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Development of a Novel Grease Resistant Functional Coatings for Paper-based Packaging and Assessment of Application by Flexographic Press

Description: Recent commercial developments have created a need for alternative materials and methods for imparting oil/grease resistance to paper and/or paperboard used in packaging. The performance of a novel grease resistant functional coating comprised of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium tetraborate pentahydrate (borate) and acetonedicarboxylic acid (ACDA) and the application of said coating by means of flexographic press is presented herein. Application criteria is developed, testing procedures described, and performance assessment of the developed coating materials are made. SEM images along with contact angle data suggest that coating performance is probably attributable to decreased mean pore size in conjunction with a slightly increased surface contact angle facilitated by crosslinking of PVA molecules by both borate ions and ACDA.
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Brown, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

Description: This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Chae, Junseok (University of Michigan); Stark, Brian H. (University of Michigan); Kuo, Andrew (University of Michigan); Oliver, Andrew David & Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occurrence Classifications, Severity Weighting, and Normalization for the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Metrics Indicator Program

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is an interactive computer system designed to support DOE-owned or -operated facilities in reporting and processing information concerning occurrences related to facility operations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program Albuquerque (NTPA) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P and T) incidents from the centralized ORPS database. These selected reports are analyzed for trends, impact on P and T operations and safety concerns, and ''lessons learned'' in P and T safety.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Dickerson, L.S.; Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Harrison, I.G.; Hermann, B. & Lester, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress update on the US photovoltaic manufacturing technology project

Description: The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is helping the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry extend its world leadership role in manufacturing and stimulate the commercial development of PV modules and systems. Initiated in 1990, PVMaT is being carried out in several directed and staggered phases to support industry`s continued progress. Thirteen subcontracts awarded in FY 1996 under Phase 4A emphasize improvement and cost reduction in the manufacture of full-system PV products. Areas of work in Phase 4A included, but were not limited to, issues such as improving module-manufacturing processes; system and system-component packaging, integration, manufacturing, and assembly; product manufacturing flexibility; and balance-of-system development with the goal of product manufacturing improvements. These Phase 4A, product-driven manufacturing research and development (R&D) activities are now completing their second phase. Progress under these Phase 4A and remaining Phase 2B subc ontracts from the earlier PVMaT solicitation are summarized in this paper. Evaluations of the success of this project have been carried out in FY 1995 and late FY 1996. This paper examines the 1997 cost/capacity data that have been collected from active PVMaT manufacturers.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E. & Thomas, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

Description: This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A performance agreement has been assigned, beginning in FY 1997, to update, revise, and/or cancel 20 percent of the existing onsite SARPS, so that 100 percent are reviewed and within current standards by the completion of the Project Hanford Management Contract (five-year period).
Date: December 9, 1996
Creator: Kelly, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

Description: The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.
Date: February 24, 1997
Creator: Obrien, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Packaging development programs recommended for the U.S.Department of Energy

Description: U.S. Department of Energy facilities were visited to determine their specific packaging needs. Those individual site needs were analyzed to determine widespread packaging needs. Those packaging needs are: replacements for aging Type B packagings, plutonium packaging, overpacks for large containers, heavily shielded Type B packaging, large radioactive liquid packaging, standardized waste packaging, and packaging for explosives.
Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Edwards, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Butter Making

Description: "Cleanliness and attention to details are the two prerequisites to the manufacture of good butter. The main defects in farm butter show these two prerequisites to be very frequently neglected. These defects are: (1) bad flavors, (2) lack of uniformity in color and salt, and (3) unsuitable packages and no uniformity in the style of the packages" -- p. 5. This report explores these defects in further detail and provides practical solutions to address these problems so as to produce butter of significantly higher quality.
Date: 1913
Creator: Keithley, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Marketing Eggs by Parcel Post

Description: "Whether the marketing of eggs by parcel post should be attempted by any particular producer will depend on his present available markets, the possibility of securing a satisfactory customer or customers, and the care taken to follow tests and approved methods in preparing the eggs for shipment. Failures in attempting to ship eggs by parcel post have resulted because proper precautions as to package or container, packing, and labeling were not observed. This bulletin presents conclusions from investigations made by the Office of Markets and Rural Organization in cooperation with the Post Office Department and gives detailed information as to the use of the parcel post." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Flohr, Lewis B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Needs assessment activity report: Fiscal year 1995

Description: The Needs Assessment program has assessed the packaging requirements of many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These assessments have involved site visits and meetings with personnel involved with transportation and packaging of hazardous materials. By September 1995, 24 DOE facilities had been visited, with 14 site visits occurring in fiscal year 1995. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that DOE has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of the affects of upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their near-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed, which may be of use to other DOE facilities. Program successes include discovery of a need for a reusable Type A liquid sample packaging and its development within another DOE task and establishing communications pathways between DOE sites that have similar transportation and packaging needs. This report recommends that the Needs Assessment activity continue to pursue the strategy of visiting DOE sites to meet with their transportation and packaging personnel. These visits will ensure that DOE needs are met, communications pathways between DOE sites are established and cultivated, and redundant packaging development is identified. The site visits should be expanded to include meetings with the long-range and strategic planners at each site, and at the DOE-Headquarters level, to ensure that all future transportation and packaging needs are identified early enough to allow adequate transportation assessment and packaging development. This activity could become a permanent conduit for information and will ensure that all future DOE transportation and packaging needs are satisfied in a cost-effective, timely, and efficient manner.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging

