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2-D Reflectometer Modeling for Optimizing the ITER Low-field Side Reflectometer System

Description: The response of a low-field side reflectometer system for ITER is simulated with a 2?D reflectometer code using a realistic plasma equilibrium. It is found that the reflected beam will often miss its launch point by as much as 40 cm and that a vertical array of receiving antennas is essential in order to observe a reflection on the low-field side of ITER.
Date: September 2, 2005
Creator: Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E. J.; Budny, R. V.; Kessel, C. & Johnson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A corrected and generalized successive random additions algorithm for simulating fractional levy motions

Description: Simulation of subsurface heterogeneity is important for modeling subsurface flow and transport processes. Previous studies have indicated that subsurface property variations can often be characterized by fractional Brownian motion (fBm) or (truncated) fractional Levy motion (fLm). Because Levy-stable distributions have many novel and often unfamiliar properties, studies on generating fLm distributions are rare in the literature. In this study, we generalize a relatively simple and computationally efficient successive random additions (SRA) algorithm, originally developed for generating Gaussian fractals, to simulate fLm distributions. We also propose an additional important step in response to continued observations that the traditional SRA algorithm often generates fractal distributions having poor scaling and correlation properties. Finally, the generalized and modified SRA algorithm is validated through numerical tests.
Date: May 29, 2002
Creator: Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Lu, Silong & Molz, Fred J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Onset and Saturation of a Non-resonant Internal Mode in NSTX and Implications For AT Modes in ITER

Description: Motivated by experimental observations of apparently triggerless tearing modes, we have performed linear and nonlinear MHD analysis showing that a non-resonant mode with toroidal mode number n = 1 can develop in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) at moderate normalized βN when the shear is low and the central safety factor q0 is close to but greater than one. This mode, which is related to previously identified ‘infernal’ modes, will saturate and persist, and can develop poloidal mode number m = 2 magnetic islands in agreement with experiments. We have also extended this analysis by performing a free-boundary transport simulation of an entire discharge and showing that, with reasonable assumptions, we can predict the time of mode onset. __________________________________________________
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: J.A. Breslau, M.S. Chance, J. Chen, G.Y. Fu, S,. Gerhardt, N. Gorelenkov, S.C. Jardin and J. Manickam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of Alfven Eigenmodes in the TAE range on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

Description: A second Neutral Beam (NB) injection line is being installed on the NSTX Upgrade device, resulting in six NB sources with di erent tangency radii that will be available for heating and current drive. This work explores the properties of instabilities in the frequency range of the Toroidal Alfv#19;en Eigenmode (TAE) for NSTX-U scenarios with various NB injection geometries, from more perpendicular to more tangential, and with increased toroidal magnetic eld with respect to previous NSTX scenarios. Predictions are based on analysis through the ideal MHD code NOVA-K. For the scenarios considered in this work, modi cations of the Alfv#19;en continuum result in a frequency upshift and a broadening of the radial mode structure. The latter e ect may have consequences for fast ion transport and loss. Preliminary stability considerations indicate that TAEs are potentially unstable, with ion Landau damping representing the dominant damping mechanism
Date: April 24, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free MHD Shear Layers In The Presence Of Rotation And Magnetic Field

Description: We present an experimental and numerical study of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic free shear layers and their stability. We first examine the experimental measurement of globally unstable hydrodynamic shear layers in the presence of rotation, and their range of instability. These are compared to numerical simulations, which are used to explain the modification of the shear layer and thus the critical Rossby number for stability. Magnetic fields are then applied to these scenarios, and globally unstable magnetohydrodynamic shear layers generated. These too are compared to numerical simulations, showing behavior consistent with the hydrodynamic case and previously reported measurements.
Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Spence, E. J.; Roach, A. H.; Edlund, E. M.; Sloboda, P. & Ji, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear Amplification and Decay of Phase-mixed Waves in Compressing Plasma

Description: Through particle-in-cell simulations, we show that plasma waves carrying trapped electrons can be amplified manyfold via compressing plasma perpendicularly to the wave vector. These simulations are the first ab initio demonstration of the conservation of nonlinear action for such waves, which contains a term independent of the field amplitude. In agreement with the theory, the maximum of amplification gain is determined by the total initial energy of the trapped-particle average motion but otherwise is insensitive to the particle distribution. Further compression destroys the wave; electrons are then untrapped at suprathermal energies and form a residual beam. As compression continues, the bump-on-tail instability is triggered each time one of the discrete modes comes in resonance with this beam. Hence, periodic bursts of the electrostatic energy are produced until a wide quasilinear plateau is formed.
Date: September 25, 2012
Creator: Schmit, Paul F.; Dodin, I. Y.; Rocks, J. & Fisch, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absence of Debye Sheaths Due to Secondary Electron Emission

Description: A bounded plasma where the hot electrons impacting the walls produce more than one secondary on average is studied via particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that no classical Debye sheath or space-charge limited sheath exists. Ions are not drawn to the walls and electrons are not repelled. Hence the unconfined plasma electrons travel unobstructed to the walls, causing extreme particle and energy fluxes. Each wall has a positive charge, forming a small potential barrier or "inverse sheath" that pulls some secondaries back to the wall to maintain the zero current condition.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Campanell, M. D.; Khabrov, A. & Kaganovich, I. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and Analysis of the Hybrid Operating Mode in ITER

