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Users manual for the Chameleon Parallel Programming Tools

Description: Message passing is a common method for writing programs for distributed-memory parallel computers. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard for message passing has hampered the construction of portable and efficient parallel programs. In an attempt to remedy this problem, a number of groups have developed their own message-passing systems, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Chameleon is a second-generation system of this type. Rather than replacing these existing systems, Chameleon is meant to supplement them by providing a uniform way to access many of these systems. Chameleon`s goals are to (a) be very lightweight (low over-head), (b) be highly portable, and (c) help standardize program startup and the use of emerging message-passing operations such as collective operations on subsets of processors. Chameleon also provides a way to port programs written using PICL or Intel NX message passing to other systems, including collections of workstations. Chameleon is tracking the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) draft standard and will provide both an MPI implementation and an MPI transport layer. Chameleon provides support for heterogeneous computing by using p4 and PVM. Chameleon`s support for homogeneous computing includes the portable libraries p4, PICL, and PVM and vendor-specific implementation for Intel NX, IBM EUI (SP-1), and Thinking Machines CMMD (CM-5). Support for Ncube and PVM 3.x is also under development.
Date: June 1993
Creator: Gropp, William & Smith, Barry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : July - October 1986

Description: Research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory are discussed for the period from July 1986 through October 1986. The facility is currently supported by the Department of Energy, and is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne. Over the past four-month period, a new commercial multiprocessor, the Intel iPSC-VX/d4 hypercube was installed. In addition, four other commercial multiprocessors continue to be available for research - an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Alliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5 - as well as a locally designed multiprocessor, the Lemur. These machines are being actively used by scientists at Argonne and throughout the nation in a wide variety of projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures.
Date: 1986
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility. January 1985 - July 1986

Description: This report discusses research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory from January 1985 through June 1986. During this period, the Mathematics and Computer Science Division (MCS) at Argonne received incremental funding from the Applied Mathematical Sciences program of the DOE Office of Energy Research to operate computers with innovative designs that promise to be useful for advanced scientific research. Over a five-month period, four new commercial multiprocessors (an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Aliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5) were installed in the ACRF, creating a new wave of research projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures. A list of projects, publications, and users supported by the ACRF is included.
Date: 1986
Creator: Mihaly, Tina & Pieper, Gail W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research in Mathematics and Computer Science at Argonne : April 1, 1985 - June 30, 1986

Description: This report reviews the research activities in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory for the period April, 1985 through June 30, 1986. The body of the report gives a brief look at the MCS staff and the research facilities, and discusses various projects carried out in four major areas of research: advanced computing, applied analysis, computational mathematics, and software methodology. Information on division staff, visitors, workshops, and seminars is found in the appendixes.
Date: 1986
Creator: Pieper, Gail W. & Messina, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quasi-Automatic Parallelization : a Simplified Approach to Multiprocessing

Description: As multiprocessors become commercially available, a great deal of concern is being focused on the problems involved in writing and debugging software for such machines. Earlier work described the use of monitors implemented by macro processors to attain portable code. This work formulates a general-purpose monitor which simplifies the programming of a wide class of numeric algorithms. We believe that the approach of describing a set of schedulable units of computation advocated by Brown offers a real simplification for the applications programmer. In this paper, we propose a straight-forward programming paradigm for describing schedulable units of computation that allows the description of many algorithms with very little effort.
Date: October 1985
Creator: Glickfeld, B. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear Algebra on High-Performance Computers

Description: This paper surveys work recently done at Argonne National Laboratory in an attempt to discover ways to construct numerical software for high-performance computers. The numerical algorithms are taken from several areas of numerical linear algebra. Discussion of certain architectural features of advanced-computer architectures that will affect the design of algorithms. The technique of restructuring algorithms in terms of certain modules is reviewed. This technique has proved successful in obtaining a high level of transportability without severe loss of performance on a wide variety of both vector and parallel computers.
Date: January 1986
Creator: Dongarra, J. J. & Sorensen, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approach to Programming Multiprocessing Algorithms on the Denelcor HEP

