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Occupational Injury Rate Estimates in Magnetic Fusion Experiments

Description: In nuclear facilities, there are two primary aspects of occupational safety. The first aspect is radiological safety, which has rightly been treated in detail in nuclear facilities. Radiological exposure data have been collected from the existing tokamaks to serve as forecasts for ITER radiation safety. The second aspect of occupational safety, “traditional” industrial safety, must also be considered for a complete occupational safety program. Industrial safety data on occupational injury rates from the JET and TFTR tokamaks, three accelerators, and U.S. nuclear fission plants have been collected to set industrial safety goals for the ITER operations staff. The results of this occupational safety data collection and analysis activity are presented here. The data show that an annual lost workday case rate of 0.3 incidents per 100 workers is a conceivable goal for ITER operations.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: cadwallader, lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One size fits all: Safety training for 10,000 workers

Description: Last summer, the author participated in a major, orchestrated, training event at Los Alamos designed to convey some of the key components of ISM to the workforce. The event was called Safety Days 1997. The objectives were to produce a genuine training event that was logical, focused, interactive, well-written, easy to follow, and that provided people with choices rather than a rigid script. This was the first effort at the Laboratory to organize a way for middle managers to become the safety trainers of their work teams. While upper management supported the concept and product, many were satisfied with the notion of simply creating a time for workers to discuss safety concerns. This paper considers the context of Safety Days 1997, how the training was received, the response to that training, and recommendations for Safety Days 1998.
Date: April 27, 1998
Creator: March, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupational Safety and Health: Federal Agencies Identified as Promoting Workplace Safety and Health

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the federal agencies who regulate workplace safety and health, focusing on the: (1) key federal agencies responsible for promoting workplace safety and health, specifically on those that have regulatory and enforcement authority or otherwise significantly assist in the enforcement process; and (2) federal laws and regulations that serve as the basis of enforcement and the types of worker and industries covered by these regulations."
Date: January 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupational Safety: Selected Cost and Benefit Implications of Needlestick Prevention Devices for Hospitals

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Because of the serious concern for health care workers in the United States, GAO examined the benefit and cost implications of purchasing needlestick prevention devices for hospitals. GAO estimates about 69,000 needlesticks in hospitals can be prevented in 1 year through the use of needles with safety features. Eliminating these needlesticks could reduce the number of health care workers who become infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after sustaining a needlestick injury. GAO's analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data shows that reducing needlesticks may prevent at least 25 cases of HBV and at least 16 cases of HCV infection per year. The reduction in the number of HIV infections cannot be estimated. GAO estimates that the cost to purchase needles with safety features would be between $70 million and $352 million per year. The exact cost to adopt these needles is difficult to determine because several factors must be considered, including the cost to train workers to use the devices and the extent to which the needles reduce injuries."
Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

Description: This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.
Date: February 16, 2009
Creator: Eastwood, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE FROM MAINTAINING THE US ITER DCLL TBM

Description: This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C. & Dagher, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a safety assessment approach for decontamination and decommissioning operations at nuclear facilities

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for nearly 1000 nuclear facilities which will eventually be decommissioned. In order to ensure that the health and safety of the workers, other personnel on site and the public in general is maintained during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, a methodology specifically for use in evaluating the nuclear safety of the associated activities is being developed within the Department. This methodology represents not so much a departure from that currently fish in the DOE when conducting safety assessments of operations at nuclear facilities but, rather, a formalization of those methods specifically adapted to the D&D activities. As such, it is intended to provide the safety assessment personnel with a framework on which they can base their technical judgement, to assure a consistent approach to safety assessment of D&D operations and to facilitate the systematic collection of data from facilities in the post-operational part of the life cycle.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Worthington, P.R. & Cowgill, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook

Description: Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Exposure Assessment Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A risk based approach

Description: The University of California Contract And DOE Order 5480.10 require that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) perform health hazard assessments/inventories of all employee workplaces. In response to this LANL has developed the Chemical Exposure Assessment Program. This program provides a systematic risk-based approach to anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of chemical workplace exposures. Program implementation focuses resources on exposures with the highest risks for causing adverse health effects. Implementation guidance includes procedures for basic characterization, qualitative risk assessment, quantitative validation, and recommendations and reevaluation. Each component of the program is described. It is shown how a systematic method of assessment improves documentation, retrieval, and use of generated exposure information.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Stephenson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

Description: An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Marts, D.J. & Barker, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

Description: The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W. & Fellingham-Gilbert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL`s existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D. & Reed, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A working man`s analysis of incidents and accidents with explosives at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1946--1997

