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Bergmounds along the western margin of the channeled scablands, south--central Washington

Description: Distinctive mounds of till occur 100 to 240 meters above the present Columbia River along the western margins of the Pasco and Quincy basins. These mounds were formed by melting of grounded icebergs after inundation of the basins by the catastrophic glacial Lake Missoula flood(s). Most of the bergmounds are circular in plan and range in size from small clusters of erratics to mounds 50 meters in diameter and up to 4 meters high. The detritus is composed predominantly of granite, slate, argillite, quartzite, gneiss, and basalt, with grain size ranging from clay-size paticles to boulders up to 3 meters intermediate diameter. The pebbles and cobbles are glacially polished and fine-grained clasts are often striated. The bergmounds can be grouped into 4 classes on the basis of clast lithology. The most commonly occurring bergmounds are composed of 85 to 100 percent granitic debris. Bergmounds exhibiting mixed lithologies are also common. Less common are bergmounds composed of greater than 85 percent basalt and mounds composed predominantly of quartzite. The bergmounds occur in groups and are rarely found as isolated mounds. The elevation and distribution of bergmounds are related to fluvial currents and depths of the flood waters with iceberg grounding in regions of slack water and/or eddy currents.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Fecht, K.R. & Tallman, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar radiation flux and insolation data for southern Idaho

Description: Weather data pertinent to the development of solar energy heating in the Northern Intermountain region were desired for the purpose of assessing the usefulness and potential economics of utilizing solar energy in the region. The data reported herein are for several southern Idaho stations and for Salt Lake City, and are considered to be representative of the area from the eastern slopes of the Cascades to the western slopes of the northern Rockies. While existing data are not highly accurate and are derived from widely separated stations, approximate estimates may be made for the solar flux in the area. Methods for acquiring more detailed data in specific locations are described in this report. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Buchenauer, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind resource assessment status

Description: The first objective of the WCPE's regional assessment was to develop and test prototype techniques for the analysis of wind-energy potential and distribution over a large area. These techniques involved the utilization of a much larger data set, the application of meteorological and topographic factors in the analysis, and the use of indirect methods of wind power estimation in areas where no wind measurements existed. Five states in the Pacific Northwest were selected as a test of these techniques.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wendell, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetostratigraphy of the Grande Ronde Basalt Pasco Basin, Washington

Description: The paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the holes sampled have shown that there are four magnetic correlation lines, between adjacent flows in holes that have distinctly different mean stratigraphic inclinations, and two magnetic polarity boundaries that can be used for magnetic correlation in the Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin. The results of paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Wanapum Basalt and Saddle Mountains Basalt indicate that the potential for magnetostratigraphic correlation in these sequences is also good.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Packer, D.R. & Petty, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clastic dikes of the Pasco Basin, Southeastern Washington. Final report

Description: Clastic dikes are planar features, commonly wedge shaped in cross section, with their apices mostly downward. They are filled with clastic sediments from clay to gravel in size. Three days were spent in the Pasco Basin examining clastic dikes in 10 localities. It was clear from the field observations, summarized in the text, that the features called clastic dikes are multigenetic. Previously proposed theories of origin of the initial fractures, involving earthquakes, desiccation, deep frost cracking, thermal contraction cracking of permafrost, and upward injection of groundwater are not considered primary modes of formation of most initial cracks observed. However, the mechanism of cracking is not yet fully understood. The bulk of material filling most observed fractures came from above during aperiodic and repeated widening and concurrent filling (under an aqueous environment). No evidence for horizontal compression of the dikes or their margins was observed, as from thermal changes or wetting and drying. A loading hypothesis from catastrophic scabland floods is outlined as a possible cause for many typical clastic dikes.
Date: January 19, 1979
Creator: Black, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological and topographical indicators of wind energy for regional assessments

Description: Techniques using meteorological and topographical indicators of wind energy, developed by PNL and applied to the Northwest wind resource assessment, improved the reliability of the analysis of the geographical distribution of wind energy. The identification and application of these indicators led to an improved understanding of the conditions associated with high and low wind energy. Furthermore, these indicators are especially useful in complex terrain and wind-data-sparse areas for obtaining a somewhat realistic estimate of the wind energy resource.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Elliott, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of Balsamorhiza rosea in Rattlesnake Hills with respect to various environmental factors

