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PHYSICS DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

Description: Preliminary results and data are given for eight expenimental and theoretical nuclear physics projects under investigation. Those projects not reported are listed separately with a reference to the last issue in which each appeared. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eight activities. (For preceding period see ANL-6214.) (W.D.M.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The X-Ray Properties of the Most Luminous Quasars From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Description: This article studies the X-ray properties of a representative sample of 59 of the most optically luminous quasars in the universe spanning a redshift range of z ≈ 1.5-4.5.
Date: May 18, 2007
Creator: Just, Dennis W.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Shemmer, Ohad; Steffen, Aaron; Schneider, Donald P.; Chartas, George et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Universal correlations of nuclear observables and the structure of exotic nuclei

Description: Despite the apparent complexity of nuclear structural evolution, recent work has shown a remarkable underlying simplicity that is unexpected, global, and which leads to new signatures for structure based on the easiest-to-obtain data. As such they will be extremely valuable for use in the experiments with low intensity radioactive beams. Beautiful correlations based either on extrinsic variables such as N{sub p}N{sub n} or the P-factor or correlations between collective observables themselves have been discovered. Examples to be discussed include a tri-partite classification of structural evolution, leading to a new paradigm that discloses certain specific classes of nuclei, universal trajectories for B(E2: w{sub 1}{sup +} {r_arrow} 0{sub 1}{sup +}) values and their use in extracting hexadecapole deformations from this observable alone, the use of these B(E2) values to identify shell gaps and magic numbers in exotic nuclei, the relationship of {beta} and {gamma} deformations, and single nucleon separation energies. Predictions for nuclei far off stability by interpolation will also be discussed.
Date: Autumn 1996
Creator: Casten, R. F. & Zamfir, N. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NUCLEAR PHYSICS RESEARCH QUARTERLY REPORT FOR JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH 1960

Description: Progress is indicated on various research activities in the fields of exprrimental nuclear physics, reactor physics, and physics of nuclear safety. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 sections of the report. (For preceding period see HW-63576. For subsequent period see HW66215.) (W.D.M.)
Date: April 20, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CCN Spectral Measurements

Description: Detailed aircraft measurements were made of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra associated with extensive cloud systems off the central California coast in the July 2005 MASE project. These measurements include the wide supersaturation (S) range (2-0.01%) that is important for these polluted stratus clouds. Concentrations were usually characteristic of continental/anthropogenic air masses. The most notable feature was the consistently higher concentrations above the clouds than below. CCN measurements are so important because they provide a link between atmospheric chemistry and cloud-climate effects, which are the largest climate uncertainty. Extensive comparisons throughout the eleven flights between two CCN spectrometers operated at different but overlapping S ranges displayed the precision and accuracy of these difficult spectral determinations. There are enough channels of resolution in these instruments to provide differential spectra, which produce more rigorous and precise comparisons than traditional cumulative presentations of CCN concentrations. Differential spectra are also more revealing than cumulative spectra. Only one of the eleven flights exhibited typical maritime concentrations. Average below cloud concentrations over the two hours furthest from the coast for the 8 flights with low polluted stratus was 614?233 at 1% S, 149?60 at 0.1% S and 57?33 at 0.04% S cm-3. Immediately above cloud average concentrations were respectively 74%, 55%, and 18% higher. Concentration variability among those 8 flights was a factor of two. Variability within each flight excluding distances close to the coast ranged from 15-56% at 1% S. However, CN and probably CCN concentrations sometimes varied by less than 1% over distances of more than a km. Volatility and size-critical S measurements indicated that the air masses were very polluted throughout MASE. The aerosol above the clouds was more polluted than the below cloud aerosol. These high CCN concentrations from polluted air masses were affecting the clouds both from the air below and ...
Date: February 27, 2009
Creator: Hudson, James G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESCRIPTION OF PRINTED OUTPUT FROM INTRANUCLEAR CASCADE CALCULATION

Description: ABS>A detailed description of the printed output sheets from the intranuclear cascade calculation described in ORNL3383 is given. The three analysis codes --analysis codes I and II and an evaporation code --that were written to organize the raw data of the output tape are considered. (auth) A tabulation of the neutron total cross section of U/sup 233/ as a function of neutron energy from 0.07 to 10,000 ev, measured with the ORNL fast chopper time- of-flight neutron spectrometer is given. (auth)
Date: May 28, 1963
Creator: Bertini, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei indirectly: An examination of the Surrogate Ratio Method