Description: At the inception of the Laboratory hectic and intense work was the norm during the development of the atomic bombs. After the war the development of other weapons for the Cold War again contributed to an intense work environment. Formal Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were not required at that time. However, the occurrence of six fatalities in 1959 during the development of a new high-energy plastic bonded explosive (94% HMX) forced the introduction SOPs. After an accident at the Department of Energy (DOE) plant at Amarillo, TX in 1977, the DOE promulgated the Department wide DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Table 1 outlines the history of the introduction of SOPs and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Many of the rules and guidelines presented in these documents were developed and introduced as the result of an incident or accident. However, many of the current staff are not familiar with the background of the development. To preserve as much of this knowledge as possible, they are collecting documentation on incidents and accidents involving energetic materials at Los Alamos. Formal investigations of serious accidents elucidate the multiple causes that contributed to accidents. These reports are generally buried in a file and, and are not read by more recent workers. Reports involving fatalities at Los Alamos before 1974 were withheld from the general employee. Also, these documents contain much detail and analysis that is not of interest to the field worker. The authors have collected the documents describing 116 incidents and have analyzed the contributing factors as viewed from the standpoint of the individual operator. All the incidents occurred at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and involved energetic materials in some manner, though not all occurred within the explosive handling groups. Most accidents are caused by multiple contributing factors. They have attempted to select the ...
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Ramsay, J.B. & Goldie, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote plunger removal device for small-scale incremental pressing

Description: Small-scale pressing of high explosives (HE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and elsewhere is routinely performed using pneumatic presses. Blast shields provide protection to the operator during the pressing procedure, but safety of the operator is a concern during removal of the plunger, which is currently performed manually. To minimize this risk, very high tolerances between the plunger and the die are required. These tolerances are often very costly, especially in the case of long, relatively narrow dies. The safety issue is an even greater concern with incremental pressing in which cleaning the die between increments is difficult or impossible. To better protect press operators, a device has been designed and constructed to allow remote plunger removal in a standard HE press. In this report the authors describe this modified press that allows remote removal of the plunger.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F. & Asay, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Real-Time Beryllium Air Monitor Utilizing Microwave Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPAES)

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program Development project at the Los Alamos National laboratory (LANL). The focus of this development has been an innovative beryllium air monitor for on-site' real-time continuous monitoring which overcomes limitations of the previous techniques for beryllium monitoring. A bench-top instrument has been set up and the performance of the instrument has been tested based on a solution aerosol. The sensitivity obtained with the instrument is sufficient to ensure workers can respond at airborne levels well below current exposure regulations. With this versatile, real-time monitor, worker exposure can be greatly reduced.
Date: July 16, 1999
Creator: Abeln, S.; Duan, Y.-a.; Olivares, J.A.; Koby, M. & Scopsick, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-connection control of the potable water lines at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: A 1991 independent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) audit of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified the need for establishing a cross-connection control program for the potable and nonpotable water systems at the facility. An informal cross-connection policy had been in place for some time, but the formal implementation of a cross-connection program brought together individuals from the Quality Engineering and Inspection Section of the Office of Quality Programs and Inspection, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, Plant and Equipment Division, and the Atomic Trade and Labor Council. In January 1994 a Cross-Connection Control Committee was established at ORNL to identify potential and actual cross connections between potable and nonpotable water systems. Potable water is safe to drink, and nonpotable or process water (e.g., sewage, laboratory wastewater, cooling water, and tower water) is not intended for human consumption, washing of the body, or food preparation. The program is intended to conform with the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 and with state and local regulations. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration addresses cross-connection functions, it does not define specific program requirements. The program at ORNL is designed to ensure that necessary recommendations are implemented to safeguard all internal and external potable water distribution lines. Program responsibilities include a thorough engineering assessment to (1) identify the potable water lines, (2) identify any existing or potential cross connections, and (3) inspect the integrity of the water lines. If any cross-connection deficiencies are found, corrective actions are initiated according to industry standards.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Moore, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a health and safety manual for emergency response operations

Description: The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Health and Safety Manual, which has been under development by a multi-agency group, is nearing completion and publication. The manual applies to offsite monitoring during a radiological accident or incident. Though written for multi-agency offsite monitoring activities (FRMAC), the manual is generic in nature and should be readily adaptable for other emergency response operations. Health and safety issues for emergency response situations often differ from those of normal operations. Examples of these differences and methodologies to address these issues are discussed. Challenges in manual development, including lack of regulatory and guidance documentation, are also discussed. One overriding principle in the Health and Safety Manual development is the overall reduction of risk, not just dose. The manual is broken into several chapters, which include Overview of Responsibities, Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene and Safey, Medical, and Environmental Compliance and Records. Included is a series of appendices, which presents additional information on forms and plans for default scenarios.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Riland, C.A. & Junio, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expert operator preferences in remote manipulator control systems