Description: The hybrid operating mode in ITER is examined with 0D systems analysis, 1.5D discharge scenario simulations using TSC and TRANSP, and the ideal MHD stability is discussed. The hybrid mode has the potential to provide very long pulses and significant neutron fluence if the physics regime can be produced in ITER. This paper reports progress in establishing the physics basis and engineering limitation for the hybrid mode in ITER.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Kessel, C. E.; Budny, R. V. & Indireshkumar, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

Description: There is considerable technological interest in developingnew fuel-flexible combustion systems that can burn fuels such ashydrogenor syngas. Lean premixed systems have the potential to burn thesetypes of fuels with high efficiency and low NOx emissions due to reducedburnt gas temperatures. Although traditional scientific approaches basedon theory and laboratory experiment have played essential roles indeveloping our current understanding of premixed combustion, they areunable to meet the challenges of designing fuel-flexible lean premixedcombustion devices. Computation, with itsability to deal with complexityand its unlimited access to data, hasthe potential for addressing thesechallenges. Realizing this potential requires the ability to perform highfidelity simulations of turbulent lean premixed flames under realisticconditions. In this paper, we examine the specialized mathematicalstructure of these combustion problems and discuss simulation approachesthat exploit this structure. Using these ideas we can dramatically reducecomputational cost, making it possible to perform high-fidelitysimulations of realistic flames. We illustrate this methodology byconsidering ultra-lean hydrogen flames and discuss how this type ofsimulation is changing the way researchers study combustion.
Date: June 25, 2006
Creator: Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Almgren, Ann S.; Lijewski, MichaelJ.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Cheng, Robert K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multigrid Particle-in-cell Simulations of Plasma Microturbulence

Description: A new scheme to accurately retain kinetic electron effects in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the case of electrostatic drift waves is presented. The splitting scheme, which is based on exact separation between adiabatic and on adiabatic electron responses, is shown to yield more accurate linear growth rates than the standard df scheme. The linear and nonlinear elliptic problems that arise in the splitting scheme are solved using a multi-grid solver. The multi-grid particle-in-cell approach offers an attractive path, both from the physics and numerical points of view, to simulate kinetic electron dynamics in global toroidal plasmas.
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: Lewandowski, J. L. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Experimental Data Base and Theories for Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes of Geochemical Significance at Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures.

Description: The objective of this research was to combine new experimental measurements on heat capacities, volumes, and association constants of key compounds with theoretical equations of state and with first principles quantum mechanical calculations to generate predictions of thermodynamic data. The resulting thermodynamic data allow quantitative models of geochemical processes at high temperatures and pressures. Research funded by a DOE grant to Prof. Robert Wood at the University of Delaware involved the development of new theoretical equations of state for aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, methods to estimate thermodynamic data not available from experiments, collection of data on model compounds through experiments and predictions of properties using ab initio quantum mechanics. During the last three and a half years, with support from our DOE grant, 16 papers have been accepted or published, and 3 more are in preparation. Results of this research have been reported in numerous invited and contributed presentations at national and international meetings. For this report, we will briefly comment on the highlights of the last 3 and a half years and give a complete list of papers published, accepted, or submitted during these years.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Wood, Robert H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

Description: Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Date: May 27, 2011
Creator: Schmit, P. F.; Dodin, I. Y. & Fisch, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model

Description: In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.
Date: January 28, 2013
Creator: I.R. Goumiri, C.W. Rowley, Z. Ma, D.A. Gates, J.A. Krommes and J.B. Parker
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

Description: INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE IN THE VERY STABLE EKMAN LAYER This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Barnard, James C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of ITER 15 MA ELMy H-mode Inductive Scenario

Description: The poloidal field (PF) coil system on ITER, which provides both feedforward and feedback control of plasma position, shape, and current, is a critical element for achieving mission performance. Analysis of PF capabilities has focused on the 15 MA Q = 10 scenario with a 300-500 s flattop burn phase. The operating space available for the 15 MA ELMy H-mode plasma discharges in ITER and upgrades to the PF coils or associated systems to establish confidence that ITER mission objectives can be reached have been identified. Time dependent self-consistent free-boundary calculations were performed to examine the impact of plasma variability, discharge programming, and plasma disturbances. Based on these calculations a new reference scenario was developed based upon a large bore initial plasma, early divertor transition, low level heating in L-mode, and a late H-mode onset. Equilibrium analyses for this scenario indicate that the original PF coil limitations do not allow low li (<0.8) operation or lower flux states, and the flattop burn durations were predicted to be less than the desired 400 s. This finding motivates the expansion of the operating space, considering several upgrade options to the PF coils. Analysis was also carried out to examine the feedback current reserve required in the CS and PF coils during a series of disturbances and a feasibility assessment of the 17 MA scenario was undertaken. Results of the studies show that the new scenario and modified PF system will allow a wide range of 15 MA 300-500 s operation and more limited but finite 17 MA operation.
Date: October 16, 2008
Creator: Kessel, C. E.; Campbell, D.; Gribov, Y.; Saibene, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Casper, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-dimensional Fully Kinetic Simulations Of Driven Magnetic Reconnection With Boundary Conditions Relevant To The Magnetic Reconnection Experimen

