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Shipping container for tritiated water

Description: A reusable shipping container for Type B and large quantities of tritiated water has been designed and tested at Mound Facility. An inner and an outer container are used for shipping up to 100,000 Ci of tritium in water absorbed on molecular sieve, silica gel or commercial clay absorbent. The package is commonly called configuration-5 of the model AL-M1 shipping containers. It is the newest member of the AL-M1 family which currently also includes configurations 1 and 3. These other configurations are both for plutonium-239 and uranium-235. The common feature uniting the AL-M1 family is the 55-gal outer drum assembly which is the same for all configurations. The inner containers are quite dissimilar. A ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging'' or SARP was prepared to qualify the new shipping container for DOT/DOE approval. That document is a formal safety analysis of all three AL-M1 insulated drum shipping container configurations. Together these are officially identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL). The Certificate of Compliance has been issued and the SARP has been submitted to NRC for review. A description of the configuration-5 inner container is presented. In addition to the prototype used in testing, thirteen of these containers have been fabricated. One is retained at Mound Facility and twelve will be used at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, to collect tritiated wastewater. This wastewater will be shipped to Mound for recovery or dispoal of the tritium.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Watkins, R.A.; Rhinehammer, T.B. & Griffin, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of /sup 241/Am recovery and purification at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Description: Americium recovery was initiated at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the late 1940's. The early procedures separated gram quantities of americium from large amounts of impurities including plutonium and the rare earths. Ion exchange procedures were developed for further purification. Until recently, no routine processing of americium has been done at LASL for several years. The increasing demand for americium in oil-well logging instruments and other uses led LASL to develop and install a process to recover larger quantities of americium. The LASL process was developed around the chemistry of americium that had been elucidated both at LASL and at other facilities. Presently, the americium feed is obtained as a by-product from a plutonium purification process at the new plutonium facility at LASL. This feed filtrate from a peroxide precipitation process is precipitated as a slurry of hydroxides, filtered, dissolved in nitric acid, and passed through an anion exchange column to remove any residual plutonium. The americium, contained in the effluent, is precipitated as the oxalate and calcined to the oxide. Americium is also available in other highly salted acidic process streams. These should lend themselves to solvent extraction. Developmental work has been promising, and a dibutyl butyl phosphate-kerosene extraction process is being brought on-line.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ramsey, H.D.; Clifton, D.G.; Hayter, S.W.; Penneman, R.A. & Christensen, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

Description: This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Tuer, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel 15. 9-micron source. [/sup 15/ND/sub 3/ laser]

Description: Laser emission has been generated in /sup 15/ND/sub 3/ by pumping at 860.4 cm/sup -1/. Strong laser action has been observed at 123 cm/sup -1/, 109 cm/sup -1/ and, with up to 10 millijoules extracted, at 628.1 cm/sup -1/. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that the pumping arises from, and the 628.1-cm/sup -1/ emission terminates on, the same rotational state. Analysis of the time histories of the three laser emissions as well as studies of laser output energies indicates that 15.9-micron output arises from a 4-wave type process. This system, in addition, clarifies the interpretation of earlier studies of CO/sub 2/-laser-pumped ammonia lasers.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Buchwald, M.I.; Jones, C.R. & Nelson, L.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser isotope separation by selective excited state photochemistry. Progress report, June 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

Description: Progress has been made on the development of a low-temperature source for the generation of uranium atoms, and the use of laser-induced predissociation in Rb/sub 2/* for isotope separation. However, our main efforts have concentrated on understanding and improving the laser isotope separation of /sup 35/Cl and /sup 37/Cl by photochemical means. The gas-phase reaction ICl* with 1,2-dibromoethylene produces both cis-1-bromo-2-chloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene stereospecifically. Selective excitation of I/sup 37/Cl with a tunable cw dye laser causes identical degrees of isotope enrichment in both products. By the use of an I/sup 35/Cl cell placed inside the cavity of the dye laser, the /sup 35/Cl:/sup 37/Cl ratio may be changed from 3:1 (natural abundance) to greater than 1:15. A competing pathway, cis-trans isomerization of starting material, also occurs and is the fastest reaction. The stereospecificity of the reaction and the relative rate of geometrical isomerization to substitution are the same when chlorine atoms, formed by the photodissociation of ICl or Cl/sub 2/, are scavenged by dibromoethylene. We conclude that, kinetically, ICl* acts as a free chlorine atom. That isotope separation is achieved by a free-radical scavenging mechanism is indeed remarkable and owes its success to the structure of the scavenger and the choice of initial conditions.
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Zare, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of einsteinium and fermium in nuclear explosions

Description: Efforts devoted to searches for short-lived nuclides in the debris from large thermonuclear explosions are reviewed along with reactor production of Es and Fm. Results of underground tests are discussed along with odd-even yield variations, and future directions for heavy-element synthesis. (JRD)
Date: August 21, 1978
Creator: Hoff, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

Description: Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Storrs, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection and breeding of corn to enhance associative bacterial nitrogen fixation

