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Occupational Injury Rate Estimates in Magnetic Fusion Experiments

Description: In nuclear facilities, there are two primary aspects of occupational safety. The first aspect is radiological safety, which has rightly been treated in detail in nuclear facilities. Radiological exposure data have been collected from the existing tokamaks to serve as forecasts for ITER radiation safety. The second aspect of occupational safety, “traditional” industrial safety, must also be considered for a complete occupational safety program. Industrial safety data on occupational injury rates from the JET and TFTR tokamaks, three accelerators, and U.S. nuclear fission plants have been collected to set industrial safety goals for the ITER operations staff. The results of this occupational safety data collection and analysis activity are presented here. The data show that an annual lost workday case rate of 0.3 incidents per 100 workers is a conceivable goal for ITER operations.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: cadwallader, lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

Description: This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.
Date: February 16, 2009
Creator: Eastwood, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One size fits all: Safety training for 10,000 workers

Description: Last summer, the author participated in a major, orchestrated, training event at Los Alamos designed to convey some of the key components of ISM to the workforce. The event was called Safety Days 1997. The objectives were to produce a genuine training event that was logical, focused, interactive, well-written, easy to follow, and that provided people with choices rather than a rigid script. This was the first effort at the Laboratory to organize a way for middle managers to become the safety trainers of their work teams. While upper management supported the concept and product, many were satisfied with the notion of simply creating a time for workers to discuss safety concerns. This paper considers the context of Safety Days 1997, how the training was received, the response to that training, and recommendations for Safety Days 1998.
Date: April 27, 1998
Creator: March, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupational Safety and Health: Federal Agencies Identified as Promoting Workplace Safety and Health

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the federal agencies who regulate workplace safety and health, focusing on the: (1) key federal agencies responsible for promoting workplace safety and health, specifically on those that have regulatory and enforcement authority or otherwise significantly assist in the enforcement process; and (2) federal laws and regulations that serve as the basis of enforcement and the types of worker and industries covered by these regulations."
Date: January 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupational Safety: Selected Cost and Benefit Implications of Needlestick Prevention Devices for Hospitals

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Because of the serious concern for health care workers in the United States, GAO examined the benefit and cost implications of purchasing needlestick prevention devices for hospitals. GAO estimates about 69,000 needlesticks in hospitals can be prevented in 1 year through the use of needles with safety features. Eliminating these needlesticks could reduce the number of health care workers who become infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after sustaining a needlestick injury. GAO's analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data shows that reducing needlesticks may prevent at least 25 cases of HBV and at least 16 cases of HCV infection per year. The reduction in the number of HIV infections cannot be estimated. GAO estimates that the cost to purchase needles with safety features would be between $70 million and $352 million per year. The exact cost to adopt these needles is difficult to determine because several factors must be considered, including the cost to train workers to use the devices and the extent to which the needles reduce injuries."
Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C. & Dagher, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of safety methodology, quality tools, leadership, and teamwork at Hanford and their significant positive impact on safe performance of work. Dashboards, Leading Indicators, Control charts, Pareto Charts, Dr. W. Edward Deming's Red Bead Experiment, and Dr. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge have been the principal tools and theory of an integrated management system. Coupled with involved leadership and teamwork, they have led to significant improvements in worker safety and protection, and environmental restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.
Date: February 27, 2006
Creator: PREVETTE, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of Plutonium (Pu) combustion releases in air for inhalation hazard evaluation.

Description: Experimental data are compiled and reviewed for aerosol particle releases due to combustion in air of Plutonium (Pu). The aerosol release fraction (ARF), which is the mass of Pu aerosolized, divided by the mass of Pu oxidized, is dependent on whether the oxidizing Pu sample is static (i.e. stationary) or dynamic (i.e. falling in air). ARF data are compiled for sample masses ranging from 30 mg to 1770 g, oxidizing temperatures varying from 113 C to {approx}1000 C, and air flow rates varying from 0.05 m/s to 5.25 m/s. The measured ARFs range over five orders of magnitude. The maximum observed static ARF is 2.4 x 10{sup -3}, and this is the recommended ARF for safety studies of static Pu combustion.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: McClellan, Yvonne; Murata, Kenneth K. & Gelbard, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical safety requirements for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF).

Description: These Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) identify the operational conditions, boundaries, and administrative controls for the safe operation of the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, in compliance with 10 CFR 830, 'Nuclear Safety Management.' The bases for the TSRs are established in the AHCF Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), which was issued in compliance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements.' The AHCF Limiting Conditions of Operation (LCOs) apply only to the ventilation system, the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and the inventory. Surveillance Requirements (SRs) apply to the ventilation system, HEPA filters, and associated monitoring equipment; to certain passive design features; and to the inventory. No Safety Limits are necessary, because the AHCF is a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Seylar, Roland F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Simmons, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elements of Successful and Safe Fusion Experiment Operations

Description: A group of fusion safety professionals contribute to a Joint Working Group (JWG) that performs occupational safety walkthroughs of US and Japanese fusion experiments on a routine basis to enhance the safety of visiting researchers. The most recent walkthrough was completed in Japan in March 2008 by the US Safety Monitor team. This paper gives the general conclusions on fusion facility personnel safety that can be drawn from the series of walkthroughs.
Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Rule, K.; Cadwallader, L.; Takase, Y.; Norimatsu, T.; Kaneko, O.; Sato, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.
Date: January 16, 2009
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One year into the Hanford contract, Fluor had learned a number of hard lessons very quickly. Although the Hanford remediation contract was in many ways a new endeavor for Fluor and a different kind of contract, the organization moved quickly to increase communication with all employees, attack head-on what it considered unsafe and inappropriate safety practices, and strongly inject its own corporate cultural beliefs into the Hanford organization. It wasn't easy, and it didn't happen overnight. From the beginning, Fluor established processes and programs to drive down injury rates. For example, whereas the previous contractor's approach to injuries had been passive, Fluor took a much more aggressive approach to worker injuries. The previous contractor had established a practice of sending injured workers home with the basic directive 'to come back when you are well'. Instead of using outsourced medical assessment, Fluor internalized it and evaluated all claims aggressively. Legitimate claims were quickly settled, and management moved to identify 'repeat offenders' when it came to reportable safety incidents. In the first year of Fluor's management, reportable injuries dropped from 5.37 to 2.99 per 200,000 man-hours. Despite the drop in injury rates, the safety record at Fluor Hanford was not at a level that met either Fluor or the Department of Energy's expectations. Earlier in 1997, Fluor Hanford's proposed safety program was rejected by the DOE. The DOE was not satisfied with Fluor Hanford's proposal for various reasons, including insufficient worker involvement and a lack of accountability. With the need for change clearly established, Fluor Hanford management embarked on a decade-long mission to change the safety culture and improve safety performance. This case describes the key changes and their impact on Fluor Hanford.
Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: LD, ARNOLD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department