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Experimental Studies of ICF Indirect-Drive Be and High Density C Candidate Ablators

Description: To validate our modeling of the macroscopic and microscopic hydrodynamic and equation of state response of these candidate ablators to NIC-relevant x-ray drive, a multi-lab experimental program has been verifying the behavior of these new ablators. First, the pressures for onset and termination of melt for both Be and HDC under single or double shock drive has been measured at the Z and Omega facilities. Second, the level and effect of hard x-ray preheat has been quantified in scaled experiments at the Omega facility. Third, a long planar x-ray drive has been developed to check 2D and 3D perturbation growth at the ablation front upon acceleration. The concept has been extended to study growth at and near the ablator-ice interface upon deceleration. In addition, experimental designs for validating the expected low level of perturbation seeding due to possible residual microstructure after melt during first and second shock transit in Be and HDC have been completed. Results so far suggest both Be and HDC can remain ablator choices and have guided pulse shaping designs.
Date: September 5, 2007
Creator: Landen, O L; Bradley, D K; Braun, D G; A.Smalyuk, V; Hicks, D G; Celliers, P M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pinhole aperture point backlighter development experiments on Trident, 9-13, 2001

Description: Pinhole aperture point backlighter (PAPBL) imaging has been used on experiments on Omega, but results have been compromised by large backgrounds. This technique has advantages over traditional area backlighting/pinhole imaging, and the Omega experiments could benefit from this capability, but Omega time is expensive and not the place for developing diagnostic techniques if they can be developed on Trident instead. PAPBL, shot from Direct Drive Cylinder Mix experiments on Omega (DDCYLMIX 00-1, January 18 and 19, 2000). [See LA-UR-00-4187, Post-Shot Report, Direct Drive Cylinder Mix]. In this campaign, they used Trident to obtain clean PAPBL images. Having accomplished that, they attempted to replicate the noise environment of Omega by producing hot electrons and having them impinge on material to produce high-energy x-rays similar to those that might be produced by hot electrons impinging on diagnostics or target positioner components on Omega. Backlighter target design was based, to some degree, on that shown by Bullock et al. at the 42nd Annual APS-DPP Meeting in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 23-27, 2000. [A.B. Bullock et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,(7) 359 (2000); A.B. Bullock et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 690 (2001).] We accomplished this to some degree and then attempted, with some success, to obtain a good PAPBL image in the presence of this noise. Results of this work suggest methods that might reduce the background noise in Omega PAPBL images. The goals are to obtain a pinhole aperture point backlighter (PAPBL) image on Trident and develop a method to simulate the high-energy background contribution to PAPBL imnages seen on Omega experients in order to allow future experiments to optimize signal-to-noise in PAPBL imaging.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.) & Murphy, Thomas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric field measurements from satellites to forbidden line ratios in an Omega-Upgrade laser-produced plasma. Second semi-annual report, June 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

Description: During this reporting period we conducted experiments both on the Omega Upgrade 60 beam laser at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and on the Trident laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 3 figs.
Date: December 16, 1996
Creator: Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C. & Welch, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

Description: OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities.
Date: July 24, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indirect-Drive Time Dependent Symmetry Diagnosis at NIF-Scale

Description: The scaling to NIF of current techniques used to infer the time-dependent flux asymmetries for indirectly-driven capsules is reviewed. We calculate that the projected accuracy for detecting the lowest mode asymmetries by a variety of techniques now meet the requirements for symmetry tuning for ignition. The scaling to NIF has also motivated the implementation of new, more efficient and hence less perturbative backlighting techniques which have recently provided high quality symmetry data during validation tests at the Omega facility.
Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Landen, O.L; Bradley, D.K.; Pollaine, S.M.; Amendt, P.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soft X-ray Imaging

Description: The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Seely, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Drive Cylindrical Implosions on the Omega Laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester

Description: The primary goals of this report are to (1) understand experimental radiography better (radiograph known static targets); and (2) to better understand the sources and effects of short wavelength perturbations on the long wavelength RT growth. Some secondary goals are to initiate Richtmyer-Meshkov mix targets; test beryllium cylinder implosions (if available); and observe emission spectroscopy from chlorinated foam to study implosions. To achieve these goals the authors: (1) shot mix targets with late backlighter and confirmed set up of radiography, begin static targets; (2) did a sequence of unperturbed and perturbed targets of different smoothness and thickness, fill in static, beryllium, and chlorinated foam targets; and (3) repeated step number 2 at a different backlighter time.
Date: May 10, 1999
Creator: Barnes, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE 1995 annual report, October 1994--September 1995

