-particle interactions. Through the programs (BioFlips and SIMBIOSYS), we developed collaborative relationships with device-oriented efforts. More specifically and at the request of the SIMBIOSYS program manager, we allowed our efforts/milestones to be more guided by the needs of our BioFlips colleagues; therefore, our efforts were focused on the needs of the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Peter Gascoyne), UCDavis (Rosemary Smith), and UC Berkeley (Dorian Liepmann). The first two collaborations involved the development of Dielectrophoresis analysis tools and the later involved the development of suspension and fluid modeling tools for microneedles.
Date: July 22, 2003
Creator: Clague, D S; Weisgraber, T; Wheeler, E; Hon, G; Radford, J; Gascoyne, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

Description: NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Los Alamos Photon Counting Detector Debris Detection Project: An update

Description: At Los Alamos, the authors have been pursuing a project for space debris detection using a photon counting detector with high spatial and time resolution. By exploiting the three dimensionality of the high quality data, they expect to be able to detect an orbiting object of size below 2 cm, using a moderate size telescope and state-of-the-art photon counting detector. A working tube has been used to collect skyward looking data during dusk. In this paper, they discuss the progress in the development of detector and data acquisition system. They also report on analysis and results of these data sets.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Ho, Cheng; Priedhorsky, W.; Baron, M. & Casperson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

Description: In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Wolff, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A PIV Methodology for High-Resolution Measurement of Flow Statistics

Description: Particle-image velocimetry (PIV) is a flow-diagnostic technique that provides velocity fields from a comparison of images of particulate-laden flow. We have developed a PIV processing methodology that extracts measurements of the particle-displacement histogram from a flow video or ensemble of flow-image pairs. Single-pixel measurement of mean velocity can be obtained from an ensemble of {Omicron}10{sup 3} images. Measurements of higher-order moments of the velocity histogram require spatial averaging (i.e., lower spatial resolution), larger ensembles of images, or a combination of the two. We present single-pixel-resolution PIV measurements of a steady microflow and high-resolution measurements of the velocity histogram of a stationary turbulent flow. This methodology has applications in quantifying velocity statistics in other stochastic flows, e.g., bulk and near-wall boiling.
Date: November 5, 2000
Creator: Cummings, Eric B.; Schefer, Robert W. & Chung, Jacob N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

Description: This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.
Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Storey, John M.E.; Sluder, C. Scott; Blom, Douglas A. & Higinbotham, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of work for analytical services provided to Westinghouse Hanford Company by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory analytical chemistry laboratory

Description: The purpose of this Statement of Work is to establish laboratory analytical criteria and requirements associated with radioactive airborne emissions measurements. The criteria and requirements in this document apply to airborne emissions measurement activities funded by WHC managed facilities in the 300 and 400 areas.
Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: Perry, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrostatic Beneficiation of Coal

Description: It was suggested in the proposal that small particles, due to low inertia, may not impact on the surfaces of the tribocharger. They would, thus, not receive charge and would not be beneficiated in the electrostatic separation. A milling process was proposed in which the small particles are stirred together with larger carrier beads producing the desired contact charge exchange. A force is necessary for removing the coal particles from the carrier beads. In copying machines electrostatic force is used to pull toner particles away horn iron carrier particles which are held back by magnetic force. Aerodynamic force is used in test instruments for measuring the charge to mass ratio on toners. A similar system of milling and removal is desired for use with the small coal particles. The carrier beads need to be made of copper rather than iron. This complicates the separation process since copper is non-magnetic. We are working on coating of iron beads with a layer of copper. Dr. Robert Engleken of Arkansas State University has supplied us with several test batches of copper-coated iron in the size range of -40 +70 mesh. ` We are currently testing whether the milling process used with the copper coated iron beads produces the desired charge on the coal particles.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Lindquist, D.; Tennal, K. B. & Mazumder, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

Description: This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company�s Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems �98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long ...
Date: August 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.10 - Advanced Sampling and Analysis of Fine Particulates

Description: The objectives of this study are to develop a sampling method to capture the fine particulate and classiyi the particulate according to their size and chemistry. When developing the sampling method, two criteria need to be met: 1) the particulate are randomly dispersed on the sampling media and 2) the sampling media can be put directly into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for analysis to prevent any alteration of the particulate. Several methods for the sampling and analysis of fine particulate are to be tested. Each sampling test will be analyzed using the FPT technique for collecting the size, shape, and chemical composition of 1500 to 2000 individual fine particulate. The FPT data will be classified using cluster analysis and principal component analysis to provide a classification system for these particles. As reported previously, particulate samples were collected using the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) on the inlet port of the particulate test combustor (PTC) when the Absaloka coal was burned in early April. The samples were collected at the inlet rather than the outlet port because of the loading that was expected and the temperature at which the PTC was run. Samples at the inlet were expected to see a much greater particulate loading than at the outlet because of the efficiency of the particulate collection device on the PTC. Also, polycarbonate filters cannot withstand temperatures above 230oC for long periods of time; therefore, a quick loading time was required. The samples were briefly scanned and photographed using the SEM to determine the best particulate loading time. The particulate were too close together on the 20- and 30-second polycarbonate filters to be able to analyze individual particles. The particle dispersion on the vitreous carbon substrate appeared to be the best of the four samples. Aerosols were produced from pure ...
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: McCollor, Donald P. & Eyland, Kurt E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

