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Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. II: Evidence on Benefits, Risks, and Costs

Description: This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume provides the basis for the assumptions about the costs and effects of screening and hormonal replacement therapy used in the cost-effectiveness model.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. I: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Description: This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume presents the results of a model that estimates the cost per year of life gained from osteoporosis screening and hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Information About Osteoporosis: What's Available, What's Needed?

Description: This paper describes the existing public information about osteoporosis and discusses problems that limit its usefulness, including problems in the dissemination and targeting of information to different types of people who have or are at risk of the disease. It also discusses problems that arise because of the way research findings are presented in the mass media and the widespread dissemination of information about medications that are available on the market but have not been approved by the FDA for osteoporosis.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wavelet based characterization of ex vivo vertebral trabecular bone structure with 3T MRI compared to microCT

Description: Trabecular bone structure and bone density contribute to the strength of bone and are important in the study of osteoporosis. Wavelets are a powerful tool to characterize and quantify texture in an image. In this study the thickness of trabecular bone was analyzed in 8 cylindrical cores of the vertebral spine. Images were obtained from 3 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography ({micro}CT). Results from the wavelet based analysis of trabecular bone were compared with standard two-dimensional structural parameters (analogous to bone histomorphometry) obtained using mean intercept length (MR images) and direct 3D distance transformation methods ({micro}CT images). Additionally, the bone volume fraction was determined from MR images. We conclude that the wavelet based analyses delivers comparable results to the established MR histomorphometric measurements. The average deviation in trabecular thickness was less than one pixel size between the wavelet and the standard approach for both MR and {micro}CT analysis. Since the wavelet based method is less sensitive to image noise, we see an advantage of wavelet analysis of trabecular bone for MR imaging when going to higher resolution.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Krug, R.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Burghardt, A.; Haase, S.; Sedat, J. W.; Moss, W. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science & Technology Review September 2006

Description: This month's article has the following articles: (1) Simulations Help Plan for Large Earthquakes--Commentary by Jane C. S. Long; (2) Re-creating the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake--Supercomputer simulations of Bay Area earthquakes are providing insight into the great 1906 quake and future temblors along several faults; (3) Decoding the Origin of a Bioagent--The microstructure of a bacterial organism can be linked to the methods used to formulate the pathogen; (4) A New Look at How Aging Bones Fracture--Livermore scientists find that the increased risk of fracture from osteoporosis may be due to a change in the physical structure of trabecular bone; and (5) Fusion Targets on the Double--Advances in precision manufacturing allow the production of double-shell fusion targets with submicrometer tolerances.
Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Radousky, H B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computerized Analysis of Radiograph Images of Embedded Objects as Applied to Bone Location and Mineral Content Measurement

Description: This investigation dealt with locating and measuring x-ray absorption of radiographic images. The methods developed provide a fast, accurate, minicomputer control, for analysis of embedded objects. A PDP/8 computer system was interfaced with a Joyce Loebl 3CS Microdensitometer and a Leeds & Northrup Recorder. Proposed algorithms for bone location and data smoothing work on a twelve-bit minicomputer. Designs of a software control program and operational procedure are presented. The filter made wedge and limb scans monotonic from minima to maxima. It was tested for various convoluted intervals. Ability to resmooth the same data in multiple passes was tested. An interval size of fifteen works well in one pass.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Buckner, Richard L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

Description: Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Freeman, S.P.H.T.; King, J.C.; Vieira, N.E.; Woodhouse, L.R. & Yergey, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Osteoporosis]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6pm.
Date: August 26, 1988
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Science and technology review: June 1996

Description: The first feature article is a survey of four research projects showing how theory and modeling efforts by scientist in the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate at LLNL are advancing the understanding of the property of materials with consideration of underlying structures. The second feature article discusses Livermore and DOE`s Oakland Operations Office teaming up to decontaminate, decommission, and close out--on time and under budget--the Ann Arbor Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility in Michigan. Two research highlights on Mammoth Mountain CO{sub 2} mystery and osteoporosis are also included.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Failor, B. & Stull, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total-body calcium in various metabolic disorders

Description: From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Loss of bone mineral content of the skeleton in osteoporosis and in other metabolic disorders can be measured directly by totalbody neutron activation analysis (TBNAA). The densitometric technique (using monochromatic photons from /sup 125/I) applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius) also reflects the loss of bone mineral in osteoporosis. In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 80 patients with various metabolic disorders and in 9 normal contrast subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation was highest in the normal contrast group (0.97) and alcoholics(0.98) and lowest in osteoporotic patients (0.83) and in renal patients on dialysis (0.84). In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute calcium measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose an algorithm was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject bascd on weight, height, sex and age. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized using the same algorithm. These normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurement of the radius to be used to compare the Ca deficit in individuals with different metabolic disorders. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Zanzi, I.; Letteri, J.M. & Aloia, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

Description: The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Kronberg, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of physical activity on body composition

Description: It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J & Cohn, S H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

Description: Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub ...
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D. & Ellis, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department