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Hydrogen Generation Rate Scoping Study of DOW Corning Antifoam Agent

Description: The antifoam agent DOW Corning Q2-3183A will be added to waste streams in the Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) to prevent foaming. It consists mostly of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). These and other minor constituents of the antifoam have organic constituents that may participate in radiolytic and chemical reactions that produce hydrogen in Hanford waste. It has been recommended by The WTP R&T Department recommended personnel to treat the organic compounds of the antifoam like the in a similar manner as other organic compounds that are native to the Hanford waste with respect to hydrogen production. This testing has investigated the radiolytic and thermal production of hydrogen from antifoam added to simulant waste solutions to determine if the organic components of the antifoam produce hydrogen in the same manner as the native organic species in Hanford waste. Antifoam additions for this testing were in the range of 4 to 10 wt% to ensure adequate hydrogen detection. Test conditions were selected to bound exposures to the antifoam agent in the WTP. These levels are higher than previously recommended values of 350 mg/L for actual applications in WTP tanks containing air spargers and pulse jet mixers. Limited degradation analyses for the organic components of the antifoam were investigated in this study. A more detailed study involving analyses of antifoam degradation and product formation is in progress at SRNL and results from that study will be reported at a later time. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the Q2-3183A antifoam was measured to be 39.7 {+-} 4.9 wt% TOC. This measurement was performed in triplicate with on three different dilutions of the pure antifoam liquid using a TOC combustion analyzer instrument with catalytic oxidation, followed by CO{sub 2} quantification using an infrared detector. Test results from ...
Date: September 27, 2005
Creator: Crawford, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Experimental Database and Theories for Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes of Geochemical Significance at Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures

Description: The reactions that cause transformations in organic compounds in the Earth’s crust remain mysterious despite decades of research into how fossil fuel resources form. A major reason for this persistent mysteriousness is the failure of many researchers to realize the intimate involvement of water in those transformations. Our goal was to overcome this staggering ignorance by developing the means to calculate the consequences of reactions involving organic compounds and water. We pursued this research from 1989 through 2006, and this report focuses on progress between 2002 and 2006. There were two major obstacles that we overcame in the course of this research. On the one hand, we developed new theoretical equations that allow researchers to make these calculations. On the other hand, we critiqued available data and provided sound means to make estimates in the absence of experimental data for hundreds of organic compounds dissolved in water. Finally, we merged these two lines of research into an interactive web site that allows users to do the calculations with the equations and data. We call the web site ORCHYD for: “ORganic Compounds HYDration properties database,” but it is far more than a database since it allows users to make extremely accurate predictions of data that may never have been measured. Our progress greatly exceeded our anticipations, and has permitted many new research investigations that were previously impossible. Despite the abrupt termination of funding for this project by the Department of Energy, we are maintaining the web site for the international scientific community. Major research results were published in eleven scientific papers, so they are all in the public domain. Benefits to the public include a new, rigorous, quantitative approach to testing ideas about the fate of organic compounds dissolved in water. These tests can be applied to geochemistry or to industrial ...
Date: February 2, 2007
Creator: Shock, Everett L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear productions complex located in south eastern Washington and is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), used in mixtures with other organic compounds, was used to recover plutonium from aqueous streams at Z Plant located on the Hanford Site. The aqueous and organic liquid waste that remained at the end of this process was discharged to soil columns in waste cribs located near Z Plant. Included in this waste slurry along with CCl{sub 4} were tributyl phosphate, dibutyl butyl phosphate, and lard oil. (Truex et al., 2001). In the mid 1980's, CCl{sub 4} was found in the unconfined aquifer below the 200 West Area and subsequent ground water monitoring indicated that the plume was widespread and that the concentrations were increasing. It has been estimated that approximately 750,000 kg (826.7 tons) of CCl{sub 4} was discharged to the soil from 1955 to 1973. (Truex et al., 2001). With initial concentration readings of approximately 30,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in one well field alone, soil vapor extraction began in 1992 in an effort to remove the CCl{sub 4} from the soil. (Rohay, 1999). Since 1992, approximately 78,607.6 kg (86.65 tons) of CCl{sub 4} have been extracted from the soil through the process of soil vapor extraction and 9,409.8 kg (10.37 tons) have been removed from the groundwater. (EPA, 2006). The success of this environmental cleanup process benefited not only the environment but also workers who were later involved in the retrieval of solid waste from trenches that were in or near the CCl{sub 4} plume. Solid waste was buried in trenches near Z Plant from 1967 to 1990. The solid waste, some of which was chemically and/or radioactively contaminated, was buried in trenches in ...
Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: DA, PITTS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the effects of long-term-storage in salt caverns on the physical and chemical properties of certain crude oils and distillate fuel oils. Final report

