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Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

Description: The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid ...
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Clemente, Tom & Gerpen, Jon Van
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURES ON THE GROWTH AND INHERITANCE OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE (thesis)

Description: A comparative study was made of the growth of yeast in various media at the optimum temperature (30 ) and at supraoptimum temperatures. It was found that at elevated temperatures there is a decrease in the ability of yeast to grow, which may be alleviated by increasing the percentage of yeast extract in the medium, adding oleic acid to the medium, or using an inoculum of cells that have previously been grown at the elevated temperature. Because of these findings, it is believed that growth at elevated temperatures results in an increased nutrient requirement which may be eliminated by induced adaptation. When yeasts were grown at elevated temperatures or exposed for a short time to lethal temperatures it was found that there was a great increase in the fraction of respiratory-deficient mutants (petites). It was shown that the increase of mutants did not arise because of selection, but that the elevated temperatures actually induced the mutation. From the results of various genetic analyses it is shown that these respiratorydeficient mutants are very similar, if not identical. to vegetative petites occurring spontaneously or induced by acriflavine. The kinetics of this mutation is discussed, with possible theoretical interpretations. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1958
Creator: Sherman, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of hcp-Co nanodisks

Description: hcp Co disk-shaped nanocrystals were obtained by rapid decomposition of cobalt carbonyl in presence of linear amines. Other surfactants, in addition to the amines, like phosphine oxides and oleic acid were used to improve size dispersion, shape control and nanocrystal stability. Co disks are ferromagnetic in character and they spontaneously self-assemble into long ribbons. X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy and SQUID magnetometry have been employed to characterize this material.
Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Puntes, Victor F.; Zanchet, Daniela; Erdonmez, Can K. & Alivisatos, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

Description: Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Kauffman, Douglas R.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Kail, Brian W & Matranga, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

Description: The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Worsnop, Douglas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal. Final report

Description: Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Gustafson, R. M.; DiMare, S. & Sabatini, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

Description: Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if ...
Date: August 18, 2008
Creator: Henna, Phillip H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized neutron study of the magnetization density distribution within a CoFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ colloidal particle (magnetization density in a colloidal CoFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ crystallite)

Description: Magnetization and Moessbauer data suggest that a magnetically anomalous region exists within finely divided CoFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ particles when coated with oleic acid. We have undertaken an x-ray and a polarized neutron powder diffraction study of these samples with and without the surfactant coating in an attempt to locate and characterize this anomalous zone. The shape of neutron scans of the (4,0,0) reflection are independent of polarization indicating that the reflecting crystallites are uniformly magnetized. Magnetization calculated from the peak flipping ratio is characteristic of uncoated rather than coated particles in both cases. Scan widths of both x-rays and neutrons are narrower for the sample from which the chemisorbed surfactant has been largely removed indicating an increase in the size of the coherent lattice of a crystallite. These observations are consistent with the existence of a highly strained surface layer roughly 10 Angstroms thick characterized by pinned spins associated with the presence of oleic acid, which relaxes to a more normal lattice structure upon boiling off the surfactant.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Nunes, A.C.; Majkrzak, C.F. & Berkowitz, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tellurium-123m-labeled isosteres of palmitoleic and oleic acids show high myocardial uptake

Description: These studies were directed at determining if the telluro fatty acids prepared by the isosteric replacement of the ..delta../sup 9/-double bonds of oleic and palmitoleic acids with /sup 123m/Te would show heart uptake in rats. The isostere of palmitoleic acid, 9-tellurapentadecanoic acid(II), was prepared by basic hydrolysis of the product formed by the coupling of /sup 123m/Te-sodium hexyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Similarly, the isostere of oleic acid, 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid(IV), was prepared by the same route beginning with the reaction of /sup 123m/Te-sodium octyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Both /sup 123m/Te-(II) and /sup 123m/Te-(IV) showed remarkably high heart uptake in rats (2 to 3% dose/gm) ten minutes after intravenous administration, and the heart/blood ratios were high (20-30/1). Finally, the hearts of rats injected with /sup 123m/Te-(IV) have been clearly imaged with a rectilinear scanner.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Grigsby, R.A. & Irgolic, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal

Description: Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S. & Sabatini, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department