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A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

Description: Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.
Date: June 25, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

Description: The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

Description: While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Heffner, Grayson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

Description: This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Russell, Marion L.; Sherman, Max H. & Rudd, Armin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced drilling systems study.

Description: This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe & Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

Description: In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis ...
Date: September 9, 2005
Creator: Marks, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

Description: CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.
Date: February 15, 2011
Creator: Martz, H E & Crawford, C R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

Description: The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These ...
Date: January 31, 2012
Creator: Nazarian, Roney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

Description: This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas

Description: High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Corsair, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Scientific/Technical Report

Description: Boeing Phantom Works and its team originally proposed a three-year Phase III SPI project to develop a 30-kWh flywheel with a 100 kW power capability as a power risk management system (RMS) for power users and providers. The chief objectives for the Risk Management System Flywheel were to (1) demonstrate its ability to protect a critical load such as a small data center from swings in power availability, cost, and power factor and (2) show that the RMS flywheel can perform these functions with reduced noise, emissions, and operating costs when compared with non-HTS competitors including batteries, diesel generators, and microturbines.
Date: June 29, 2007
Creator: Strasik, Dr. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

Description: The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J & Lewis, Paul S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Funding Formulas and Arrangements under IEA Implementing Agreements

Description: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has researched how participating countries divide funding obligations under International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreements (IAs). This is part of a broader assessment evaluating the buildings-area IAs. This particular part of the analysis looked at 12 IAs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. By selecting a range of agreements, we hoped to understand the types of arrangements and the range of funding formulas. PNNL asked the U.S. Executive Committee (ExCo) members how the total contribution for their IA and its Annexes were determined, and how the total was then divided between participating countries.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Delgado, Alison & Evans, Meredydd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Godwin, John K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trainblazing with roadrunner

Description: In June 2008, a new supercomputer broke the petaflop/s performance barrier, more than doubling the computational performance of the next fastest machine on the TopSOO Supercomputing Sites list (http://topSOO.org).This computer, named Roadrunner, is the result of an intensive collaboration between IBM and Los Alamos National Laboratory, where it is now located. Aside from its performance, Roadrunner has two distinguishing characteristics: a very good power/performance ratio and a 'hybrid' computer architecture that mixes several types of processors. By November 2008, the traditionally-architected Jaguar computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was neck-and-neck with Roadrunner in the performance race, but it requires almost 2.8 times the electric power of Roadrunner. This difference translates into millions of dollars per year in operating costs.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Henning, Paul J & White, Andrew B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

Description: This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific data recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of operating wind turbines. This report is intended to help develop a basic understanding of the data needed for reliability analysis from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and analysis and reporting needs. The 'Motivation' section of this report provides a rationale for collecting and analyzing field data for reliability analysis. The benefits of this type of effort can include increased energy delivered, decreased operating costs, enhanced preventive maintenance schedules, solutions to issues with the largest payback, and identification of early failure indicators.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Peters, Valerie A. & Ogilvie, Alistair B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

Description: The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Finley, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of Storage Systems Using Multiple Storage Technologies in Renewable Systems

Description: Energy systems that rely on intermittent renewable sources typically use storage devices to improve their reliability. Large scale systems can be expected to cycle the storage capacity on cycles ranging from a day to a year. It can be cost effective to use several storage technologies as a system. A very efficient technology can be used for the smaller daily cycles even if it has a high capital cost. Conversely, a technology having a low efficiency but a low capital cost can be used for the larger longer period cycles. This paper presents a method for determining the optimal capacities for a set of storage technologies. It is analogous to techniques used in electric generation capacity planning that use a load duration curve along with the capital and operating costs of various generations technologies. Here we derive a function that describes throughput as a function of capacity and use it along with the capital and operating costs (including efficiencies) of the storage technologies to derive the optimal capacities.
Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Lamont, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Magnetic Fusion Energy Economics via Massive Resistive Electromagnets

Description: Abandoning superconductors for magnetic fusion reactors and instead using resistive magnet designs based on cheap copper or aluminum conductor material operating at "room temperature" (300 K) can reduce the capital cost per unit fusion power and simplify plant operations. By increasing unit size well beyond that of present magnetic fusion energy conceptual designs using superconducting electromagnets, the recirculating power fraction needed to operate resistive electromagnets can be made as close to zero as needed for economy without requiring superconductors. Other advantages of larger fusion plant size, such as very long inductively driven pulses, may also help reduce the cost per unit fusion power.
Date: August 19, 1998
Creator: Woolley, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

Description: Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Wohlgemuth, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Department of Energy Naval petroleum reserve number 1. Financial statement audit

Description: The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the United States taxpayer. NPOSR was established by a series of Executive Orders in the early 1900s as a future source of liquid fuels for the military. NPOSR remained largely inactive until Congress, responding to the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74, passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The law authorized production for six years. Thereafter, NPOSR production could be reauthorized by the President in three-year increments. Since enactment of the law, every President has determined that continuing NPOSR production is in the nation`s best interest. NPOSR currently is authorized to continue production through April 5, 2000.
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint DOE/industry photovoltaic system reliability program

Description: To achieve the lowest life-cycle cost (LCC), photovoltaic (PV) systems must have the optimum mix of low first cost, low operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, and high availability. Additionally, the long-term health of the photovoltaic (PV) industry requires that PV systems work as expected. Although PV modules now enjoy high reliability due to a significant multi-year effort by both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry, the same is not always true of PV systems. Even for systems that do operate reliably, customers, suppliers, and manufacturers can benefit from knowing what O&M expenses to expect. This knowledge will reduce technology risk to the customer and improve likelihood of commitment to PV projects. System integrators and utilities may benefit from O&M cost information to improve system designs, to properly price service agreements and warranties, and to optimize maintenance strategies. The DOE and component manufacturers may benefit from identifying cost drivers to optimally focus research and quality assurance resources to improve product reliability. This paper discusses the first of five tasks identified for this project, quantifying system reliability and life cycle cost by collecting, analyzing and reporting data on PV system reliability and cost. Industry participants collect the necessary O&M data on systems they are monitoring. Sandia provides support in the form of assistance identifying data that needs to be collected, helping develop forms or databases to collect the data, and analyzing the data.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. & Hester, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department