Description: The effects of long-term storage of crude oil and fuel oil in salt caverns were investigated. Fifty oil and brine samples from three caverns in West Germany were analyzed. Results show that: (a) mixing has taken place but variation in properties such as density and viscosity are negligible; (b) some primary theoretical layers are still recognizable, based on the concentration of sulfur, mercaptans, salt, as well as by neutralization number; and (c) mixing occurs more readily when a heavy crude oil is stored above a light crude. It is concluded that crude and fuel oil have not undergone any deleterious changes. (DC)
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-phase permeabilities and other characteristics of 260-mD fired Berea

Description: A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine relative permeabilities and other characteristics of a 260-mD fired Berea sandstone. The mineralogical and physical characteristics of the sample were characterized by XRD tests, thin section analyses, mercury injection tests, and centrifuge capillary pressure and wettability tests. Two-phase oil/water relative permeabilities were measured under several stress conditions. Resistivity characteristics of the sample were also evaluated during several of the oil/water tests. Oil/gas and gas/water relative permeabilities were measured during steady-state tests. Three-phase steady-state oil/gas/water tests were performed for six DDI saturation trajectories (decreasing brine and oil saturations, increasing gas saturation) in which the sample was not cleaned between saturation trajectories.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Maloney, D. & Brinkmeyer, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of viscous forces on three-phase relative permeability

Description: The overall objective of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Project (BE9) is to develop guidelines for improving the accuracy of three-phase relative permeability determinations. This report summarizes previous studies and explains the progress made at NIPER on studying the effect of variations in viscous forces on three-phase relative permeabilities by changing the viscosity of both wetting and nonwetting phases. Significant changes were observed due to viscosity variations. An increase in oil viscosity reduced the relative permeability to gas; an increase in brine/(wetting-phase) viscosity reduced the relative permeability to brine. A slight increase in gas relative permeability was also observed. These observations suggest that the viscosities of both oil and water influence three-phase permeability data. During this study, data scatter was sometimes encountered which was comparable to that of published results. The causes of this scatter are outlined in this report and remedial attempts are discussed. 20 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Maloney, D.R.; Mahmood, S.M. & Honarpour, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

Description: The solvent refined coal liquid from the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Company pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, has been received and separated reproducibly by the standard solvent fractionation method into three fractions. The coal liquid received is so-called stripper bottom product from SRC-II mode. Table I shows the coal liquefaction reaction conditions and the composition of the products. The 300 cc autoclave system equipped with injection loading, withdrawal systems, and the temperature controller, described before, was used as the reaction vessel. In most reaction studies, tetralin was used as a transport vehicle oil. It was used also for donating hydrogen to the acceptor compounds. Nitrogen gas, instead of hydrogen, has been used for the pressure system, since this simplifies the reaction and gives a clearer picture for the reaction between reactants and solvent. The conversion results on the pentane-soluble (PS) fraction at different conditions are shown in Table III, while the isothermal reaction results on it are in Table IV. With tetralin as a vehicle oil, the results show that only small or negligible amounts of PS are converted into A and BI fractions. However, when PS is pyrolyzed, 26% is polymerized into A and BI fractions. This indicates that tetralin can suppress the formation of A and BI fractions from PS. It is also noted that the composition of coal liquid may change during distillation because of polymerization.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Yen, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

Description: The objective of this project is to investigate the phenomenon of hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules in idealized porous media. Tasks towards this objective include: Construct a diffusion cell with ideal pore structure for determination of diffusion coefficients, prepare and characterize ideal porous membranes, perform model compound experiments to calibrate and test diffusion apparatus and methodology, prepare and characterize coal macromolecules, and analyze data to evaluate the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. This report describes work on the hindered diffusion of tetraphenylporphine and asphaltene. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W. & Tarrer, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection of fluids for tritium pumping systems

Description: The degradation characteristics of three types of vacuum pump fluids, polyphenyl ethers, perfluoropolyethers and hydrocarbon oils were reviewed. Fluid selection proved to be a critical factor in the long-term performance of tritium pumping systems and subsequent tritium recovery operations. Thermal degradation and tritium radiolysis of pump fluids produce contaminants which can damage equipment and interfere with tritium recovery operations. General characteristics of these fluids are as follows: polyphenyl ether has outstanding radiation resistance, is very stable under normal diffusion pump conditions, but breaks down in the presence of oxygen at anticipated operating temperatures. Perfluoropolyether fluids are very stable and do not react chemically with most gases. Thermal and mechanical degradation products are inert, but the radiolysis products are very corrosive. Most of the degradation products of hydrogen oils are volatile and the principal radiolysis product is methane. Our studies show that polyphenyl ethers and hydrocarbon oils are the preferred fluids for use in tritium pumping systems. No corrosive materials are formed and most of the degradation products can be removed with suitable filter systems.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Chastagner, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative method for the evaluation of array reflector materials

