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Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

Description: The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Hauer, John F. & DeSteese, John G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Installation and Implementation of an In-Process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)

Description: This report documents the work accomplished during the installation and implementation of the in-process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) in Department A. A wealth of knowledge has been gained in solving the many technical issues that delayed the partial implementation of this CMM. The work completed thus far lead to the successfully calibrated in-process CMM workstation. A great deal of current and future work has been outlined in the following pages that shall be used as a guide for the full implementation of this CMM with machining processes in Department A.
Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Johnston, Derek
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

Description: In the first quarter of the project, we reviewed many past references about using light scattering to characterize particulate matters. We also constructed light sources, detection systems and PM synthesizer for the project.
Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Wu, Sheng; Palm, Steve; Tang, Yongchun & III, William A. Goddard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an on-line coal washability analyzer. Semi-annual technical report, September 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

Description: Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and Cyprus-Amax Coal Company have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of an x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project will involve development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well- characterized coal samples from three coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.
Date: March 31, 1997
Creator: Miller, J.D.; Lin, C.L.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Owen, L.B. & Fish, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 1. Measurement technique

Description: This paper describes a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. Since ash deposit thermal conductivity is thought to be strongly dependent on deposit microstructure, the technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. Traditional techniques for measuring deposit thermal conductivity generally do not preserve the sample microstructure. Experiments are described that demonstrate the technique, quantify experimental uncertainty, and determine the thermal conductivity of highly porous, unsintered deposits. The average measured conductivity of loose, unsintered deposits is 0.14 {+-} 0.03 W/(m K), approximately midway between rational theoretical limits for deposit thermal conductivity.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Robinson, A. L.; Buckley, S. G.; Yang, N. & Baxter, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids

Description: During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H. & Raptis, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations of chemical vapor deposition of GaN using synchrotron radiation

Description: The authors apply synchrotron x-ray analysis techniques to probe the surface structure of GaN films during synthesis by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Their approach is to observe the evolution of surface structure and morphology in real time using grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS). This technique combines the ability of x-rays to penetrate the chemical vapor deposition environment for in situ measurements, with the sensitivity of GIXS to atomic scale structure. In this paper they present examples from some of their studies of growth modes and surface evolution as a function of process conditions that illustrate the capabilities of synchrotron x-ray analysis during MOCVD growth. They focus on studies of the homoepitaxial growth mode, island coarsening dynamics, and effects of impurities.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Munkholm, A.; Auciello, O.; Murty, M. V. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two Applications of Direct Digital Down Converters in Beam Diagnostics

Description: The technologies of direct digital down converters, digital frequency synthesis, and digital signal processing are being used in many commercial applications. Because of this commercialization, the component costs are being reduced to the point where they are economically viable for large scale accelerator applications. This paper will discuss two applications of these technologies to beam diagnostics. In the first application the combination of direct digital frequency synthesis and direct digital down converters are coupled with digital signal processor technology in order to maintain the stable gain environment required for a multi-electrode beam position monitoring system. This is done by injecting a CW reference signal into the electronics as part of the front-end circuitry. In the second application direct digital down converters are used to provide a novel approach to the measurement of beam intensity using cavity current monitors. In this system a pair of reference signals are injected into the cavity through an auxiliary port. The beam current is then calculated as the ratio of the beam signal divided by the average of the magnitude of the two reference signals.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Powers, Tom; Flood, Roger; Hovater, Curt & Musson, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On-Machine Acceptance

Description: Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.
Date: February 14, 2000
Creator: Arnold, K.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

Description: Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Haynes, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Online monitoring in the upcoming Fermilab Tevatron Run II

Description: We describe the online event monitoring systems using ROOT [1] for the CDF and D0 collaborations in the upcoming Fermilab Tevatron runII. The CDF and D0 experiments consist of many detector subsystems and will run in a high rate large bandwidth data transfer environment. In the experiments, it is crucial to monitor the performance of each subsystem and the integrity of the data, in real time with minimal interruption. ROOT is used as the main analysis tool for the monitoring systems and its GUI is used to browse the results via socket, allowing multiple GUI client connections.
Date: September 8, 1999
Creator: Canal, P.; Kowalkowski, J.; Maeshima, K.; Yu, J.; Wenzel, H.; Snow, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

Description: In the fourth quarter of the project, we fixed the interference problem of linear CCD array when collecting elastic scattering signal from laser sources. We collected scattering signal of standard samples and also on a wax formation liquid. The results are compared to theoretical results and demonstrate the clear advantages of such technique vs. traditional scattering instrument with enclosures or just transmission type of spectrometers.
Date: October 31, 2003
Creator: Wu, Sheng; Palm, Steve; Tang, Yongchun & III, William A. Goddard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

Description: The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.
Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Berthold, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

Description: A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Baker, Gregory L.; Ghosh, Ruby N.; III, D.J. Osborn & Zhang, Po
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

Description: The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show ...
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Lee, Seong W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Considerations for Remote High-Speed Pressure Measurements of Dynamic Combustion Phenomena

Description: As gas turbine combustion systems evolve to achieve ultra-low emission targets, monitoring and controlling dynamic combustion processes becomes increasingly important. These dynamic processes may include flame extinction, combustion-driven instabilities, or other dynamic combustion phenomena. Pressure sensors can be incorporated into the combustor liner design, but this approach is complicated by the harsh operating environment. One practical solution involves locating the sensor in a more remote location, such as outside the pressure casing. The sensor can be connected to the measurement point by small diameter tubing. Although this is a practical approach, the dynamics of the tubing can introduce significant errors into the pressure measurement. This paper addresses measurement errors associated with semi-infinite coil remote sensing setups and proposes an approach to improve the accuracy of these types of measurements.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Rohrssen, Robert (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV) & Perez, Eduardo (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

Description: Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given ...
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Burkhardt, Gary L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitoring (MOM) System at IRT-T FSRE Nuclear Power Institute (NPI)

Description: The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.
Date: July 13, 2008
Creator: Sitdikov, I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Online Sag Mill Pulse Measurement and Optimization

Description: The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.
Date: June 24, 2006
Creator: Rajamani, Raj; Delgadillo, Jose & Duriseti, Vishal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department