Description: We have increased, through screening and breeding, the ability of corn (maize, Zea mays L.) to support bacterial nitrogen fixation in or on corn roots. Isotopic N fixed from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was found on the roots. Even though the nitrogen-fixing association depends on germ plasm from tropical corn, the activity can be bred into corn currently used in midwestern United States agriculture.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ela, S.W.; Anderson, M.A. & Brill, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium operating safety seminar, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 30, 1975

Description: A seminar for the exchange of information on tritium operating and safety problems was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The topics discussed are: (1) material use (tubing, lubricants, valves, seals, etc.); (2) hardware selection (valves, fittings, pumps, etc.); (3) biological effects; (4) high pressure; (5) operating procedures (high pressure tritium experiment at LLL); (6) incidents; and (7) emergency planning. (TFD)
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

Description: Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Anderson, J.L. & Wilkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic polarization of ZF in a fluorinated alcohol

Description: We have studied microwave dynamic cooling of ZF and H nuclei in mixtures of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and water, doped with Cr(V) complex. Equal spin temperatures of the two nuclei are produced, and the highest spin polarizations (/approximately/80%) are found in mixtures near the eutectic ratio. The high fluorine content and polarization make this a suitable material for polarized nuclear scattering experiments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Hill, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Jarmer, J.J.; Penttilae, S.; Krumpolc, M.; Hoffmann, G.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

Description: This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.
Date: May 22, 1978
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debris collection from implosion of microballoons

Description: Recovery of krypton from implosion of glass microballoons has been studied in the development of a radiochemical diagnostic for determination of <rho r> /sub fuel/. Collection onto metal surfaces following implosions performed on the OMEGA laser with 1-3 TW (1-2 kJ) of 0.35 ..mu..m light is consistent with an ion implantation mechanism. The dependence of the intrinsic collection efficiency on the energy fluence to the collector surface and its variation in implosions carried out under the same nominal conditions indicate ion energies extending to at least 0.1 MeV and energy distribution functions that are sensitive to the details of the implosion dynamics. Intrinsic sticking efficiencies approaching 0.5 can be obtained in the limit of low total energy fluence to the collector surface (less than or equal to 0.1 J cm/sup -2/).
Date: March 28, 1986
Creator: Prussin, S.G.; Lane, S.M.; Richardson, M.C. & Noyes, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Description: Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Lunsford, R.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge dynamics in pellet-fuelled inner-wall jet discharges

Description: This paper reports on the density behavior in JET during pellet-fuelled inner-wall discharges without auxiliary heating. Certain discharges, characterized by minor disruptions at the q = 2 surface, show a ten times more rapid decay of the plasma density than previously observed. It is shown that this is related to the combined effects of plasma and wall properties.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Cohen, S.A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Bartlett, D.V.; Campbell, D.J.; Cheetham, A.D.; de Kock, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

Description: Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.
Date: May 1, 1975
Creator: Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.) & Cadelli, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site

Description: This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of operational readiness review (ORR) activities for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) located at Savannah River Site (SRS). The EH OA of this facility took place concurrently with an ORR conducted by the DOE Office of Defense Programs (DP). The DP ORR was conducted from January 19 through February 5, 1993. The EH OA was performed in accordance with the protocol and procedures specified in EH Program for Oversight Assessment of Operational Readiness Evaluations for Startups and Restarts,'' dated September 15, 1992. The EH OA Team evaluated the DP ORR to determine whether it was thorough and demonstrated sufficient inquisitiveness to verify that the implementation of programs and procedures adequately ensures the protection of worker safety and health. The EH OA Team performed its evaluation of the DP ORR in the following technical areas: occupational safety, industrial hygiene, and respiratory protection; fire protection; and chemical safety. In the areas of fire protection and chemical safety, the EH OA Team conducted independent vertical-slice reviews to confirm DP ORR results. Within each technical area, the EH OA Team reviewed the DP ORR Plan, including the Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs); the qualifications of individual DP ORR team members; the performance of planned DP ORR activities; and the results of the DP ORR.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Lee, B.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heteronuclear probes of coal structure and reactivity

Description: One of the goals of the proposal was to take advantage of the thermodynamically strong P-S bond to remove sulfur from solid coals with organophosphorus compounds. Using commercially available Bu[sub 3]P, we were very pleasantly surprised (after a number of runs carried out by Dr. Mohan, see Table 1) to realize how well this worked on an Illinois No. 6 sample in run No. 5. Using the quantitative [sup 31]P NMR technique we have very recently developed for phenols in liquid coal materials in collaboration with CONSOL (see proposal), we have determined from integration of the Bu3PS peak in the Bu[sub 3]P extract (49 ppM), that of the 5.31% total sulfur present in the coal sample, we were able to extract 4.83% of it into the Bu[sub 3]P. This represents removal of 91% of the sulfur. What makes this result particularly exciting is that in separate experiments, Bu[sub 3]P is unsuccessful in removing sulfur from thiophene or from FeS. This rather forcefully reminds us once again that chemistry in the coal matrix can be very different from that on model compounds.
Date: January 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

Description: Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Lagow, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Fanning, J.J. & Kim, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

Description: Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department