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Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

Description: Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Moore, G.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

Description: Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Smuin, D.R.; Morti, E.E.; Zutman, J.L. & Pickering, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

Description: The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Kszos, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

Description: Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon & Smith, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paducah Site annual environmental report summary for 1995

Description: This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at the Paducah Site, as well as the impacts of its operations on the environment and the public for 1995. The results of environmental monitoring are presented. The goal is to keep emissions as low as possible, enhance the strict safety controls that are in place and use state-of-the-art technology to complete environmental remediation projects in the most cost-effective and efficient manner possible.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Belcher, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R. & Lombardi, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source ...
Date: December 30, 1996
Creator: Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W. & Taleyarkhan, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of external corrosion for UF{sub 6} cylinders: Results of an empirical method

Description: Wall thickness data for depleted LTF, (DU) cylinders in above-ground storage at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites (Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH) were analyzed in order to address the following questions: How many cylinders may have breaches now? and, What will the conditions be like in 2020? This report summarizes preliminary results of the analyses conducted. These results are to be used as input into models for estimating risks and hazards associated with the cylinders in the various conditions. These models will then be used as a basis for implementing engineering fixes where possible and for management decisions on corrective actions. This is part of the overall assessment of the risks and hazards within the DU management program.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Lyon, B.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

Description: This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both {sup 99}Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Smuin, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.
Date: August 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

Description: Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G. & Southworth, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 16 -- Sampling and analysis at the Vortec vitrification facility in Paducah, Kentucky. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

Description: The Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{reg_sign}) facility, to be located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, is designed to treat soil contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and radioactive elements, as well as organic waste. To assure that costs of sampling and analysis are contained, Vortec and the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have decided that initially the primary focus of the sampling activities will be on meeting permitting requirements of the state of Kentucky. Therefore, sampling will be limited to the feedstock entering the system, and the glass, flue gas, and water leaving the system. The authors provide suggestions for optional sampling points and procedures in case there is later interest in operations or mass balance data. The permits do not require speciation of the materials in the effluents, only opacity, total radioactivity, total particulate, and total HCl emissions for the gaseous emissions and total radioactivity in the water and solid products. In case future testing to support operations or mass balances is required, the authors include in this document additional information on the analyses of some species of interest. They include heavy metals (RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] and Cu and Ni), radionuclides (Th{sub 230}, U{sub 235}, Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and Pu{sup 239}), and dioxins/furans.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Laudal, D.L.; Lilemoen, C.M.; Hurley, J.P.; Ness, S.R.; Stepan, D.J. & Thompson, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paducah Site 1997 annual environmental report

Description: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located in McCracken County, Kentucky, has been producing enriched uranium since 1952. In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) leased the production areas of the site to the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC). A subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, Lockheed Martin Utility Services, manages the leased facilities for USEC. The DOE maintains responsibility for the environmental restoration, waste management, and depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder program activities at the plant through its management contractor. The purpose of this document is to summarize calendar year 1997 environmental monitoring activities for DOE activities at the Paducah Site managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The DOE requires all of its facilities to conduct and document such activities annually. This report does not include USEC environmental activities.
Date: December 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paducah Site annual report for 1995

Description: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located in McCracken County, Kentucky, has been producing enriched uranium since 1952. In July 1993, the US department of Energy (DOE) leased the production areas of the site to the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC). A new subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, Lockheed Martin Utility Services, manages the leased facilities for USEC. DOE maintains responsibility for the environmental restoration, waste management, and enrichment facilities activities at the plant through its management contractor, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The purpose of this document is to summarize calendar year 1995 environmental monitoring activities for DOE activities at the Paducah Site. DOE requires all of its facilities to conduct and document such activities annually. This report does not include USEC environmental activities.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Belcher, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

Description: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Laase, A.D. & Clausen, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio

Description: Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the, ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah.
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

Description: Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C. & Neton, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

Description: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

Description: One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I. & Bradley, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

Description: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Boggs, C.J. & Shaddoan, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department