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Chemical Research Section Progress Report for January 1950

Description: The following documents are progress reports that follow chemical research studies in subjects such as ruthenium tetroxile distillations, extraction-scrub studies of zirconium and niobium, and oxidation of plutonium and stabilization of plutonium(VI) during extraction of IAF solutions.
Date: February 15, 1950
Creator: Albaugh, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Ozonation in Reducing Trihalomethane Formation Potential

Description: Trihalomethanes such as chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform are formed when natural water is chlorinated in water treatment. This investigation explores the use of ozone to remove organic precursors from natural water, thus decreasing trihalomethane formation potential. The data suggest a mechanism involving formation of secondary precursors after prolonged contact with ozone, suggesting that trihalomethane precursors may be minimized by using low doses of ozone and short contact time.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Lin, Simon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploratory Scavenging Studies for the Decontamination of Redox Solutions

Description: From introduction: "This report is concerned with exploratory experiments designed to studies the efficiency of a number of scavengers for zirconium and niobium adsorption and to provide preliminary information on the best conditions to employ on the most satisfactory of those scavengers studied, namely Super Filtrol FO. The data in this report include data obtained through October, 1949, and are by no means considered to be final. The investigation is currently being actively continued."
Date: May 1, 1950
Creator: Roake, W. E. & Lowe, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch

Description: The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Blutke, A.; Stratton, B.C.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Vavruska, J. & Knight, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-Up and Demonstation of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

Description: This is the second quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the second quarterly report and it refers to the time period from July to September 2004. As the project is in its ''design'' stage, no results are available. This report summarizes the ongoing activities and provides an updated schedule. No significant issues or concerns are identified.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: LaBuz, Larry & Afonso, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Dly Ash Ozonation Technology

Description: This is the first Quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project has been delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager has been kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the first quarterly report and it refers to the time period from the official project authorization date to June 2004. In addition, this report is essentially a review of the project objectives and approach, with a brief update on the recent ''kick-off'' and site visit activities in the Results and Discussion section.
Date: June 30, 2004
Creator: LaBuz, Larry & Afonso, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Tech

Description: This is the third quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the third quarterly report and it refers to the time period from October to December 2004. As the project is in its ''pre-deployment'' stage, no results are available. This report summarizes the ongoing activities and provides an updated schedule. No significant issues or concerns are identified.
Date: December 31, 2004
Creator: Buz, Larry La & Afonso, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

Description: This is the fourth quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the fourth quarterly report and it refers to the time period from January to March 2004. The on-site deployment and testing of the ozonation system took place during this period. This report summarizes these activities including some preliminary results. No significant issues or concerns are identified.
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: LaBuz, Larry & Afonso, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.
Date: December 26, 2001
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric & Veranth, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.
Date: May 20, 2003
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric; Veranth, John & Chen, Xu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.
Date: February 13, 2004
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric; Veranth, John; Chen, Xu & Kulaots, Indrek
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Oxonation Technology

Description: This is the fifth quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the fifth quarterly report and it refers to the time period from April-July 2005. (An additional month is included in this quarterly report as we have been in a data analyses mode and wanted to provide new data relative to the previous report). During this period, the project team has been reviewing and analyzing data from the onsite ozonation tests, as well as conducting additional laboratory ash and concrete tests. This report summarizes these activities including some preliminary results. No significant issues or concerns are identified.
Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: LaBuz, Larry & Afonso, Rui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radical oxidation automotive de-NO{sub x}

Description: The authors describe an experiment to remove NO{sub x} from air-like gas flows by optimizing its oxidation to nitric acid. Their aim is to demonstrate an efficient de-NO{sub x} process that can replace the catalytic converter of today`s automobiles and recover greater engine performance. NO is oxidized to HNO{sub 3} by injecting O{sub 3} from an auxiliary air discharge unit, and the acid is scrubbed by a granular NaOH filter, the final product being NaNO{sub 3}. In theory this scheme requires less engine power than the enthalpy loss through the catalytic converter, and permits engine operation with oxygen-rich fuel mixtures at high compression ratios for peak thermodynamic efficiency. Experiments utilize a glass tube flow reactor with a 20 liter/minute flow mixed from the separate injections of compressed ozonized air and an admixture of 200 ppm of NO in nitrogen from a small pressurized bottle, for net proportions of 89% N{sub 2}, 11% O{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO. Ozone concentration is selected by adjusting the frequency of the repetitive-pulsed coaxial-barrier air discharge cell. For O{sub 3}:NO ratios greater than unity a chain of reactions successively produce NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, and N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which then combines with ambient H{sub 2}O to form HNO{sub 3}. The overall efficiency is dominated by the electrical efficiency of the ozonizer, at present about 30 eV/O{sub 3} within the discharge.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Chang, B. & Garcia, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report