Description: The validity of the Surrogate Ratio method for determining (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei is examined. This method relates the ratio of two compound-nucleus reaction cross sections to a ratio of coincidence events from two measurements in which the same compound nuclei are formed via a direct reaction. With certain assumptions, the method allows one of the cross sections to be inferred if the other is known. We develop a nuclear reaction-model simulation to investigate whether the assumptions underlying the Ratio approach are valid and employ these simulations to assess whether the cross sections obtained indirectly by applying a Ratio analysis agree with the expected results. In particular, we simulate Surrogate experiments that allow us to determine fission cross sections for selected actinide nuclei. The nuclei studied, {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U, are very similar to those considered in recent Surrogate experiments. We find that in favorable cases the Ratio method provides useful estimates of the desired cross sections, and we discuss some of the limitations of the approach.
Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Escher, J E & Dietrich, F S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NMR DOUBLE QUANTUM SPIN DECOUPLING IN SOLIDS

Description: The problem of spin decoupling spin I = 1 nuclei with large quadrupolar splittings {omega}{sub Q} (e.g. deuterium) from dilute S spins via double quantum transitions is dealt with. The normal two spin-1/2 single quantum decoupling problem (I = 1/2, S = 1/2) is first dealt with as a reminder of the coherent averaging approach and to understand the dependence of the S resonance linewidth on the I rf field intensity ({omega}{sub 1}) and resonance offset ({Delta}{omega}). The double quantum problem (I = 1, S = 1/2) is then treated analogously by introducting fictitious spin-1/2 operators for the I double quantum transition. The decoupling condition is found to be very sensitive to the spin-I resonance condition and to go as {approx} 1/4 with the spin I rf field intensity at resonance in the double quantum regime ({omega}{sub 1} << {omega}{sub Q}). Experimental examples on heavy ice, dimethyl-sulfoxide-d{sub 6} and benzene-d{sub 6} are presented verifying the quantitative theoretical predictions. Extensions to higher order multiple quantum effects for spin I > I and for several coupled spin-1/2 nuclei are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Pines, A.; Vega, S. & Mehring, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for Ultra High-Energy Neutrinos with AMANDA-II

Description: A search for diffuse neutrinos with energies in excess of 10{sup 5} GeV is conducted with AMANDA-II data recorded between 2000 and 2002. Above 10{sup 7} GeV, the Earth is essentially opaque to neutrinos. This fact, combined with the limited overburden of the AMANDA-II detector (roughly 1.5 km), concentrates these ultra high-energy neutrinos at the horizon. The primary background for this analysis is bundles of downgoing, high-energy muons from the interaction of cosmic rays in the atmosphere. No statistically significant excess above the expected background is seen in the data, and an upper limit is set on the diffuse all-flavor neutrino flux of E{sup 2} {Phi}{sub 90%CL} < 2.7 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} valid over the energy range of 2 x 10{sup 5} GeV to 10{sup 9} GeV. A number of models which predict neutrino fluxes from active galactic nuclei are excluded at the 90% confidence level.
Date: November 19, 2007
Creator: Collaboration, IceCube; Klein, Spencer & Ackermann, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission properties of the heaviest elements

Description: The authors discuss fission properties of the heaviest elements. In particular they focus on stability with respect to spontaneous fission and on the prospects of extending the region of known nuclei beyond the peninsula of currently known nuclides.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Moller, P. & Nix, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDEPENDENT PARTICLE ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR DYNAMICS

Description: A generalization of the independent particle model from nuclear statics to nuclear dynamics is sought. Attention is centered on the average behavior of nuclear dynamics, as opposed to detailed behavior, such as that characteristic of shell effects in nuclear statics. In many situations, all that is needed is a model of dissipation in nuclear dynamics. Completely independent nucleons produce dissipation only when they interact with the surface of a nucleus or when they cross from one nucleus to another. The first possibility manifests itself whenever a nuclear surface deforms. Dissipation is then described by a simple 'wall formula.' The second mechanism for dissipation is relevant whenever two nuclei are moving relative to one another and are in sufficient contact that nucleons can move between them. Another simple expression, the 'window formula,' describes dissipation in this case. Neither of the two formulae has any free parameters.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Robel, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Star-Formation in Low Radio Luminosity AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Description: We investigate faint radio emission from low- to high-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Their radio properties are inferred by coadding large ensembles of radio image cut-outs from the FIRST survey, as almost all of the sources are individually undetected. We correlate the median radio flux densities against a range of other sample properties, including median values for redshift, [O III] luminosity, emission line ratios, and the strength of the 4000{angstrom} break. We detect a strong trend for sources that are actively undergoing star-formation to have excess radio emission beyond the {approx} 10{sup 28} ergs s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1} level found for sources without any discernible star-formation. Furthermore, this additional radio emission correlates well with the strength of the 4000{angstrom} break in the optical spectrum, and may be used to assess the age of the star-forming component. We examine two subsamples, one containing the systems with emission line ratios most like star-forming systems, and one with the sources that have characteristic AGN ratios. This division also separates the mechanism responsible for the radio emission (star-formation vs. AGN). For both cases we find a strong, almost identical, correlation between [O III] and radio luminosity, with the AGN sample extending toward lower, and the star-formation sample toward higher luminosities. A clearer separation between the two subsamples is seen as function of the central velocity dispersion {sigma} of the host galaxy. For systems at similar redshifts and values of {sigma}, the star-formation subsample is brighter than the AGN in the radio by an order of magnitude. This underlines the notion that the radio emission in star-forming systems can dominate the emission associated with the AGN.
Date: April 18, 2007
Creator: de Vries, W H; Hodge, J A; Becker, R H; White, R L & Helfand, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE OUTLOOK IN HYPERNUCLEAR PHYSICS

