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Review of tribological sinks in six major industries

Description: Friction and material wear occur throughout all industries and are involved in many processes within each industry. These conditions make assessing tribological activity overall in industry very complex and expensive. Therefore, a research strategy to obtain preliminary information on only the most significant industrial tribological sinks was defined. The industries examined were selected according to both the magnitude of overall energy consumption (particularly machine drive) and the known p… more
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Imhoff, C. H.; Brown, D. R.; Hane, G. J.; Hutchinson, R. A.; Erickson, R.; Merriman, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Progress report, June 15, 1977--September 15, 1977

Description: Experiments conducted during this past quarter demonstrated the decided difference both in amount and composition of the gas produced from the fermentation of ozonated versus unozonated yeast-plant SSL. Gas from ozonated SSL averaged over 80% methane content while unozonated effluent was mostly carbon dioxide. Gas production rates and retention time studies indicated that the fermentation was substrate-limited. Preliminary tests using supplemental carbon sources have verified this. The success … more
Date: September 15, 1977
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial cogeneration case study No. 3: Mead Corporation Paper Mill, Kingsport, Tennessee

Description: The design, operation, performance, economics and energy efficiency of the 25,000 kW co-generating power plant at the Mead Co. paper mill in Kingsport, TN are described, and compared with the efficiency of producing only process heat at the plant while importing electric power from a local utility. It was established that on-site co-generation consumed 2/3 of the energy that would have been required for on-site process heat generation plus purchased off-site-generated electric power and that co… more
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy use in Japan and the United States

Description: This comparative study was undertaken to explain in part the per capita differential between the two countries. In the introduction, the ratios of energy per capita and energy per dollar of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are presented. The exchange rates utilized to convert GDP to a common currency are discussed in detail. Brief sections on the energy supply and electric generation situation in Japan are included for background information, followed by the body of the report devoted to the energy… more
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Doernberg, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cogeneration Handbook for the Pulp and Paper Industry. [Contains Glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper in… more
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Griffin, E. A.; Moore, N. L.; Fassbender, L. L.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, A. G.; Eakin, D. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

Description: This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include… more
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Reed, J.E. & Fink, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Method for evaluating the potential of geothermal energy in industrial process heat applications

Description: A method is presented for evaluating the technical and economic potential of geothermal energy for industrial process heat applications. The core of the method is a computer program which can be operated either as a design analysis tool to match energy supplies and demands, or as an economic analysis tool if a particular design for the facility has already been selected. Two examples are given to illustrate the functioning of the model and to demonstrate that results reached by use of the model… more
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Packer, M.B.; Mikic, B.B. & Meal, H.C., Guillamon-Duch, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technology trends in econometric energy models: Ignorance or information

Description: Simple time trend variables in factor demand models can be statistically powerful variables, but may tell the researcher very little. Even more complex specification of technical change, e.g. factor biased, are still the economentrician's measure of ignorance'' about the shifts that occur in the underlying production process. Furthermore, in periods of rapid technology change the parameters based on time trends may be too large for long run forecasting. When there is clearly identifiable engine… more
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Boyd, G.; Kokkelenberg, E. & Ross, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact on energy conservation of automatic control systems utilization in the US pulp and paper industry

Description: This study is concerned with the energy and other resource benefits resulting from the computerized automation of processes in the US pulp and paper industry. The primary objectives were to characterize the state of the art of computer controls in the industry and to pinpoint the problem areas that limit their further use. The study lasted approximately 4 months. An exhaustive survey of all the possible technologies in use, or under development, was not possible. The main conclusions are that t… more
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Fam, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

Description: One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, … more
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

Description: The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed acti… more
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

Description: Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

Description: It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and he… more
Date: June 30, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

Description: Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy … more
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Fricke, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Progress report, September 15, 1977--December 15, 1977

Description: Effort during the past quarter was directed at two specific objectives. First, the conversion of the protein production experiments from batch to continuous operation and, second, the identification of growth stimulants to increase methane yield. Early in the project, yeast production ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 grams of dry yeast per liter had been obtained in batch cultures. Highest yields were consistently attained on SSL (spent sulfite liquor) which had been ozonated for only 10 minutes. Contin… more
Date: December 15, 1977
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

Description: Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial … more
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial cogeneration optimization program

Description: The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1976--June 15, 1977

Description: The effect of ozone treatment on spent sulfite liquor yeast plant effluent was studied. A 500 ml capacity packed column was constructed to efficiently react ozone with spent sulfite liquor (SSL) on a continuous flow basis. The SSL was reacted at pH 3.0 for 3 hours averaging an ozone consumption of 12.8 gm/1. It was found that pH tended to decrease during ozonation indicative of the formation of oxalic and other organic acids. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased 13 percent from 101,000 to 88,… more
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development and demonstration of the use of modular thermo-mechanical pulpmill simulation models to develop energy reduction strategies

Description: The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) has received a project grant from the US DOE to develop and demonstrate the use of realtime process simulation modeling as a means of process analysis and optimization. The Project, to be conducted under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), will target a Thermo-Mechanical Pulping (TMP) operation as the site for the commercial implementation of the technology. IPST and a sub-contractor, SACDA Inc. (SACDA), will cooperate in a… more
Date: August 15, 1991
Creator: Rushton, J.D.; Jones, G.L. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Leaver, E.L. & Morton, W. (SACDA, Inc. (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

Description: The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control sys… more
Date: January 7, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industry process models: applications for market penetration and energy use projections

Description: The Brookhaven National Laboratory pulp and paper industry process model is used to project market penetration of energy conserving technologies and purchased energy for the paper industry. The risk adjusted discount rate concept is incorporated to penalize the capital costs of unproven technologies. For this analysis, the production-cost minimization objective is relaxed to explore near-minimum cost industry alternatives. Allowing paper production to include all possibilities within 1% of the … more
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Pilati, D A; Howe, S O; Balzer, C & Sparrow, F T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

Description: A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of… more
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Reister, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Volume II. Appendix A. Conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications. Appendix B. Characterization of cogeneration systems (near-term technology). Appendix C. Optimized cogeneration systems

Description: This appendix to a report which evaluates the technical, economic, and institutional aspects of industrial cogeneration for conserving energy in the food, chemical, textile, paper, and petroleum industries contains data, descriptions, and diagrams on conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications for cogeneration facilities; characterization of cogeneration systems in terms of fuel utilization, performance, air pollution control, thermal energy storage systems, and capital equipmen… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

Description: In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Kelleher, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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