Description: Balsamorhiza rosea (Compositae), a suffrutescent perennial, is found on several rocky hilltops with sparse canopy cover in Eastern Washington. This study investigated B. rosea's abundance and its associated species along several physical gradients. Important elements of microclimate selected for this analysis were elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, and soil depth. Results show that the occurrence of B. rosea is associated more strongly with soil depth than with other factors examined. The distribution of B. rosea was not fully explained by the factors in this study. Other potential factors determining its distribution are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Parkhurst, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation and design of downhole heat exchangers for direct application

Description: Over 400 wells with downhole heat exchangers are in use in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Some have been in use for nearly 30 years. Despite the large number and the long experience, the exact nature of the mechanism of heat exchange and, therefore, the maximum output was not known, except that it had been theorized that convection cells were established in the well. Oregon Institute of Technology and Oregon State University are jointly involved in a project to study the heat exchange process and economics of the downhole heat exchanger system. The existence of significant convection cell circulation has been established and measured using a spinner, hot film anemometer, and by energy balance calculations. Based on these measurements, analytical models have been developed which predict heat extraction rates within 15% of actual measured values. The existence of significant mixing of new and circulating well fluid has been established and can be calculated, although at this time not accurately predicted before testing a well. Based on the analytical models, multi-tube heat exchangers have been designed and very recently tested with outputs within 15% of predicted values. Economic analysis shows that for small to moderate extraction rates, about 300 kW thermal, and shallow wells, DHEs may be more economical than pumped systems when surface discharge is not acceptable.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Culver, G. & Reistad, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of oil on a tundra pond. Final report

Description: A three year study of two spills in tundra ponds at Barrow showed that oil has a highly specific impact on the benthos. Instead of a toxic effect on the entire community, as occurred with the crustacean zooplankton, certain insect species inhabiting the vegetated margins of the ponds were eliminated. Physical entrapment by the floating oil slick or the film coating stems of emergent sedges and grasses appeared to cause this mortality, and species specific behaviors may be responsible for the observed selectivity. Recovery of affected populations may take years due to the long life cycles of arctic insects, and the poor dispersal capabilities of many arctic species. Large scale spills covering many contiguous lakes and ponds could have especially long lasting impacts.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Hobbie, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process

Description: This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Washington and the Gulf Science and Technology Company Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania, for the Department of Energy during the month of October, 1980. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down the entire month of October, 1980 for inspection and maintenance. PDU P-99 completed two runs during October investigating potential start-up modes for the Demonstration Plant.
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uraniam hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Wiseman NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

Description: This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Wiseman NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others (198a) into stream sediment samples.
Date: September 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enloe power development feasibility assessment report. Public utility district No. 1 of Okanogan County

Description: The feasibility of rehabilitating an existing power house at the Enloe Dam in Washington was evaluated with consideration of expected power production, social and environmental impacts, regulatory aspects, technical requirements, financing, costs, and market potential. This assessment showed that rebuilding the existing powerhouse and appurtenant facilities is technically feasible. Rebuilding the existing turbines and generators proved to be the most desirable of three alternatives considered. The following four factors lead to this conclusion: rebuilding the old equipment is less costly than installing new turbines and generators; no major structural changes to the powerhouse would be required; rebuilding the turbines with increased flow capacity made the rebuilding alternative competitive with new equipment from an energy production standpoint; and rebuilding is compatible with the Enloe site's recent addition to the National Register of Historic Places.
Date: February 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pasco Basin stratigraphic nomenclature

Description: The stratigraphic nomenclature used by the Waste Isolation Program in the Pasco Basin, Washington as of May 4, 1978, is presented. An attempt was made to use currently accepted regional nomenclature and symbols for stratigraphic units of member rank. Informal nomenclature is used for stratigraphic units of flow and bed rank; this usage is consistent with the Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature.
Date: May 4, 1978
Creator: Ledgerwood, R.K.; Myers, C.W. & Cross, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Raft River 5-MW(e) geothermal pilot plant project

Description: The Raft River 5-MW(e) Pilot Plant Project was started in 1976. Construction is scheduled for completion in July 1980, with three years of engineering and operational testing to follow. The plant utilized a 280/sup 0/F geothermal fluid energy source and a dual boiling isobutane cycle. Developmental efforts are in progress in the areas of down hole pumps and chemical treatment of geothermal fluid for cooling tower makeup.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Rasmussen, T.L. & Whitbeck, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operation of a telemetered seismic network on the Alaska Peninsula. Annual report