Description: This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop.
Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: Blanton, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

Description: Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A{sub 2} quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A{sub 2} quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in {open_quotes}strong-tight{close_quotes} packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing, for packaging and transport, large objects contaminated by radioactive material having a limited A{sub 2} value

Description: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the safe packaging and transportation of radioactive materials follow a graded approach to the requirements for both packaging and controls during transport. The concept is that, the lower the risk posed to the people and the environment by the contents, (1) the less demanding are the packaging requirements and (2) the smaller in number are the controls imposed on the transport of the material. There are likely to be a great number of situations arising in coming years when large objects, contaminated with radioactive material having unlimited A{sub 2} values will result from various decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities and will then require shipment from the D and D site to a disposal site. Such situations may arise relatively frequently during the cleanup of operations involving mining, milling, feedstock, and uranium enrichment processing facilities. Because these objects are contaminated with materials having an unlimited A{sub 2} value they present a low radiological risk to worker and public safety and to the environment during transport. However, when these radioactive materials reside on the surfaces of equipment and other large objects, where the equipment and objects themselves are not radioactive, the radioactive materials appear as surface contamination and, if the contaminated object is categorized as a surface contaminated object, it would need to be packaged for shipment according to the requirements of the Regulations for SCO. Despite this categorization, alternatives may be available which will allow these contaminants, when considered by themselves for packaging and transport, to be categorized as either (1) a limited quantity of radioactive material to be shipped in an excepted package or (2) low specific activity (LSA) materials to be shipped in an IP-1 package or possibly even shipped unpackaged. These options are discussed in this paper.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Cash, J.M. & Best, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Plasma on Silicon Nitride, Oxynitride and Other Metals for Enhanced Epoxy Adhesion for Packaging Applications

Description: The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiNx) and oxynitride (SiOxNy ) surfaces and Cu have been studied by x-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O2,NH3 and He capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiNx) and Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy ) surfaces. O2plasma and He plasma treatment results in the formation of silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH3 plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiNx and SiOxNy surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiNx and SiOxNy surfaces when exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH3 plasma and He plasma, indicating that the O2 plasma-induced SiO2 overlayer is highly reactive towards ambient corresponding to increased roughness measured by AFM. At longer ambient exposures (>~10 hours), however surfaces treated by either O2, He or NH3 plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in the contact angle upon the exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Gaddam, Sneha Sen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Packaging Strategies for Criticality Safety for "Other" DOE Fuels in a Repository

Description: Since 1998, there has been an ongoing effort to gain acceptance of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the national repository. To accomplish this goal, the fuel matrix was used as a discriminating feature to segregate fuels into nine distinct groups. From each of those groups, a characteristic fuel was selected and analyzed for criticality safety based on a proposed packaging strategy. This report identifies and quantifies the important criticality parameters for the canisterized fuels within each criticality group to: (1) demonstrate how the “other” fuels in the group are bounded by the baseline calculations or (2) allow identification of individual type fuels that might require special analysis and packaging.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Taylor, Larry L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L. & Merrill, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The primary changes that have been made to this revision reflect the relocation of the Waste Certification Official (WCO) organizationally from the Quality Services Division (QSD) into the Laboratory Waste Services (LWS) Organization. Additionally, the responsibilities for program oversight have been differentiated between the QSD and LWS. The intent of this effort is to ensure that those oversight functions, which properly belonged to the WCO, moved with that function; but retain an independent oversight function outside of the LWS Organization ensuring the potential for introduction of organizational bias, regarding programmatic and technical issues, is minimized. The Waste Certification Program (WCP) itself has been modified to allow the waste certification function to be performed by any of the personnel within the LWS Waste Acceptance/Certification functional area. However, a single individual may not perform both the technical waste acceptance review and the final certification review on the same 2109 data package. Those reviews must be performed by separate individuals in a peer review process. There will continue to be a designated WCO who will have lead programmatic responsibility for the WCP and will exercise overall program operational oversite as well as determine the overall requirements of the certification program. The quality assurance organization will perform independent, outside oversight to ensure that any organizational bias does not degrade the integrity of the waste certification process. The core elements of the previous WCP have been retained, however, the terms and process structure have been modified.. There are now two ''control points,'' (1) the data package enters the waste certification process with the signature of the Generator Interface/Generator Interface Equivalent (GI/GIE), (2) the package is ''certified'', thus exiting the process. The WCP contains three steps, (1) the technical review for waste acceptance, (2) a review of the packaging and labeling (the old Control Point 3), ...
Date: January 8, 2002
Creator: MORGAN, LK
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

Description: Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Song, Ho Geon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles

Description: Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.
Date: April 18, 2001
Creator: Baumgard, Kirby & Ephraim, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

Description: Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Sorensen, J.H. & Vogt, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department