Description: In the process of learning how to write code for the Denelcor HEP, we have developed an approach that others may well find useful. We believe that the basic synchronization primitives of the HEP (i.e., asynchronous variables), along with the prototypical patterns for their use given in the HEP FORTRAN 77 User's Guide, form too low-level a conceptual basis for the formulation of multiprocessing algorithms. We advocate the use of monitors, which can be easily implemented using the HEP primitives. Attempts to solve substantial problems without introducing higher-level constructs such as monitors can produce code that is unreliable, unintelligible, and restricted to the specific dialect of FORTRAN currently supported on the HEP. Our experience leads us to believe that solutions which are both clear and efficient can be formulated using monitors.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Parallel Algorithms Related to Subsequence Problems on the Sequent Multiprocessor System

Description: The primary purpose of this work is to study, implement and analyze the performance of parallel algorithms related to subsequence problems. The problems include string to string correction problem, to determine the longest common subsequence problem and solving the sum-range-product, 1 —D pattern matching, longest non-decreasing (non-increasing) (LNS) and maximum positive subsequence (MPS) problems. The work also includes studying the techniques and issues involved in developing parallel applications. These algorithms are implemented on the Sequent Multiprocessor System. The subsequence problems have been defined, along with performance metrics that are utilized. The sequential and parallel algorithms have been summarized. The implementation issues which arise in the process of developing parallel applications have been identified and studied.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Pothuru, Surendra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Semaphore Solutions for General Mutual Exclusion Problems

Description: Automatic generation of starvation-free semaphore solutions to general mutual exclusion problems is discussed. A reduction approach is introduced for recognizing edge-solvable problems, together with an O(N^2) algorithm for graph reduction, where N is the number of nodes. An algorithm for the automatic generation of starvation-free edge-solvable solutions is presented. The solutions are proved to be very efficient. For general problems, there are two ways to generate efficient solutions. One associates a semaphore with every node, the other with every edge. They are both better than the standard monitor—like solutions. Besides strong semaphores, solutions using weak semaphores, weaker semaphores and generalized semaphores are also considered. Basic properties of semaphore solutions are also discussed. Tools describing the dynamic behavior of parallel systems, as well as performance criteria for evaluating semaphore solutions are elaborated.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Yue, Kwok B. (Kwok Bun)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Beyond "'Speedup": Performance Analysis of Parallel Programs

Description: This paper addresses the problem of measuring and analyzing the performance of fine-grained parallel programs running on shared-memory multiprocessors. Such processors use locking (either directly in the application program, or indirectly in a subroutine library or the operating system) to serialize accesses to global variables. Given sufficiently high rates of locking, the chief factor preventing linear speedup (besides lack of adequate inherent parallelism in the application) is lock contention - the blocking of processes that are trying to acquire a lock currently held by another process.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Dritz, Kenneth W. & Boyle, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Monitors in FORTRAN: a Tutorial on the Barrier, Self-Scheduling DO-Loop, and Askfor Monitors

Description: A set of macro libraries has been developed that allows programmers to write portable FORTRAN code for multiprocessors. This document presents, in tutorial form, the macros used to implement three common synchronization patterns: self-scheduling DO-loops, barrier synchronization, and the askfor monitor.
Date: June 1985
Creator: Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Monitors in Pascal on the Lemur: a Tutorial on the Barrier, Self-Scheduling FOR-Loop, and Askfor Monitors

Description: A set of macro libraries has been developed that allows programmers to write portable Pascal code for multiprocessors. This document presents, in tutorial form, the macros used to implement three common synchronization patterns: self-scheduling FOR-loops, barrier synchronization, and the askfor monitor.
Date: July 1984
Creator: Clausing, J. A.; Hagstrom, R. T.; Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for the Set Partitioning Problem

Description: In this dissertation the author reports on his efforts to develop a parallel genetic algorithm and apply it to the solution of set partitioning problem -- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. He developed a distributed steady-state genetic algorithm in conjunction with a specialized local search heuristic for solving the set partitioning problem. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. The authors found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulation found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high-quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36,699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation they found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Levine, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review and Analysis of Fortran 8x

