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Organic Matter Composition, Recycling Susceptibility, and the Effectiveness of the Biological Pump – An Evaluation Using NMR Spectra of Marine Plankton

Description: Carbon (C) sequestration through fertilization of phytoplankton with micronutrients and enhancement of the absorption and retention of atmospheric C by ocean biota heavily depends on the efficiency of the “biological pump”. The long-term effectiveness of this strategy depends on a net transfer of C from the upper ocean-atmosphere system to the deep ocean where the C is removed from contact with the atmosphere for an extended period of time. This C removal can be equated to the amount of C fixation by phytoplankton minus the C cycling and regeneration in the euphotic zone. If the regeneration efficiency is increased, then despite increased C fixation, no net loss (sequestration) of C will result. A reduction in cycling efficiency in the euphotic zone, on the other hand, will increase the effectiveness of the “biological pump” and thus C sequestration. The degree of organic matter biodegradation and recycling depends on the “reactivity” of compounds synthesized by the biota, which in turn, is controlled by the structural characteristic of these compounds. There is considerable evidence that different phytoplankton taxa differ substantially in their biogeochemical characteristics and it is likely that the relative abundance of different compounds synthesized by these distinct taxa, and even within each group at different growth conditions, will differ too. This variability in biosynthesis and thus abundance of a wide range of organic compounds in the water column would lend itself to different susceptibility for biodegradation and regeneration. Knowledge of the distribution of various organic matter structural groups synthesized by distinct taxa, the dependence of the organic matter compound classes on different growth conditions (temperature, light, nutrients) and the selective susceptibility of these compound to regeneration is crucial for estimating the potential for rapid regeneration in the euphotic zone, and thus the effectiveness of the “biological pump”.
Date: February 19, 2014
Creator: Paytan, Adina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nutrient Effects on Autofragmentation of Myriophyllum Spicatum L.

Description: A 2 x 2 factorial design investigated effects of sediment nitrogen and water potassium levels on autofragment production. Reduced nitrogen levels significantly increased autofragment production whereas potassium levels did not significantly alter production. Up to 50% of autofragment production abscised from parent plants grown under low nitrogen conditions compared to 12% or less under high nitrogen conditions.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Smith, Dian H. (Dian Helen)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D. O.; Stepp, A. K.; Dennis, D. M. & Graumann, L. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D.O. & Stepp, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M. & Graumann, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M. & Graumann, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A. & Stepp, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Scientific and Legal Uncertainty Behind Ocean Fertilization to Sequester Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Final Report

Description: A three-day workshop was organized in April 2001 in Washington, DC, consisting of scientists, policy experts, and entrepreneurs to explore the proposed use of iron fertilization in the High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions, notably the Equatorial Pacific and Southern Oceans, to actively sequester atmospheric CO{sub 2}.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Phinney, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial Community Acquisition of Nutrients from Mineral Surfaces. Final Report

Description: Minerals and microbes undergo complex interactions in nature that impact broad aspects of near-surface Earth chemistry. Our primary objective in this project was to gain insight into how microbial species and communities acquire critical but tightly held nutrients residing on or within minerals common in rocks and soils, and to quantitatively study related microbe-mineral interactions including cell adhesion, electron transfer, and siderophore-mineral interaction processes.
Date: June 3, 2003
Creator: Hochella, M. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patterns and Implications of Gene Gain and Loss in the Evolution of Prochlorococcus

Description: Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. Numerous isolatesfrom diverse areas of the world's oceans have been studied and shown to be physiologically and genetically distinct. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL)-adapted group. The 16S rRNA sequences of the entire Prochlorococcus group differ by at most 3percent, and the four initially published genomes revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that help explain physiological differences among the isolates. Here we describe the genomes of eight newly sequenced isolates and combine them with the first four genomes for a comprehensive analysis of the core (shared by all isolates) and flexible genes of the Prochlorococcus group, and the patterns of loss and gain of the flexible genes over the course of evolution. There are 1,273 genes that represent the core shared by all 12 genomes. They are apparently sufficient, according to metabolic reconstruction, to encode a functional cell. We describe a phylogeny for all 12 isolates by subjecting their complete proteomes to three different phylogenetic analyses. For each non-core gene, we used a maximum parsimony method to estimate which ancestor likely first acquired or lost each gene. Many of the genetic differences among isolates, especially for genes involved in outer membrane synthesis and nutrient transport, are found within the same clade. Nevertheless, we identified some genes defining HL and LL ecotypes, and clades within these broad ecotypes, helping to demonstrate the basis of HL and LL adaptations in Prochlorococcus. Furthermore, our estimates of gene gain events allow us to identify highly variable genomic islands that are not apparent through simple pairwise comparisons. These results emphasize the functional roles, especially those connected to outer membrane synthesis and transport ...
Date: July 30, 2007
Creator: Lapidus, Alla; Kettler, Gregory C.; Martiny, Adam C.; Huang, Katherine; Zucker, Jeremy; Coleman, Maureen L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liming soils for better farming.

Description: Describes different types of liming materials and provides instructions for liming soils.
Date: November 1951
Creator: Whittaker, Colin W. (Colin Winterbourne), 1896-1972.; Anderson, M. S. & Reitemeier, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Organic Surface Amendments on Soil Nutrients and Initial Tree Establishment

Description: This study examined the effects of replicating woodland soil surface horizonation on the nutrient status of underlying soils and the initial establishment and growth of trees. A total of 283 container grown trees were planted in a bufferzone around a future landfill site. Control amendments consisted of an 8 cm layer (0.5 m3) of wood chips applied in a circular area of 4.6 m2 around the trees' planting pit. For the treatment, a 2.5 cm layer of composted biosolids (0.15 m3 or 80 Mg/ha) was applied in a circular area of 4.6 m2 around the trees' planting pit followed by an 8 cm layer (0.5 m3) of wood chips. The results indicate that the replication of woodland soil surface attributes using composted biosolids can significantly improve the nutrient status of underlying soil. Some significant effects were seen under control conditions, too. However, the effects on tree establishment and growth parameters were, for the most part, not statistically significant.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Thuesen, Kevin (Kevin Andrew)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

Description: Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.
Date: March 2, 2006
Creator: Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul & Brown, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

Description: This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M. & Graumann, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks

Description: This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry & Benson, Sally
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department