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Determination of Organic Acids in Process Solutions

Description: Abstract: "A method has been established for the estimation of volatile organic acids in aqueous process solutions containing UNH, nitric acid, ANN, sodium dichromate and small amounts of hexone. The practice is to distill a 400 ul or 500 ul sample in the presence of an excess of phosphoric acid and ferrous sulfate under a high vacuum; a special apparatus utilizing a receiver cooled with a dry ice-isopropanol mixture is employed. The distillate is taken up in isopropanol and then titrated potentiometrically with standard potassium hydroxide solution. Since nitric acid and organic acids are present, two end points are observed. The potassium hydroxide added between these end points is equivalent to the organic acids. In the titration, CO2 from the atmosphere or in the potassium hydroxide is a source of error. The former was avoided and correction was made for the latter."
Date: June 29, 1949
Creator: Brouns, R. J. & Pollock, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infrared Studies of Anions of Barbituric Acids

Description: As long ago as 1881, it was realized that a functional group of atoms in a molecule would cause an absorption band to appear at a particular frequency in the infrared spectrum of the molecule. In more recent years, the concept of characteristic group frequencies has become firmly established and has resulted in the present widespread use of infrared spectroscopy. There appear to have been relatively few studies of infrared absorption of organic acids as compared with their salts.
Date: August 1960
Creator: Barnhart, Richard Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Detector Comparison for Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids and Inorganic Anions

Description: The research reported here is a study of detector systems to determine those most suited for simultaneous organic acid, inorganic anion determination. Comparisons are made on the basis of detection limits and sensitivities for conductivity, UV/Vis, photoconductivity, and derivative conductivity detection systems. The investigation was made using a constant chromatographic system with the only variable component being the detector system. Eluant optimization conditions for each detector are reported along with tables reporting detection limits and sensitivities for each detector system. Various chromatograms are also shown to provide a visual comparison between detector results.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Pannell, Daniel K. (Daniel Kirk)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

Description: The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). ...
Date: September 30, 1996
Creator: Barney, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical Structures of Triflic Acid-Water Clusters and the Molecular Mechanism of Proton Dissociation

Description: Structural and energetic information required for recently proposed quasi-chemical theories of solution chemistry have been obtained for clusters of water with triflic acid, CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H(H{sub 2}O){sub n} for n=1-6. Quantum mechanical calculations on the clusters indicate that the acid proton does not dissociate with n=1 or 2 hydrating water molecules, but does dissociate for n>=3 water molecule partners. The computed minimum energy structures indicate that both ''Eigen'' (H{sub 9}O{sub 4}{sup +}) (n=3,4,6) and ''Zundel'' (H{sub 5}O{sub 2}{sup +}) (n=5) structures are likely to play a role in the molecular mechanism of acid dissociation in Nafion{reg_sign}.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Paddison, S.J.; Pratt, L.R. & Zawodzinski, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology of Aurin Tricarboxylic Acid and Its Antidotal Effectiveness Against Beryllium

Description: Monkeys and dogs were used in a series of studies designed to assess the ability of aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA) to provide protection against acute beryllium poisoning. The acute LD/sub 50/ of ATA was found to be 344 mg/kg for monkeys and 164 mg/kg for dogs. Neither species exhibited significant hematological changes when given weekly ATA doses of 25 mg/kg over an 8-month period. The lethal intravenous dose of beryllium sulfate was 0.6 mg/kg for both dogs and monkeys, but the value increased to between 1 and 3 mg/kg when given by intratracheal injection. Acute toxic effects were not observed by either intravenous or intratracheal doses of suspensions of beryllium oxide. Treatment with ATA appeared to have therapeutic value in monkeys exposed to beryllium, but no significant response was observed in dogs. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1961
Creator: King, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

Description: The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.
Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Bohnert, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zinc distribution and speciation in Arabidopsis halleri x Arabidops is lyrata progenies presenting various zinc accumulation capacities

Description: - The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the chemical form and localization of zinc (Zn) in plant leaves and their Zn accumulationcapacity. - An interspecific cross between Arabidopsis halleri sp. halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata sp. petrea segregating for Zn accumulation was used. Zinc (Zn) speciation and Zn distribution in the leaves of the parent plants and of selected F1 and F2 progenies were investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and chemical analyses. - A correlation was observed between the proportion of Zn being in octahedral coordination complexed to organic acids and free in solution (Zn?OAs + Znaq) and Zn content in the leaves. This pool varied between 40percent and 80percent of total leaf Zn depending on the plant studied. Elemental mapping of the leaves revealed different Zn partitioning between the veins and the leaf tissue. The vein : tissue fluorescence ratio was negatively correlated with Zn accumulation. - The higher proportion of Zn?OAs + Znaq and the depletion of the veins in the stronger accumulators are attributed to a higher xylem unloading and vacuolar sequestration in the leaf cells. Elemental distributions in the trichomes were also investigated, and results support the role of carboxyl and⁄ or hydroxyl groups as major Zn ligands in these cells.
Date: April 8, 2010
Creator: Sarret, Geraldine; Willems, Glenda; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Frerot, Helene et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.

Description: The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.
Date: September 30, 2000
Creator: Francis, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

Description: This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.
Date: September 1996
Creator: Clauss, S. A.; Grant, K. E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G. M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of landuse impacts on lakewater chemistry

Description: This research has included several issues concerning acid-base chemistry modeling of aquatic ecosystems using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC). The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids and land use practices within the watershed have been investigated with respect to their effects on model performance. A version of the MAGIC model was prepared for use in DOE`s Tracking and Analysis Framework. Major components of the project included: (1) extending the MAGIC model by incorporating a quantitative organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations; and (2) testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway.
Date: November 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation for fermentation-derived organic acids production.

Description: Lactate esters produced from carbohydrate have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrate. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, eliminates the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.
Date: November 18, 1998
Creator: Tsai, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department