Description: A general method for the evaluation of materials as reflectors surrounding array of subcritical units of fissile materials is presented. Applied to the materials used in a Safe and Secure Trailer, it is concluded that the carrier effectiveness as a reflector can be expected to be less than that of a 2.5-cm-thick water reflector.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Thomas, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Megavolt pulse transformer powered by a fast plate generator

Description: A compact air-core transformer is described that has been used to produce megavolt pulses across resistive impedances > 20 ..cap omega.. when powered by fast explosive plate generators. The step-up transformer features many of the techniques employed in the tape-wound transformers of Martin and Smith. The primary winding of the transformer is a discrete, single-turn coil. The multi-turn secondary coil is fabricted separately, encapsulated in a thin-walled container, and vacuum impregnated with dielectric grading fluid. Once assembled, the transformer is immersed in oil. This transformer has a 0.8 coupling coefficient. Transformers of this type are especially attractive for single-shot applications because of their simplicity and ease of construction.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Erickson, D.J.; Caird, R.S.; Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Garn, W.B. & Goforth, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of Rhode Island No. 2 heating oil data collection program. Final report, August 27, 1979-May 22, 1980

Description: A one-time survey of the approximately 250 No. 2 fuel oil retail dealers in the state of Rhode Island was conducted by the Governor's Energy Office during July and August of 1979. The information that was sought included name of supplier(s), storage capacity, number of customers, historic deliveries and historic inventories. The total number of dealers who responded to each question ranged between 39 and 190. While the participation was somewhat limited, the survey nevertheless provided the Energy Office with its first profile of the state's retail No. 2 heating oil dealers. While the collection of historic data may be of interest, the collection of accurate and up-to-date data on the price and supply of No. 2 oil is absolutely vital to ensure that adequate supplies are available to the approximately 200,000 dependent Rhode Island households. Tables are provided giving the high, low and average prices of retail and wholesale prices of No. 2 heating oils and retailer margins, inventories, and deliveries.
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program to monitor the weekly retail price of home-heating fuel oil No. 2 in the State of New Jersey. Year one final report

Description: In order to enable the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to execute its role in monitoring the cost and price movements within the United States' petroleum industry and to perform analyses and projections related to energy supplies, demand, and prices, the US DOE and the New Jersey Department of Energy (NJ DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement effective between February 26, 1979 and May 30, 1979. The NJ DOE agreed to undertake a weekly program to monitor and evaluate price fluctuations of residential heating oil (No. 2) sold in the State of New Jersey. The sample was randomly selected from a list of home heating oil dealers for each county. Each of the heating oil dealers was advised by letter of the overall purpose of the survey and of the specific information which would be requested. The survey was conducted by telephone on each Monday for the period February 26, 1979 through May 30, 1979. The dealers were asked for the discounted price of home heating oil (No. 2) as of the close of business of the preceding Saturday. The discounted price was defined as the gross price less any discount for early cash payment (i.e., 2% discount for payment within 10 days). Overall state maximum, minimum, and mean prices were calculated as well as the mean for each county in New Jersey. These data were reported to the Region II EIA Data Coordinator by letter within one or two days of their compilation. The statewide maximum, minimum, and mean prices were also reported by telephone to the Washington office of the EIA. A table is presented in this report with these data.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

Description: Research continued on the production of coproducts from continuous mild gasification. During the third quarter of 1990, work focused on start-up and operation of the 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU). Start-up procedures have been finalized for the methane production reactor, and the design temperature has been achieved. Flows and pressures for the overall process have been balanced and optimized. We have achieved temperatures above 1500{degree}F in the carbon formation reactor. Upgrading experiments on mild gasification pitch have also continued on a pitch produced in run MG-122. Results of heat treating and catalytic treating tests are reported.
Date: October 23, 1990
Creator: Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F. & Rowe, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short and long-term tests of elastomers with hot hostile fluids. Environmental Compatibility Test Program final report

Description: Equipment manufacturers and elastomer houses were called to find the best currently available high-temperature elastomers. Tensile specimens of 46 such compounds were immersion tested for five days in six 190C fluids of interest: isobutane, brine, ASTM No. 1 oil, ASTM No. 3 oil, Pacer DHT-185M synthetic oil, and Chevron Cylinder Grade 460X oil. The best eight were selected based upon the least change in mechanical properties. These eight were then simultaneously tested (a) by immersion in five 190C fluids for six months and (b) as 0-rings for 46 hours at 190C, 230C, and 265C (accelerated ageing) in three fluids and at a differential pressure of 21 MPa. Based upon these 0-ring tests, four compounds were selected for testing as 0-rings in three 204C fluids at 21 MPa differential pressure. The data were evaluated and conclusions were drawn. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. There was immersion testing of primarily L'Garde compounds in brine and CL3 mineral oil for 6 months at 190C. L'Garde had formulated several compounds specifically for 260C brine, and their applicability to a specific problem was assessed early in the program.
Date: December 30, 1982
Creator: Friese, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