Description: The ANSI Standards Subcommittee X3J3 on Fortran has recently completed a draft proposed standard for the Fortran programming language. The draft proposed standard, known informally as Fortran 8x, is a revision of the current standard X3.9-1978, known informally as Fortran 77. This report is a review of Fortran 8x and consists of a series of six articles. The first article gives a general overview of Fortran 8x. The next three articles give brief discussions of the array facilities; the enhanced numeric facilities; and user-defined data types, procedure interfaces, and the new program unit called a module. The fifth article provides a brief analysis of the controversial issues discussed by X3J3 (including both the accepted and rejected facilities for Fortran 8x). The sixth article gives a brief comparison with Ada. The report concludes with a summary giving information on how and where to express opinions of the draft proposed standard.
Date: October 1987
Creator: Smith, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : October 1986-October 1987

Description: This paper contains a description of the work being carried out at the advanced computing research facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered are upgrading of computers, networking changes, algorithms, parallel programming, programming languages, and user training.
Date: 1987?
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : January 1989-January 1990

Description: This report reviews the activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) for the period January 1, 1989, through January 31, 1990. The ACRF is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility's principal objective is to foster research in parallel computing. Toward this objective, the ACRF continues to operate experimental advanced computers and to sponsor new technology transfer efforts and new research projects.
Date: February 1990
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parallel Programming with PCN

Description: PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, a set of tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools.
Date: September 1991
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tuecke, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parallel Programming with PCN. Revision 1

Description: PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tuecke, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parallel Programming with PCN. Revision 2

Description: PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. This version of this document describes PCN version 2.0, a major revision of the PCN programming system. It supersedes earlier versions of this report.
Date: January 1993
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tuecke, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Workshop on Compilation of (Symbolic) Languages for Parallel Computers : Held October 31 - November 1, 1991, San Diego, CA

Description: This report comprises the abstracts and papers for the talks presented at the Workshop on Compilation of (Symbolic) Languages for Parallel Computers, held October 31 - November 1, 1991, in San Diego. These unrefereed contributions were provided by the participants for the purpose of this workshop; many of them will be published elsewhere in peer-reviewed conferences and publications.
Date: November 1991
Creator: Foster, Ian & Tick, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approach to Implementing State Space Searches on Heterogeneous Systems of Multiprocessors

Description: We report on experiments run on a set of shared-memory multiprocessors. Our goal was to demonstrate that one could conveniently utilize a set of shared-memory multiprocessors cooperatively working on typical state-space searches. We utilized a technology for writing portable code for multiprocessors, coded three depth-first state-space searches, and ran them on a set of multiprocessors. The final problem used substantial resources (over 65 hours on a single processor) and was successfully distributed over four distinct shared memory multiprocessors (2 Sequents and 2 Encores), reducing the time to perform the computation to slightly over 2 hours.
Date: September 1987
Creator: Glickfeld, Barney & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of Monitors with Macros: A Programming Aid for the HEP and Other Parallel Processors

Description: In a previous paper, the advantages of using monitors when implementing multiprocessing algorithms for the Denelcor HEP were delineated. A detailed presentation is given here of how monitors can be implemented on the HEP using a simple macro processor. The thesis is developed that a small body of general-purpose monitors can be defined to handle most standard synchronization patterns. We include the macro packages required to implement some of the more common synchronization patterns, including the fairly complex logic discussed before. Code produced using these macro packages is portable from one multiprocessing environment to another. Indeed, by recoding the set of basic macros (about 100 lines of code for the Denelcor HEP), most programs that are now being written could be moved to any similar multiprocessing system.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of Monitors with Macros: A Programming Aid for the HEP and Other Parallel Processors, Revision 1

Description: In this report we give a detailed presentation of how monitors can be implemented on the HEP using a simple macro processor. We then develop the thesis that a small body of general-purpose monitors can be defined to handle most standard synchronization patterns. We include the macro packages required to implement some of the more common synchronization patterns, including the fairly complex logic discussed in a previous paper. Code produced using these macro packages is portable from one multiprocessing environment to another. Indeed, by recoding the set of basic macros (about 100 lines of code for the Denelcor HEP), most programs that we are new writing could be moved to any similar multiprocessing system.
Date: July 1984
Creator: Lusk, Ewing L. & Overbeek, Ross A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department