Description: The fiscal year ending September 1995 (FY95) concluded the third year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and reports on the successful completion of the OMEGA Upgrade. Previous annual reports describe the OMEGA Upgrade design. The preliminary design for the system was complete in October 1989 and the detailed design started in October 1990. The original 24-beam OMEGA system was decommissioned in December 1992 as construction for the OMEGA Upgrade began. We discuss the initial performance results (p. 99) of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. All acceptance tests were completed, and we demonstrated that all 60 beams can irradiate a target with more energy and better beam balance than was required by DOE`s acceptance criteria. We are most proud that all program milestones were met or exceeded, and that the system was completed on time and on budget.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF OER COATED RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE SHELLS FOR OMEGA EXPERIMENTS

Description: OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 {micro}m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have {approx} 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 {micro}m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; PAGUIO,R; GREENWOOD,A.L & TAKAGI,M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

Description: OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PIN diode array x-ray imaging. Final Technical report

Description: We have completed constructing an x-ray camera based on a solid state imaging device and have obtained images of Omega laser targets. A Si PIN diode array is used. Objective of this project is to investigate the use of a PIN diode array readout device for obtaining images of 1-20 keV x-ray emission from laser targets. The PIN array detector was successfully used for obtaining hard x-ray images in the high powered laser environment and real time images of the x-ray emission from laser targets.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Jernigan, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogneic-Target Performance and Implosion Physics Studies on OMEGA

Description: Recent progress in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is reviewed. Ignition-relevant areal densities of ~200 mg/cm^2 in cryogenic D2 implosions with peak laser-drive intensities of ~5 x 10^14 W/cm^2 were previously reported [T. C. Sangster et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 185006 (2008)]. The laser intensity is increased to ~10^15 W/cm^2 to demonstrate ignition-relevant implosion velocities of 3–4 x 10^7 cm/ s, providing an understanding of the relevant target physics. Planar-target acceleration experiments show the importance of the nonlocal electron-thermal-transport effects for modeling the laser drive. Nonlocal and hot-electron preheat is observed to stabilize the Rayleigh–Taylor growth at a peak drive intensity of ~10^15 W/cm^2. The shell preheat caused by hot electrons generated by two-plasmon-decay instability was reduced by using Si-doped ablators. The measured compressibility of planar plastic targets driven with high-compression shaped pulses agrees well with one-dimensional simulations at these intensities. Shock mistiming has contributed to compression degradation of recent cryogenic implosions driven with continuous pulses. Multiple-picket (shock-wave) target designs make it possible for a more robust tuning of the shock-wave arrival times. Cryogenic implosions driven with double-picket pulses demonstrate somewhat improved compression performance at a peak drive intensity of ~10^15 W/cm^2.
Date: March 6, 2009
Creator: Smalyuk, V.A.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Optical Lightpipe as a High-Bandwidth Fusion Diagnostic

Description: A recent series of experiments at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility studied the feasibility of using radiation-to-light converters and high bandwidth optical signal transmission to remote recording devices as an alternate nuclear diagnostic method. A prototype system included a radiation-to-light converter, a multiple-section light pipe consisting of stainless steel tubes with polished interiors and turning mirrors, and a streak camera or photomultiplier/digitizer combination for signal recording. Several different radiation-to-light converters (scintillators, glasses, plastics, and pressurized CO{sub 2}) performed well and produced predictable optical emissions. The lightpipe transmitted high-bandwidth optical signals to the recording stations. Data were recorded with the streak camera, the photomultiplier/digitizer, and with both recorders simultaneously.
Date: July 21, 2006
Creator: Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Mant, G; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C & Mack, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

Description: An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.
Date: November 16, 2010
Creator: Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability time of a DT-filled cryogenic ICF target in a high vacuum environment

Description: Following the successful pressure loading with DT of a thin-walled plastic inertial fusion target shell (such as those designed for use at the OMEGA facility at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE)), continual care must be taken to safeguard the shell from being exposed to unacceptable pressure differentials across its wall. In particular, once the DT has been condensed into a liquid or solid phase and the outside pressure has been reduced, the target must be maintained below some upper cutoff temperature such that the vapor pressure of the DT is below the bursting pressure for the shell. Through the process of {beta}-decay the DT self-heats, but while the shell is in a high vacuum environment (P {much_lt} 0.8 Pa (6 mtorr) for the OMEGA layering sphere) there is only a negligible heat loss mechanism. This will cause the temperature to increase. A calculation has been done to estimate the rate of temperature increase of the loaded target under high vacuum conditions. A functional form for calculating the target`s temperature increase given its starting temperature is presented. An overall result is that under high vacuum conditions the DT changes from a solid at 10 K to a liquid at 37 K (T{sub c} = 39.4 K) in about 19 minutes. This holding time is significantly less if the initial temperature is higher, the initial state is liquid, or the upper allowed temperature is lower. Simplifying assumptions which were made and their impact on interpreting the results of this calculation are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Ebey, P.S. & Hoffer, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE 1994 annual report, October 1993--September 1994

Description: This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulses with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.
Date: January 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A multipurpose TIM-based optical telescope for Omega and the Trident laser facilities