Description: Information on the properties of the nuclear interactions of hyperons, weak interactions of the hyperon ( LAMBDA ), and properties of nuclei that could be obtained by studying hypernuclei is discussed. Experiments that should be able to give relevant information in the near future are considered. (D.C.W.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Dalitz, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial Eccentricity in Deformed 197Au+197Au and 238U+238U Collisions at RHIC

Description: Initial eccentricity and eccentricity fluctuations of the interaction volume created in relativistic collisions of deformed {sup 197}Au and {sup 238}U nuclei are studied using optical and Monte-Carlo (MC) Glauber simulations. It is found that the non-sphericity noticeably influences the average eccentricity in central collisions and eccentricity fluctuations are enhanced due to deformation. Quantitative results are obtained for Au+Au and U+U collisions at energy {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV.
Date: July 7, 2010
Creator: Filip, Peter; Lednicky, Richard; Masui, Hiroshi & Xu, Nu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anharmonic vibrator description of collective nuclei

Description: It is shown that a simple anharmonic vibrator model can account for the properties of yrast states in collective nuclei, as well as the quasi-band states built on the {gamma}-vibration or on the O{sub 2}{sup +} state. This description extends from nearly harmonic vibrator nuclei to pure rotor nuclei and encompasses both energies and B(E2) values. It survives both ``horizontal`` and ``vertical`` perspectives on the data of nuclear physics and offers a challenge to microscopic theories of nuclear structure.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Casten, R.F. & Zamfir, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superdeformation in the mass A {approximately} 80 region

Description: A new island of superdeformed nuclei with major-to-minor axis ratio of 2:1 has recently been discovered in the A {approximately} 80 medium-mass region, confirming the predictions for the existence of a large SD gap at particle number N,Z {approximately} 44. The general properties of more than 20 bands observed so far will be reviewed here, and compared with those of the superdeformed bands in the heavier nuclei.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Baktash, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Searching for E(5) behavior in nuclei

Description: The properties of even-even nuclei with 30 {le} Z {le} 82, A {ge} 60 have been examined to find examples displaying the characteristics of E(5) critical-point behavior for the shape transition from a spherical vibrator to a triaxially soft rotor. On the basis of the known experimental state energies and E2 transition strengths, the best candidates that were identified are {sup 102}Pd, {sup 106,108}Cd, {sup 124}Te, {sup 128}Xe, and {sup 134}Ba. The closest agreement between experimental data and the predictions of E(5) is for {sup 128}Xe and for the previously suggested example of {sup 134}Ba. It is proposed that {sup 128}Xe may be a new example of a nucleus at the E(5) critical point.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Descovich, M.; Diamond, R.M; Fallon, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New theoretical results on the proton decay of deformed and near-spherical nuclei.

Description: We discuss new theoretical results on the decay of deformed and near-spherical nuclei. We interpret the latest experimental results on deformed odd-A proton emitters, including fine structure, and discuss the use of particle-vibration coupling to calculate the decay rates of near-spherical emitters.
Date: February 18, 2002
Creator: Davids, C. N. & Esbensen, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modelling crystal-field interaction for f-elements in LaCl{sub 3}

Description: The results of crystal field calculations in the framework of exchange charge model (ECM) are reported for trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions doped into LaCl{sub 3}. Whereas the scalar strength of the model crystal field parameters are consistent with that previously determined by fitting the experimental data, the sign of the second-order parameter is found to be negative, in contrast to previous reports. The contribution from long-range electrostatic interactions exceeds that from the nearest neighboring ligands and leads to the negative sign of the second-order crystal field parameter. Other interaction mechanisms including overlap, covalence, and charge exchange are less important to the second order parameter, but dominate the fourth-and sixth-order parameters. This work provides a consistent interpretation of the previously controversial experimental results for both lanthanide and actinide ions in this classical host.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Zhorin, V.V. & Liu, G.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic Studies in Nuclei

Description: This talk is devoted to a brief review of the experimental program for the new generation of multi GeV continuous beam electron accelerator facilities. First, the kinematic variables used in electron scattering are reviewed, three experiments which are representative of previous work in this field are described, and some comparisons are made between electron and hadronic probes. The main part of the talk then describes seven experiemnts proposed for the future. These are concerned with the structure of light nuclei, the structure of mesons, and baryons, the influence of the nuclear medium on hadronic interaction, and the weak interactions.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Gross, Franz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department