Description: Two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations are performed using global boundary conditions relevant to model the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [M. Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The geometry is scaled in terms of the ion kinetic scales in the experiment, and a reconnection layer is created by reducing the toroidal current in the flux cores in a manner similar to the actual experiment. The ion-scale features in these kinetic simulations are in remarkable agreement with those observed in MRX, including the reconnection inflow rate and quadrupole field structure. In contrast, there are significant discrepancies in the simulated structure of the electron layer that remain unexplained. In particular, the measured thickness of the electron layers is 3�5 times thicker in MRX than in the kinetic simulations. The layer length is highly sensitive to downstream boundary conditions as well as the time over which the simulation is driven. However, for a fixed set of chosen boundary conditions, an extrapolation of the scaling with the ion to electron mass ratio implies that at realistic mass ratio both the length and width will be too small compared to the experiment. This discrepancy implies that the basic electron layer physics may differ significantly between MRX and the two-dimensional, collisionless simulations. The two leading possibilities to explain the discrepancy are weak Coulomb collisions and three-dimensional effects that are present in the experiment but not included in the simulation model.
Date: November 6, 2008
Creator: S. Dorfman, W. Daughton, V. Roytershteyn, H. Ji, Y. Ren, and M. Yamada
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of Alpha-Channeling in Mirror Machines

Description: Applying α-channeling techniques to mirror machines can significantly increase their effective reactivity, thus making open configurations more advantageous for practical fusion. A large fraction of α particle energy can be extracted using rf waves. Effects employed to cool α particles can also in principle be used to heat the fusion ions; the possibility to design a configuration of rf waves which could be used to perform both tasks is demonstrated.
Date: March 17, 2008
Creator: A.I. Zhmoginov, N.J. Fisch
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Insights into Dissipation in the Electron Layer During Magnetic Reconnection

Description: ELECTRON DISSIPATION IN RECONNECTION Detailed comparisons are reported between laboratory observations of electron scale dissipation layers near a reconnecting X-line and direct two-dimensional full-particle simulations. Many experimental features of the electron layers, such as insensitivity to the ion mass, are reproduced by the simulations; the layer thickness, however, is about 3 - 5 times larger than the predictions. Consequently, the leading candidate 2D mechanism based on collisionless electron nongyrotropic pressure is insuffcient to explain the observed reconnection rates. These results suggest that, in addition to the residual collisions, 3D effects play an important role in electron-scale dissipation during fast reconnection.
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: H. Ji, Y. Ren, M. Yamada, S. Dorfman, W. Daughton and S.P. Gerhardt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some issues and subtleties in numerical simulation of X-ray FEL's

Description: Part of the overall design effort for x-ray FEL's such as the LCLS and TESLA projects has involved extensive use of particle simulation codes to predict their output performance and underlying sensitivity to various input parameters (e.g. electron beam emittance). This paper discusses some of the numerical issues that must be addressed by simulation codes in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the standard approximations and simulation methods adopted by time-dependent(i.e. polychromatic) codes such as GINGER, GENESIS, and FAST3D, including the effects of temporal discretization and the resultant limited spectral bandpass,and then discuss the accuracies and inaccuracies of these codes in predicting incoherent spontaneous emission (i.e. the extremely low gain regime).
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Fawley, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Marker Method for the Solution of the Damped Burgers' Equatio

Description: A new method for the solution of the damped Burgers' equation is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details. The marker method is applicable to a general class of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Solution of Nonlinear Dispersive Partial Differential Equations using the Marker Method

Description: A new method for the solution of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details.
Date: January 25, 2005
Creator: Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comment on "Wall Forces Produced During ITER Disruptions" by H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau (PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 17, 082505 (2010)

Description: The paper by H.R. Strauss presents numerical simulations, which pretend to describe the disruption instability in ITER device. The simulations were performed with numerical code M3D, described in Ref.[7] of the paper.
Date: October 20, 2010
Creator: Zakharov, Leonid E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha Heating in ITER L-mode and H-mode Plasma

Description: There are many uses of predictions of ITER plasma performance. One is assessing requirements of different plasma regimes. For instance, what current drive and control are needed for steady state. The heating, current drive, and torque systems planned for initial DT operation are negative ion neutral beam injection (NB), ion cyclotron resonance (IC), and electron cyclotron resonance (EC). Which combinations of heating are optimal. What are benefits of the torques, current drive, and fueling using NB. What are the shine-through power and optimum voltage for the NB? What are optimal locations and aiming of the EC launchers? Another application is nuclear licensing (e.g. System integrity, how many neutrons).
Date: July 18, 2011
Creator: Budny, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

Description: This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.
Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Zakharov, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department