Description: The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Cline, J.E.; Sullivan, P.F.; Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J. & Adams, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.
Date: September 10, 2002
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric; Veranth, John & Chen, Xu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.
Date: June 22, 2001
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric & Veranth, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

Description: The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this third project period, an extensive battery of surface analysis tools was used to characterize the surfaces of untreated, air-oxidized, and ozone-treated carbons. Most of the work focused on carbon black chosen as a model carbon material suitable for understanding the fundamental surface mechanisms without interference from inorganic matter. In addition to the XPS work described in previous reports, the overall analytical test battery includes: FTIR spectrometry, thermal desorption in nitrogen and in hydrogen/helium, mixtures, surface acidity, hygroscopic behavior, contact angle measurement with standard liquids to determine surface energy and its polar and dispersive components. Most of this characterization work was completed this quarter, with the remainder planned for next quarter. The present report gives only a brief overview of the new data. By the end of next quarter, a complete picture of the ozone surface mechanism should be at hand and a comprehensive discussion of this phase of the work will be presented in that report--the fourth period covering March 1, 2002 to August 31, 3002.
Date: August 30, 2002
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Suuberg, Eric & Veranth, JOhn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System

Description: Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation

Description: The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Savkin, A. E.; T., Slastennikov Y. & G., Sinyakin O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and evaluation of wastewater-treatment processes at the H-Coal site in Catlettsburg, Kentucky. Volume I. Design summary and R and D task identification

Description: The design of a mobile process development unit (PDU) for coal conversion wastewater treatment and an overview of the associated R and D program for its use are described. The PDU consists of three modular units, which can be arranged in various sequences: carbon adsorption, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. Each of the units has a nominal flow capacity of approx. 60 mL of wastewater feed per second (1 gpm). The feed to the PDU will be taken as a sidestream from the existing wastewater treatment system at the H-Coal site. It will have been processed through oil-water separation and distillation stripping, and can be taken both before and after bio-oxidation by an activated sludge process. The ozonation system experimental parameters are ozone contact time, ozone treatment rate, column pressure, and pH. The system will be analyzed as a continuous stirred tank reactor. The calculated results will include ozone reaction, treatment, and absorption rates, contaminant depletion and reaction rates, ozone absorption and contaminant removal efficiencies, and ozone volumetric mass-transfer coefficients. The carbon adsorption system will be operated to obtain bed-depth-service-time (BDST) data for various carbons and operating conditions. The BDST method will yield the rate of carbon exhaustion as well as the minimum depth of carbon required to remove contaminants. Reverse osmosis will be studied to measure dissolved solids rejection efficiency, permeate recovery, and fouling characteristics of various commercially available membranes.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Oswald, G.E.; Walker, J.F.; Brown, C.H.; Klein, J.A. & Genung, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of technetium from ruthenium after the accelerator transmutation of technetium

Description: Both civilian and defense related waste must be processed with a strategy for dealing with Tc. One solution is to remove the Tc from the waste steam and transmute the Tc to stable Ru in either a reactor or an accelerator. Before any processing of waste streams can be performed (even if transmutation is not performed) the separations chemistry from the spent fuels or the stored wastes containing Tc must be developed. This report details some of the separation schemes possible for the separation of Tc and Ru, which include the baseline ion exchange process of Roberts, Smith and Wheelwright, ozonolysis, filtration, magnetic separation, solvent extraction, electrodeposition, fluorination, and pyrolysis. 5 figs, 4 refs. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Abney, K.D.; Schroeder, N.C.; Kinkead, S.A. & Attrep, M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

Description: The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.
Date: June 14, 1979
Creator: Jurgensen, M.F. & Patton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

Description: As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R. & Balog, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department