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THE SLUG-ANNULAR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION AT ELEVATED PRESSURE

Description: The annular slug flow regime has been investigated in vertical upflow without heating through the use of an electrical conductivity probe. The Teflon cladding and seals of the probe were found to work to at least 488 deg F. When the inlet velocity was sufficientiy high, the quality at transition was found to be a constant for each pressure going from 8.6% at215 psia to 17.6% at 615 psia. No fully developed bubbly flow was observed. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1963
Creator: Griffith, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of polyxylylenes with solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Description: Polyxylylenes are thermoplastics used as encapsulants for electronic devices. Five polyxylylenes were prepared by pyrolysis of [2.2]paracyclophanes and characterized by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift data, in combination with interrupted decoupling experiments, allowed assignment of resonances to their carbon sources in the polymers. This confirmed the integrity of the xylylene building block in the polymers and is consistent with linear polymers. No crosslinking could be detected within the NMR sensitivity limits. Residual paracyclophane was detected by {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy in the polyxylylene samples prepared at room temperature; however discrete {sup 13}C resonances due to amorphous and crystalline phases in the polymers were not resolved.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Loy, D.A.; Assink, R.A.; Jamison, G.M.; McNamara, W.F.; Schneider, D.A. & Prabakar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trifluoromethylmetallate anions as components of molecular charge transfer salts and superconductors.

Description: Whereas polymeric and common inorganic anions frequently deprive the synthetic chemist of a chance to modify a charge transfer salt's structure through anion alterations, discrete organometallic anions provide a vast opportunity to probe the structure/property correlations of a material through rational synthetic methods. We have recently undertaken a research effort aimed at the crystallization of conducting charge transfer salts which possess modifiable, organometallic anions as the charge compensating entities. This research has been richly rewarded with the discovery of a new family of bis(ethylenedithio) tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET) based molecular superconductors. Herein is presented a summary of over twenty {kappa}(ET){sub 2}M(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(1,1,2-trihaloethane) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) superconducting salts. Three new related salts are also reported: (ET){sub 2} [trans-Ag(CF{sub 3}),(CN){sub 2}], {kappa}{sub L}(BEDT-TSF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE), and {kappa}{sub L}(ET){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl(TCE).
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Schlueter, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Densities of Sodium Tetrafluoroborate Aqueous Solutions at 20 Degrees C

Description: Analytical data and plant solution compositions are often reported in molarity units. Densities of salt solutions are needed to convert the concentrations to molal basis in order to utilize physical property data that have been established on a molal basis, for example, solution reaction equilibrium constants or activity coefficients. We report here the densities at 20.0 Degrees C of sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) solutions from 0.05 molal to 9.0 molal, near saturation of 9.2 molal.
Date: July 9, 2002
Creator: Crooks, W.J. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARGE TRANSFER COMPLEXES WITH HEXAFLUDROBENZENE ANDPENTAFLUOROBENZONITRILE AS ACCEPTOR COMPONENTS

Description: Charge transfer associations are a well-established phenomena and a rather extensively investigated one also. Since the acceptor component of such complexes normally does not exist as a liquid under standard conditions, they wish to report on two organic liquids which function as acceptor components with suitable complimentary molecules. As indicated in Figure 1 (the presence of an extended shoulder in the spectra of the mixture), pentafluorobenzonitrile (PFBN) complexes with N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), and with phenothiazine in cyclohexane. In addition, crystalline complexes of TMPN-PFBN and DMA-PFBN are obtained when the pure materials are mixed. These two organic bases also form solid complexes with hexafluorobenzene (HFB) when the materials are mixed in the pure state in a ratio of 1:1. However, new absorption bands are not detected in the spectra (in cyclohexane solutions) of mixtures of TMPD or DMA with HFB. When HFB is used as a solvent for TMPD or DMA, the solutions are visibly yellow. However, with time a reaction occurs as evident by the formation of a black precipitate. The solid complex formed between TMPD-PFBN, which is orange, was analyzed by a combination extraction and spectroscopic method and by vapor phase chromatography and found to contain a ratio of the two components of 1:1 which agrees with an elemental analysis of this complex. Analysis of DMA-PFBN or DMA-HFB complexes were complicated by the presence of excesses of the liquid components on the crystalline complexes. When attempts are made to dry the crystals, the crystals dissociate as the excesses evaporate until the crystals and the two components totally disappear. The TMPD-HFB complex was not analyzed. The complex between phenothiazine and PFBN as not isolated as a crystalline material. The association constants for the TMPD-PFBN and MDA-PFBN complexes were determined according to the method of Hildebrand and Benesi. The ...
Date: October 31, 1967
Creator: Corker, Gerald A. & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORGANIC CONTINUOUS CARTRIDGE FOR THE PUREX 2D COLUMN