Description: The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40/sup 0/C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Buelt, J.L. & Barnes, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced safety in the storage of fissile materials. [Neutron absorbers]

Description: A ''plastic-like'' supporting material impregnated with a neutron-absorbing agent that is suitable for ''lining'' the inner surfaces of fissile-material storage containers was fabricated. The material consists, by weight, of 50% food-grade borax, 25% coal tar, and 25% epoxy resin. It costs much less than commercially available materials, can absorb enough neutrons to isolate units of fissile material, and possesses such structural qualities as flexibility and machinability. Properties and performance of the material are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Williams, G.E. & Alvares, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

Description: Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y. & Heidt, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal

Description: We are investigating the use of a hybrid process, Micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated.Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Chander, S. & Hogg, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and testing of a procedure for evaluating fuel-efficient crankcase lubricants

Description: Experiments were conducted to design and evaluate a procedure for evaluating the fuel efficiency characteristics of crankcase lubricants using the driving cycles of the 1975 Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. Most of the test protocol was based on guidelines proposed by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Three crankcase lubricants and five oil supplements, as well as a baseline lubricant, were used in eight 1980 model-year vehicles of identical make. The vehicles were operated at 75/sup 0/F (24/sup 0/C) in closely controlled chassis dynamometer tests designed to detect small changes in fuel efficiency. Results from these tests showed measurable increases in fuel economy of 0 to 6% with the test lubricants when compared to a common SAE 30 grade oil. These results are not definitive because of lack of quantification of mileage accumulation effects. The test protocol did reduce measurement variability greatly; this procedure can be applied to evaluation of fuel-efficient oils using larger test fleets. A good potential exists for improving the fuel economy of the US automotive fleet. Because of the large quantities of petroleum consumed in the automotive sector, this potential savings translates into conserving a very significant quantity of petroleum.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Naman, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer simulations for the adsorption of polymers onto surfaces

Description: Polymer-surface interactions are important in every stage of oil and coal production, production of new energy-efficient composite materials, and in medicine. Therefore, it is important to isolate the factors that influence the interfacial activity of polymer chains. We developed theoretical models and computer simulations to determine effects of polymer architecture, solvent quality, and surface morphology on properties of chains at penetrable and impenetrable interfaces. 7 figs, 27 refs.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Balazs, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaledown of three-phase ebullieted bed reactors for bitumen hydrotreating

Description: The length of a commercial reactor, in three-phase ebullieted bed processes with pelleted catalysts, for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids are long due to the requirement oflow space velocities. The reactor length, for laboratory scale studies of such processes, can be reduced by reducing the superficial liquid velocity. Consequently, the catalyst size has to be reduced to achievecirculation within the reactor. It is important to ensure that, with these changes, the values of the phase holdups are maintained the same in the commercial and the laboratory units. Through extensive similitude studies, similarity criteria that would ensure identical holdups in the commercial and laboratory units were identified, which required the equality of six dimensionless numbers. These criteria were validated using the generalized wake model. It was found that it was impractical to establish all the parameters in the set of dimensionless numbers at the desired values. Therefore, a method to achieve similarity by varying a minimum number of parameters, such as liquid and gas velocities and particle size, was developed using the generalized wake model. This resulted in a set of two conditions, which when satisfied, yielded practically equal holdups in the two reactors.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Deshpande, D.A.; Deo, M.D. & Hanson, F.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrotreating process kinetics for bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids

Description: Hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodesulfurization and resid conversion data for the Whiterocks bitumen and bitumen-derived liquid were analyzed using a modified power rate law model. The model incorporated the space velocity and pressure since the plug flow equation may not be applicable to laboratory-scale reactors in which complete wetting of the catalyst may not be attained. The data were obtained with the reactor operating as a fixed bed reactor in the upflow mode. The space velocity (WHSV[sup [alpha]]) term was included to account for deviations from plug flow behavior. The exponents (a,p) and the kinetic parameters were obtained by combined non-linear regression and ODE solver techniques for the analysis of laboratory data. A simple nth order power rate law expression for hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization was examined. The higher than first order kinetics for hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization of the bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids were explained by invoking two parallel first-order reactions; one slow and the other fast. Parallel and consecutive reaction schemes were used to examine the extent of conversion of the resid fraction to middle distillate, gas oil and gasoline and the apparent kinetic parameters were determined. It was determined that the upflow operating mode was preferred to the trickle-bed mode in the laboratory reactor to insure plug flow behavior.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Kwak, S.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D. & Hanson, F.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

Description: This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Grissom, M.C. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department