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Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

Description: Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.
Date: December 19, 1997
Creator: Walker, D.D. & Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITP Solids Stability Operating Window Tests

Description: Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process. Recent tests investigated the stability of the potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) solids under process conditions, during both precipitation and washing. In addition, the tests measured the relative stabilities of the sodium, potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB, KTPB, and CsTPB, respectively). Additional tests examined the similarity of the catalytic system in the reaction of soluble and insoluble tetraphenylborates.
Date: April 1998
Creator: Walker, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Solubility of Phenylborate Compounds in Benzene

Description: The original goal of this scoping study was to determine if the solubility of sodium and potassium tetraphenylborates in benzene was sufficiently large to justify designing and performing kinetic studies on a benzene-phase catalytic reaction.
Date: April 1998
Creator: Eibling, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement

Description: A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.
Date: May 21, 1993
Creator: Dworjanyn, L.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

Description: Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.
Date: June 25, 1997
Creator: Walker, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decomposition studies of filtered slurries using the enhanced comprehensive catalyst

Description: This study examined decomposition of the soluble phenylborates at elevated temperatures (45 degrees Celsius) to determine the effects of filtering the solid tetraphenylborate, solid sludge and monosodium titanate and spiking additional levels of transition metal catalyst.
Date: November 13, 1997
Creator: Wilmarth, W.R.; Crawford, C.L. & Peterson, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decomposition of Tetraphenylborate In Tank 48H

Description: This report provides a qualitative and semiquantitative description of the chemical reaction that decomposed the excess sodium tetraphenylborate in Tank 48H during November and December 1995.
Date: May 10, 1996
Creator: Barnes, M.J.; Walker, D.D.; Crawford, C.L.; Swingle, R.S.; Peterson, R.A.; Hay, M.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

Description: This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Venhuizen, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A tetraphenylborate (TPB) degradation model for use in aggregating Tank 48 material in Tank 50 is developed in this report. The influential factors for this model are listed as the headings in the table below. A sensitivity study of the predictions of the model over intervals of values for the influential factors affecting the model was conducted. These intervals bound the levels of these factors expected during Tank 50 aggregations. The results from the sensitivity analysis were used to identify settings for the influential factors that yielded the largest predicted TPB degradation rate. Thus, these factor settings are considered as those that yield the ''worst-case'' scenario for TPB degradation rate for Tank 50 aggregation, and, as such they would define the test conditions that should be studied in a waste qualification program whose dual purpose would be the investigation of the introduction of Tank 48 material for aggregation in Tank 50 and the bounding of TPB degradation rates for such aggregations.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T & Bill Wilmarth, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.
Date: April 4, 2007
Creator: Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D & Bill Wilmarth, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although {approx}30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C & Bill Wilmarth, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble fractions of the product solids. Radioanalytical ...
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Crawford, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

Description: In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D. & Slatkin, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uptake of the BPA into glioblastoma multiforme correlates with tumor cellularity

Description: Fourteen patients scheduled to undergo craniotomy for glioblastoma multiforme were infused with p-boronophenylalanine fructose intravenously for 2 hours prior to surgery. Tissues removed during the procedure and blood obtained at its conclusion were analyzed for boron by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The results are presented herein.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D. & Coderre, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

Description: In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Oxygen in the Copper-Catalyzed Decomposition of Phenylborates in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions

Description: The effect of oxygen on the copper-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl borates containing from one to four phenyl groups was studied in 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 59 degrees C. The results are tentatively explained if the effective catalyst for each of the reactions is either cupric or cuprous ion, with the latter being present in significant concentration only in the absence of air.
Date: March 17, 1997
Creator: Hyder, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

Description: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R. & Capala, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

Description: For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M. & Micca, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

Description: The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department