Description: A nozzle plate cartridge for the extraction section and a mixed plate cartridge containing both stainless steel and fluorothene sieve plates for the scrub section were developed. In 3- and 4-in.-diameter glass columns, these cartridges have a urnnium-extraction efficiency as good as, or better than, the present cartridge; they have a scrubbing efficiency, based on the transfer of chloride ion, which is about the same as the present cartridge. (auth)
Date: August 16, 1956
Creator: Hesson, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Sorption/Desorption Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture (Feasibility Study)

Description: Western Research Institute and the University of Wyoming Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute have tested a novel approach to carbon dioxide capture in power plants and industrial operations. This approach is expected to provide considerable cost savings, in terms of regeneration of the sorbent. It is proposed that low molecular weight, low volatility liquid fluorocarbons be utilized to absorb CO{sub 2} due to their unusual affinity for the gas. The energy savings would be realized by cooling the fluorocarbon liquids below their melting point where the CO{sub 2} would be released even at elevated pressure. Thus, the expense of heating currently used sorbents, saturated with CO{sub 2}, under low pressure conditions and then having to compress the released gas would not be realized. However, these fluorinated materials have been shown to be poor carbon dioxide absorbers under conditions currently required for carbon capture. The project was terminated.
Date: November 1, 2008
Creator: Tuminello, William; Radosz, Maciej & Shen, Youqing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and self-assembly of fluorocarbon- and hydrocarbon-modified hydrophilic polymers. Final report

Description: Over the past 3 years, work was done in several areas: effect of spacer lengths on degree of association of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides; fluorocarbon mediated association of R{sub F}- substituted polyacrylamide-2-(acrylamido)-2-methyl-propane sodium sulfonate copolymers; hydrophobic association in R{sub F}(R{sub H})-modified poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)(PDMA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone; synthesis of R{sub F}-containing poly(N- isopropyl acrylamide)`s; synthesis of HM narrow MWD telechelics PDMA and PDMA block copolymers; and studies of telechelic R{sub F}(R{sub H}) derivatives of polyethyleneglycols. 15 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Hogen-Esch, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perfluoro(Methylcyclohexane) Tracer Tagging Test and Demonstration

Description: On February 14 and 15, 2000, a demonstration of current perfluorocarbon tagging technology and the future potential of these methods was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The demonstration consisted of a brief technical discussion followed by a laboratory demonstration. The laboratory demonstrations included the detection of letters, parcels, briefcases and lockers containing perfluorocarbon-tagged papers. Discrimination between tagged and non-tagged items and between three perfluorocarbon tags was demonstrated along with the detection of perfluorocarbon in a background of non-fluorinated volatile organic solvent. All demonstrations involved real-time detection using a direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer. The technical results obtained at ORNL during and in preparation for the demonstration are presented in Appendix 1 to assist Tracer Detection Technology Corp. in further evaluating their position on development and marketing of perfluorocarbon tracer technology.
Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Sigman, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface barrier integrity verification using perfluorocarbon tracers