Description: The authors have recently designed and are building a telescope which acts as an imaging light collector relaying the image to an optical table for experiment dependent analysis and recording. The expected primary use of this instrument is a streaked optical pyrometer for witness plate measurements of Hohlraum drive temperature. The telescope is based on University of Rochester`s Ten-Inch Manipulator (TIM) which allows compatibility between Omega, Trident, and the NIF lasers. The optics capture a f/7 cone of light, have a field of view of 6-mm, have a spatial resolution of 5 to 7-{micro}m per line pair at the object plane, and are optimized for operation at 280-nm. The image is at a magnification of 11.7x, which is convenient for many experiments, but can be changed using additional optics that reside outside the TIM.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Oertel, J.A.; Murphy, T.J. & Berggren, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of design-of-experiments methodology to optimize polymer capsule fabrication. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

Description: Future inertial-fusion experiments on Omega will utilize {approximately} 1 mm-diameter cryogenic targets that have a {approximately} 100-{micro}m-thick, uniformly-frozen fuel layer on their interior. It is desired that they have a stress-free wall thickness < 1 {micro}m and an rms surface roughness < 20 nm. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was used to characterize a glow-discharge-polymerization coater built at LLE to fabricate smooth, stress-free capsules with submicron wall thicknesses. The DOE approach was selected because several parameters can be changed simultaneously in a manner which allows the minimum number of runs to be performed to obtain statistically-relevant data. Planar, silicon substrates were coated with {approximately} 3--5 {micro}m of polymer and profilometry was used to determine the coating rate, the film stress, and the surface roughness. The coating rate was found to depend on the trans-2-butene/hydrogen ratio, the total gas-flow rate, the total chamber pressure, and the RF power. In addition, a two-parameter interaction between the total pressure and the RF power also affects the coating rate. The film stress depends on the total chamber pressure and the total mass-flow rate. The surface roughness is independent of the parameters studied. Preliminary results indicate that capsules can be produced rapidly without affecting the smoothness of their outside surface and without residual stress in their walls.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Lai, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements of plasma conditions at early times in ICF experiments on OMEGA. Semi-annual report, November 1, 1998--April 30, 1999

Description: Since arrival of FY-99 funding in December, the authors have been preparing for the first series of experiments under this grant on the OMEGA laser facility, which just took place (for one day) on April 27, 1999. The campaign was successful and results will be included in the next progress report following analyses. For the first time, they fielded their Ten Inch Manipulator (TIM-) mounted flat-field, grazing-incidence extreme-ultraviolet (euv) spectrograph with a four-channel gated-stripline microchannel plate (MCP) detector. This spectrograph covers the spectral range of 30--250 {angstrom} (hv = 50--400 eV). As in a previous campaign of May 1998, where the authors used this instrument with time-integrated photographic recording, the spectrograph reached closer to the target than did the previous version mounted on the chamber wall; such that the sensitivity increased by at least a factor-of-10 for viewing weak spectral features. The analysis during this reporting period of the euv spectroscopic results from the October 1998 NLUF/OMEGA campaign of Mg X, XI and XII spectra from n = 3 to n = 2 transitions are shown in Fig. 1 versus time. The data plotted represent a composite between the three most sensitive striplines, delayed relative to each other, for a number of shots. The intended emphasis was on the early portion of the event while the laser intensity is rising to a peak. This measured euv history agrees with that from the x-ray streak spectrographic data shown in Fig. 2 from the same campaign, i.e., the peak period of emission being in the first 1.5 ns.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Griem, H.R. & Elton, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ray tracing through the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

Description: The Omega laser is a system with many different parts that may cause imperfections. There are a multitude of lenses and mirrors, for example, that may not be polished correctly and can cause the laser wave front to have aberrations. The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (L.C.P.D.I.) is a device whose main purpose is to read the wave front of the laser and measure any aberrations that may be on it. The way the L.C.P.D.I. reads the laser wave front and measures these aberrations is very complicated and has yet to be perfected. A ray-tracing model of the L.C.P.D.I. has been built, which calculates and models the ray trajectories, the optical paths of the rays, the O.P.D. between the object and reference beams, the absorption of the rays in the liquid crystal, and the intensities of each beam. It can predict an actual experiment by manipulating the different parameters of the program. It will be useful in optimization and further development of the L.C.P.D.I. Evidently, it is necessary to develop a liquid crystal solution with an O.D. greater than 0.3, and possibly as high as 2.0. This new solution would be able to reduce the intensity of the object beam sufficiently to make it comparable with the reference beam intensity. If this were achieved, the contrast, or visibility of the fringes would be better, and the interferogram could be used to diagnose the aberrations in the laser beam front. Then the cause of the aberrations could be fixed. This would result in a near-perfect laser front. If this were achieved, then it is possible that laser fusion could be made more efficient and possibly used as an energy source.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Turner, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department