Description: A large aperture network of eleven short period seismic stations is being operated on the Alaska Peninsula and several offshore islands to acquire data for the study of the seismotectonics of a part of the Alaska-Aleutian arc-trench structure. The system operated satisfactorily during the past year and continued to provide seismic coverage at a low magnitude threshold level (M/sub L/ = 2.0). An event detection system, developed under this contract over the past years, has been field installed and is undergoing fine tuning. Focal mechanism studies of intermediate depths Benioff zone earthquakes were continued. Like a previous, smaller set, these mechanisms show predominantly down-dip extension, indicating gravitational sinking of the subducting lithosphere. Analysis of the combined data from our network and a temporary array of Ocean Bottom Seismometers, deployed under a related study, indicate that epicenters of earthquakes in the continental shelf area off Kodiak Island are shifted landward by about 15 km with respect to the epicenters determined from the combined data set. Clusters of shallow seismic activity associated with certain Alaska Peninsula volcanoes, observed over the past years, had previously been interpreted as related to shallow magmatic-geothermal reservoirs. Volcanologic-petrologic field studies conducted last year show that volcanic centers associated with such swarms do indeed have surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity.
Date: February 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry

Description: This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J. & Kretz, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

Description: This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Hiester, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEL/Snake River plain geothermal drilling and testing plan - INEL - 1 well

Description: A plan for drilling a 7500 ft exploratory hole is described. This hole would be drilled at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, so that it could be immediately used by one of the government facilties. The plan details the hole design, describes the drilling program, proposes a testing program, and estimates costs. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Miller, L.G.; Prestwich, S.M. & Griffith, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat flow of Oregon

Description: An extensive new heat flow and geothermal gradient data set for the State of Oregon is presented on a contour map of heat flow at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and is summarized in several figures and tables. The 1:1,000,000 scale heat flow map is contoured at 20 mW/m/sup 2/ (0.5 HFU) intervals. Also presented are maps of heat flow and temperature at a depth of 1 km averaged for 1/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ intervals. Histograms and averages of geothermal gradient and heat flow for the State of Oregon and for the various physiographic provinces within Oregon are also included. The unweighted mean flow for Oregon is 81.3 +- 2.7 mW/m/sup 2/ (1.94 +- 0.06 HFU). The average unweighted geothermal gradient is 65.3 +- 2.5/sup 0/C/km. The average heat flow value weighted on the basis of geographic area is 68 +- 5 mW/m/sup 2/ (1.63 +- 0.12 HFU) and the average weighted geothermal gradient is 55.0 +- 5/sup 0/C/km.
Date: 1978
Creator: Blackwell, D. D.; Hull, D. A.; Bowen, R. G. & Steele, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beluga coal field development: social effects and management alternatives. [West side of Cook Inlet]

Description: Plans are under way to mine the Beluga coal fields on the west side of Cook Inlet. The coal will be strip-mined for export, or to supply local electric generating plants, or both. Over the next 20 years, this coal development activity is likely to generate social and economic impacts at the local, regional, and state levels. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential social and economic effects of coal development, including employment and population growth, regional impacts, and the facility and service needs of a new settlement in the Beluga area. Of special concern is identifying the role of various governmental agencies in the development process. Potential effects on the natural environment are not examined in detail since they are expected to be controlled to acceptable levels through existing Federal and state laws. This report examines three possible levels of coal-field development and the settlement requirements associated with each. The most probable regional impacts associated with this development will include effects on the regional labor force, the market for coal, and the generation and distribution of revenues. The main regional labor force impacts will be positive in nature. The rate of regional unemployment is likely to decline slightly for the duration of the project, with an increase in wage income available for reinvestment in the region and a reduction in the number of individuals receiving unemployment insurance payments. Coal development is not expected to induce any significant inmigration of workers from outside the region.The development of the Beluga coal resources and the production of electricity from coal would add to the Kenai Peninsula Borough's tax base. The assessed value of coal lands around Beluga would likely increase and, in addition, Cook Inlet Region, Inc. would be the recipient of royalties from coal leases. A number of ...
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Olsen, M.; Cluett, C.; Trimble, J.; Brody, S.; Howell, C.; Leman, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department