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Effect of Vacuum on Oil Wells

Description: From Introduction: "Because of the above reasons, because there is a dearth of published information relating to the effect of vacuum oil wells, and because misapplication of vacuum may result in a greatly decreased ultimate recovery of oil, whereas the correct application may have the opposite effect, the Bureau of Mines has authorized this investigation."
Date: 1930
Creator: Lindsly, Ben E. & Berwald, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of Underground Oil Reserves by Oil-Well Production Curves

Description: From Scope of Bulletin: "This bulletin reviews, in the light of the recent experience, the use of production-decline curves in estimating the future production of oil from wells. The bulletin does not deal with costs, oil prices, or the methods of evaluating oil properties."
Date: 1924
Creator: Cutler, Willard W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conditioning Water for Secondary-Recovery in Midcontinent Oil Fields

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on results from a study of water-injection plants in the mid-continent oil producing area. The report lists the field methods used, and the analysis of available water for injection. This report includes maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: December 1952
Creator: Watkins, J. W.; Willett, F. R. & Arthur, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

Description: Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Pande, P. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Fiel Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

Description: The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Allison, Edith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

Description: The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.
Date: May 30, 1997
Creator: Laue, Mike L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasability of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well

Description: The main objective of this project is to devise an effective redevelopment strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field's low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals are proposed: ° Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. ° Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. ° Operate and validate reservoirs� conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. ° Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs.
Date: October 29, 1996
Creator: Coombs, Steven F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well

Description: The main objective of this project is to devise an effective redevelopment strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field's low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals are proposed: ° Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. ° Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. ° Operate and validate reservoirs� conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. ° Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Coombs, Steven F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Integrated Study of the Grayberg/San andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

Description: The characteristics of seismic- derived porosity maps have been further qualified by geologic and production relationships not previously explained nor their significance recognized. Patterns of seismic- derived porosity in the upper Grayburg compare accurately to geologic well data and to historic oil production in section 36. Areas of economic reservoir seem to be separated hydrodynamically, based on the porosity distribution and related differences of gas- to- oil ratio values. Porosity values east of the current limit of the seismic inversion model (where the current seismic data quality is poor) have been estimated for the Grayburg zones, to be used in the next production model run. Production data for that area are being requested from offset operators. When those data become available, they will be included in a revised engineering model will be made to match the production history and to simulate the effect of waterflood efforts. The mapping of porosity of the upper Grayburg zones from the seismic data was completed during the third quarter of 1997, with further qualification of the results done during the fourth quarter. The cross- plots of well log- determined porosity versus seismic velocity have shown a strong linear relationship useful for calibrating the conversion of velocity to porosity. Maps of porosity for the A, B, and C zones are being tested against geological and engineering data. Complexity of reservoir demonstrated in those maps has exposed the need to include significantly more geologic and production data in the area around section 36 in order to create a proper model for the Grayburg reservoir in section 36.
Date: February 27, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas

Description: For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using �pipeline fracturing� technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.
Date: October 23, 1997
Creator: Weinbrandt, Richard; Trentham, Robert C. & Robinson, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin

Description: Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.
Date: July 31, 1997
Creator: Gibbons, David; Carrell, Larry A. & George, Richard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Report on Oklahoma City Oil Field, Oklahoma

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the engineering and production methods of the Oklahoma City oil wells. Characteristics and properties of the wells, and methods and practices of well engineering are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, maps, and illustrations.
Date: January 1937
Creator: Hill, Harry Blackburn; Rawlins, E. L. & Bopp, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bureau of Mines Multiple-Diaphragm Recording Subsurface-Pressure Gage

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the measuring of temperature and pressure in oil and gas wells. Descriptions of the instrumentation developed and used for these measurements are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: November 1935
Creator: Berwald, W. B.; Buss, H. A. & Reistle, C. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope, and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

Description: The objective of this Class 3 project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area. The Bureau's industry partner for the initial Phase 1 of the project was Conoco, Inc.. After the reservoir characterization and simulation of an area at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit were completed, Conoco decided not to proceed to Phase 2, installation of a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area. This decision by Conoco provides an opportunity for a more extensive field demonstration in East Ford field, with Orla Petco as the industry partner. East Ford field is immediately adjacent to the Ford Geraldine unit and produces from the same Ramsey sandstone channel. Phase 1 of the project has been expanded to include reservoir characterization of East Ford field. This additional reservoir-characterization task provides an excellent opportunity to test the transferability of the geologic model and log-interpretation methods developed during reservoir characterization of the Ford Geraldine unit to another Delaware sandstone field. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project remain the same, to ...
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Dutton, Shirley P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope, and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

Description: The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi 2 in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO 2 flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Through technology transfer workshops and other presentations, the knowledge gained in the comparative study of these two fields can then be applied to increase production from the more than 100 other Delaware Mountain Group reservoirs.
Date: April 30, 1997
Creator: Dutton, Shirley P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

Description: The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi 2 in one of the fields was chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the demonstration area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil can be recovered by a CO 2 flood of the demonstration area, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery CO 2 flood and well-completion program will be developed. Through technology transfer workshops and other presentations, the knowledge gained in this study can then be applied to increase production from the more than 100 other Delaware Mountain Group reservoirs.
Date: April 30, 1998
Creator: Dutton, Shirley P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Resrvoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

Description: This project reactivates ARCO�s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Jenkins, Creties; Sprinkel, Doug; Deo, Milind; Wydrinski, Ray & Swain, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

Description: A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region.
Date: March 20, 1998
Creator: Schamel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

Description: This project reactivates ARCO�s idle Pru Fee property in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery was initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and the recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.
Date: July 29, 1997
Creator: Schamel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

Description: This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones of the reservoir, thereby diverting flow to other areas thus increasing the efficiency of the waterflood. The project is divided into three phases-Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the fourth year of work on the project. During Phase I, cores were obtained from a newly drilled well and employed in laboratory core flood experiments to formulate the schedule and amounts of nutrients to be used in the field demonstration. The field demonstration involves injecting potassium nitrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and in some cases molasses, into four injector wells (Test) and monitoring the performance of surrounding producer wells. For comparative purposes, the producer wells surrounding four untreated injector wells (Control) also were monitored. Twenty-two months after the injection of nutrients into the reservoir began, three wells were drilled and cores taken therefrom were analyzed. Nitrate ions were found in cores from all three wells and cores from two of these wells also contained phosphate ions- thus demonstrating that the injected nutrients were being distributed widely in the reservoir. Microorganisms were shown to be present in cores from all three wells by cultural methods and by electron microscopy. In some sections of the cores, the number of microbes was large. Oil production volumes and water:oil ratios (WOR) of produced fluids have shown clearly that the MEOR treatment being demonstrated in this project is improving oil recovery. Of the 15 producer wells in the test patterns, seven have responded positively to the injection of microbial nutrients into the reservoir, while all eight of the producer wells only in control patterns have ...
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Vadie, Alex A.; Stephens, James O. & Brown, Lewis R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department