Description: This report describes a survey of expert remote manipulator operators designed to identify features of control systems related to operator efficiency and comfort. It provides information for designing the control center for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) Test Bed, described in a separate report. Research questions concerned preferred modes of control, optimum work sessions, sources of operator fatigue, importance of control system design features, and desired changes in control rooms. Participants comprised four expert remote manipulator operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who individually have from 9 to 20 years of experience using teleoperators. The operators had all used rate and position control, and all preferred bilateral (force-reflecting) position control. They reported spending an average of 2.75 h in control of a teleoperator system during a typical shift. All were accustomed to working in a crew of two and alternating control and support roles in 2-h rotations in an 8-h shift. Operators reported that fatigue in using remote manipulator systems came mainly from watching TV monitors and making repetitive motions. Three of four experienced symptoms, including headaches and sore eyes, wrists, and back. Of 17 features of control rooms rated on importance, highest ratings went to comfort and support provided by the operator chair, location of controls, location of video monitors, video image clarity, types of controls, and control modes. When asked what they wanted to change, operators said work stations designed for comfort; simpler, lighter hand-controls; separate controls for each camera; better placement of remote camera; color monitors; and control room layouts that support crew interaction. Results of this small survey reinforced the importance of ergonomic factors in remote manipulation.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A. & Woods, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of contamination control practices at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Description: It is often the belief that electron accelerators are clean machines, producing little or no measurable removable contamination. However, at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), a 200 {micro}A continuous wave, 4 GeV electron accelerator, there are several types of contamination that may be found: external contamination of beamline components near high beam loss points, radionuclides produced from the spallation of oxygen in air, and internal contamination of water systems used to cool beamline components. The last two categories, however, are fairly well understood and are not discussed herein. The Jefferson Lab Radiation Control Group has developed a comprehensive set of contamination control practices to identify and control personnel exposure to these radionuclides.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: May, R.; Schwahn, S. & Welch, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment proposal for the determination of neutron spectra from targeted electron beams

Description: There is a dearth of experimental data on the production and yields of neutrons from targeted electron beams; yet, for accelerator radiation protection these data are of the greatest importance in setting up methods of shielding and other means for protecting people against ionizing radiation. Although adequate for simple cases and lateral production angles, empirical analytical methods are not suitable for the more complicated geometries or source configurations often met with in practice. Monte Carlo (MC) methods that model the transport of neutrons provide far better results in many cases but rely on the random generation of the energy of a source particle selected for any beam condition, production angle and target configuration. A number of theoretical approaches to the derivation of a model for the production of particle events at energies greater than the giant resonance region have been made. Many of these are based on the quasi deuteron model of the nucleus and operate over photon energies in the range 30 MeV to 400 MeV. A method is also available, based on the vector meson dominance model which is designed to work above the photopion resonance region where the cross section levels off at a few GeV (Ranft 1987). Both of these models are limited in utility to a certain energy range and both show some discrepancies with existing empirical methods. More recently a new fragmentation model was developed, which could be used over a large energy range and modeled all production processes. This new method also showed differences from the traditional approaches and a thorough comparison indicated that the event generator in conjunction with conventional MC transport codes produced results a factor two to three higher than the results using the empirical methods. This unsatisfactory situation can only be resolved by making measurements of proper physical quantities ...
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Degtyarenko, P. & Stapleton, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical and cost effective solution to the need for shielding penetrations against photons and neutrons from normal and accident losses

Description: The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) houses a 4 GeV, 200 {micro}A continuous wave (CW) recirculating electron accelerator. This underground accelerator is made up of two superconducting linear accelerators (linacs), two arcs, a beam switch yard (BSY), and three end stations. Each linac has the capability of accelerating electrons to a kinetic energy of 400 MeV. The arcs contain four (on the west) and five (on the east) beamlines to transport the beams of differing energies back into the linacs. The BSY steers the desired beams into the end stations as needed for nuclear physics experiments. The accelerator is connected to the control and diagnostic electronics in the above-ground service buildings via 30 cm and 51 cm diameter penetrations that travel through 4.6 m of soil and concrete. As a result, there exists the potential for personnel exposure to radiation scattering up the penetrations. It was desired that some of these buildings become Uncontrolled Areas, so that persons in the buildings would not require dosimetry. The Jefferson Lab Beam Containment Policy also requires that effective dose rates to workers be limited to 150 mSv in one hour if a maximum beam power loss accident was to continue unabated.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Schwahn, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department