Description: This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.
Date: April 30, 1995
Creator: Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J. & Shahnam, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines-Testing and Simulation

Description: This feasibility study of NOx adsorbers in heavy-duty diesel engines examined three configurations (dual-leg, single-leg and single-leg-bypass) in an integrated experimental setup, composed of a Detroit Diesel Class-8 truck engine, a catalyzed diesel particulate filter and the NOx absorber system. The setup also employed a reductant injection concept, sensors and advanced control strategies.
Date: August 25, 2002
Creator: Hakim, N; Hoelzer, J. & Liu, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) a cost sharing contract to evaluate carbon-based sorbents for mercury control on a 600 acfm laboratory-scale particulate control module (PCM). The PCM can be configured as simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet fabric filter, or a reverse-gas fabric filter and is installed on an operating coal-fired power plant. Three different dry carbon-based sorbents were tested this quarter to determine their mercury removal capability in the different configurations. The project is currently in the seventh quarter of an eight-quarter Phase I project. Testing in all configurations is nearly complete. Original plans included the use of an on-line mercury analyzer to collect test data. However, due to very low baseline mercury concentration, on-line measurement did not provide accurate data. The project used a modified MESA method grab sample technique to determine inlet and outlet mercury concentrations. A major concern during sorbent evaluations was the natural ability of the flyash at the test site to remove mercury. This often made determination of sorbent only mercury removal difficult. The PCM was configured as a reverse-gas baghouse and brought online with "clean" flue gas on March 10* at an A/C of 2.0 ft/min. The dustcake forms the filtering media in a reverse gas baghouse. In the absence of flyash, the bags were precoated with a commercially available alumina silicate material to form an inert dustcake. Some baseline tests were completed with clean gas for comparison to clean gas pulse jet tests. The PCM was reconfigured as a TOXECON unit in April 1997 with testing completed in May 1997. TOXECON, an EPIU patented technology, is a pulse-jet baghouse operating at a high A/C ratio downstream of a primary particulate colIector with sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for air toxics removal. Mercury removals ...
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Ruhl, Jason; Smith, Justin; Sjostrom, Sharon; Haythorthwaite, Sheila & Hunt, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

Description: The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M. & Anastasio, Cort
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects on Occupants of Enhanced Particle Filtration in a non-problem office environment: A Double-Blind Crossover Intervention Study

Description: Workers in indoor environments often complain of symptoms, such as eye and nose irritation, headache, and fatigue, which improve away from work. Exposures causing such complaints, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome, generally have not been identified. Evidence suggests these worker symptoms are related to chemical, microbiological, physical, and psychosocial exposures not well characterized by current methods. Most research in this area has involved cross-sectional studies, which are limited in their abilities to show causal connections. Experimental studies have also been conducted which, by changing one factor at a time to isolate its effects, can demonstrate benefits of an environmental intervention even before exposures or mechanisms are understood. This study was prompted by evidence that particulate contaminants may be related to acute occupant symptoms and discomfort. The objective was to assess, with a double-blind, double crossover intervention design, whether improved removal of small airborne particles by enhanced central filtration would reduce symptoms and discomfort.
Date: June 15, 1998
Creator: Mendell, M.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Petersen, M.; Hines, C.J.; Faulkner, D.; Deddens, J.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples

Description: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Jones, Anthony T. & Hartwig, Eric O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of measuring 3He bubble diameter populations in deuterium-tritium ice layers using Mie scattering

Description: In this report, I assess the feasibility of using Mie scattering to quantify the diameter distribution of {sup 3}He bubbles in DT ice layers. Mie scattering methods are often used for He diameter m measurements of particulates in emulsions like pigments and ink products. These measurements suggests that similar techniques could be used to measure the distribution of {sup 3}He bubbles He in DT ice layers, which is important for NIF ICF capsules. To investigate the achievable performance of bubble diameter measurements using Mie scattering, I performed numerical modeling using exact analytical expressions.
Date: January 22, 2007
Creator: Izumi, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

Description: We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department