Description: Subsurface barriers are an extremely promising remediation option to many waste management problems. Gas phase tracers include perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT`s) and chlorofluorocarbon tracers (CFC`s). Both have been applied for leak detection in subsurface systems. The focus of this report is to describe the barrier verification tests conducted using PFT`s and analysis of the data from the tests. PFT verification tests have been performed on a simulated waste pit at the Hanford Geotechnical facility and on an actual waste pit at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The objective of these tests were to demonstrate the proof-of-concept that PFT technology can be used to determine if small breaches form in the barrier and for estimating the effectiveness of the barrier in preventing migration of the gas tracer to the monitoring wells. The subsurface barrier systems created at Hanford and BNL are described. The experimental results and the analysis of the data follow. Based on the findings of this study, conclusions are offered and suggestions for future work are presented.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Sullivan, T.M.; Heiser, J.; Milian, L. & Senum, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of a fluorinated nickel surface on the decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane

Description: Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) are a commercial class of lubricants widely used in computer and aerospace industries. This is a study of the degradation of a perfluorinated ether in the presence of a metal fluoride. Perfluorodiethoxymethane (PFDEM) is a PFPE analog. Temperature programmed desorption shows no contribution of PFDEM toward nickel fluoride on an NiF{sub 2} surface obtained by CF{sub 3}I adsorption. Higher coverages of nickel fluoride do not show any evidence of NiF{sub 2} contribution from PFDEM. The results do not agree with the idea that a fluorinated surface might induce decomposition of PFPEs, leading to addition fluoride formation on the surface. The metal fluoride bond strength is not a legitimate concern for decomposition of PFE lubricants. Impurity in PFPEs might be the cause of initial surface fluoridation leading to breakdown of PFPEs which could cause additional metal fluoride formation. It is clear that the reaction of PFPEs with metals does not involve a direct formation of a simple M-F bond; results do not show any C-F bond cleavage of the fluorinated ether and do not support a proposed autocatalytic mechanism.
Date: November 9, 1995
Creator: Sreevidya, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

Description: The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).
Date: March 3, 1994
Creator: Jacobson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluorosilicone and silicone o-ring aging study.

Description: Fluorosilicone o-ring aging studies were performed. These studies examined the compressive force loss of fluorosilicone o-rings at accelerated (elevated) temperatures and were then used to make predictions about force loss at room temperature. The results were non-Arrhenius with evidence for a lowering in Arrhenius activation energies as the aging temperature was reduced. The compression set of these fluorosilicone o-rings was found to have a reasonably linear correlation with the force loss. The aging predictions based on using the observed curvature of the Arrhenius aging plots were validated by field aged o-rings that yielded degradation values reasonably close to the predictions. Compression set studies of silicone o-rings from a previous study resulted in good correlation to the force loss predictions for the fluorosilicone o-rings from this study. This resulted in a preliminary conclusion that an approximately linear correlation exists between compression set and force decay values for typical fluorosilicone and silicone materials, and that the two materials age at similar rates at low temperatures. Interestingly, because of the observed curvature of the Arrhenius plots available from longer-term, lower temperature accelerated exposures, both materials had faster force decay curves (and correspondingly faster buildup of compression set) at room temperature than anticipated from typical high-temperature exposures. A brief study on heavily filled conducting silicone o-rings resulted in data that deviated from the linear relationship, implying that a degree of caution must be exercised about any general statement relating force decay and compression set.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Bernstein, Robert & Gillen, Kenneth T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

Description: Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Aubert, James Henry & Sawyer, Patricia Sue
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Liquid Xenon Ionization Chamber in an All-fluoropolymer Vessel

Description: A novel technique has been developed to build vessels for liquid xenon ionization detectors entirely out of ultra-clean fluoropolymer. We describe the advantages in terms of low radioactivity contamination, provide some details of the construction techniques, and show the energy resolution achieved with a prototype all-fluoropolymer ionization detector.
Date: February 26, 2007
Creator: LePort, F.; Pocar, A.; Bartoszek, L.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Flatt, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department