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Timer modules for radiation detection systems

Description: In developing radiation detection instrumentation at Rocky Flats, a system concept using plug-in modules was planned. Losses of operational time due to maintenance are drastically reduced as a malfunctioning module can be replaced within minutes. Versatility is another advantage of the modular concept and a particular module can be used in many different system designs. A significant cost savings in system development can also be realized. Two of the timers described are housed in two-wide Nuclear Instrumentation Bin (NIM-BIN) modules and a third model in a one-wide NIM-BIN module. The design uses the latest COS/ MOS (complimentary symmetry metal-oxide semiconductor) integrated circuitry, featuring low power, low cost, and high reliability. These modules were developed specifically for radiation detection systems. Model 24370-21 is used in gross alpha detection systems. Model 27213-21 appears in a medical wound- counter system and the third, Model 27213-23, operates in a gamma spectrometer system. These modules can have application in other related systems as well. Operational procedures and servicing are included. (auth)
Date: March 29, 1974
Creator: Martin, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A brief review of nuclear electronics standards . . . Past, present and future

Description: Modular Nuclear Instrument Standards have played a key role in U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories and similar scientific laboratories worldwide for more than three decades. The scientific and engineering efficiency and economic benefits have been well documented. Standards are constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies and the present is a time of rapid change. This report is based on an invited talk presented at the Joint Meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) and European Standards for Norms in Electronics (ESONE) Standards Committees, Lyon, France, October 20, 2000. It provides a brief overview of past developments and attempts to identify areas of possible opportunities for renewed standardization efforts to meet future challenges.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Larsen, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaler modules for radiation detection systems

Description: In developing radiation detection instrumentation at Rocky Flats, a system concept using plug-in modules was planned. Losses of operational time due to maintenance are drastically reduced as a malfunctioning module can be replaced within minutes. Versatility is another advantage of the modular concept and a particular module can be used in many different system designs. A significant cost savings in system development can also be realized. The scalers described are housed in one-wide Nuclear Instrumentation Bin (NIM-BIN) modules. The design incorporates the latest in COS/MOS (complementary symmetry metal-oxide semiconductor) integrated circuitry, featuring low power, low cost, and high reliability. These inodules were developed specifically for radiation detection systems. Model 24370-31 is used in gross alpha detection systems. Model 27213- 30 appears in a medical wound-counter system, but can be used also in a gamma spectrometer system, or in other related systems. Operational procedures and servicing of units are included. (auth)
Date: March 28, 1974
Creator: Martin, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

Description: The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards.
Date: September 18, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard NIM instrumentation system

Description: NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.
Date: May 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Acquisition Systems. Final Report

Description: The program has included continued extension and maintenance of the specifications for data acquisition systems for high energy physics applications. Work continued on the study, development and specification of the FASTBUS system and of other systems to meet the changing needs of the community. The approach has maximized the use of available, technology, systems, subsystems, and components. Work on a version of FASTBUS optimized for accelerator and experiment control applications, and interfaces to other busses has been examined to see to what extent existing systems can be utilized. Processing of the revised editions the ANSI/IEEE standards was be pursued so that they can be published in 1994. This applies also to the corresponding international standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) though the international processing is expected to take somewhat longer. The project provides a clearing house for data acquisition system information and maintains liaison with and collaborates with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories and national and international laboratories involved with data acquisition and control systems for high energy and nuclear physics.
Date: March 22, 1994
Creator: Costrell, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NDT-COMP9 microcomputer

Description: An 8080-based microcomputer system, the NDT-COMP9, has been designed for instrumentation control and data analysis in eddy-current tests. The NDT-COMP9 represents a significantly more powerful computer system than the NDT-COMP8 microcomputer from which it was developed. The NDT-COMP9 system is contained on a 240- by 120-mm (9.5- by 4.8-in.) circuit board and will fit in a four-wide Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) BIN with 26-pin edge connectors. In addition to the 8080-compatible central processing unit (CPU), an arithmetic processing unit (APU) is available to provide up to 32-bit fixed- or floating-point, basic or transcendental math functions. The 16K of read only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM), one serial input-output (I/O) port (RS-232-C at a maximum speed of 9600 baud), and 72 parallel I/O ports are available. The baud rate is under software control. A system monitor and math package are available for use with the microcomputer.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Dodd, C.V. & Cowan, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RangerMaster{trademark}: Real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

Description: RangerMaster{trademark} is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor`s integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger{trademark}. The Ranger{trademark}, which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster{trademark} software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an easy mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger{trademark} now includes medical isotopes {sup 99}Tc, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 111}In, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 103}Pa, and {sup 131}I; industrial isotopes {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 207}Bi; and nuclear materials {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 239}Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH. The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Murray, W.S.; Ziemba, F. & Szluk, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision programmable bipolar V/f instrumentation module

Description: A precision bipolar voltage-to-frequency converter, which is computer-programmable from a digital interface, has been produced. Utilizing NIM packaging, the 1 MHz V/f has sixteen ranges and may be operated from panel controls as well as remotely programmed. Intended for use in magnetic measurements, good performance and versatility suggest wider application. The instrument is described and the circuit design is discussed in detail. Tests of the first unit are discussed and instrument specifications are given.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hearn, W.E.; Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.H. & Rondeau, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quad nanosecond delay module

Description: Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B. & Wozniak, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New approach to timing: the fast--fast system

Description: A dual channel constant fraction timing discriminator incorporating multiple energy windows and coincidence logic has been developed. Incorporation of energy discrimination and fast coincidence logic into the timing channel has distinct advantages in terms of system simplicity, stability and data rates. A prototype applying the F$sup 2$ approach has been constructed and tested. The system gives a $sup 60$Co FWHM of approximately 210 psec at a singles rate of greater than 7.5 x 10$sup 5$ sec$sup -1$ (approximately 1200 coincidences/sec). (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Hardy, W.H. II & Lynn, K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shift register neutron coincidence module

Description: A neutron coincidence module was designed using multistage shift registers to produce the coincidence gates and a crystal controlled oscillator with variable clock outputs to change the gate lengths. The advantage of this system over the conventional, thermal-neutron coincidence gates is a decrease in deadtime by more than an order of magnitude. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Stephens, M.M.; Swansen, J.E. & East, L.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORCODE. 77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

Description: ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.
Date: March 29, 1977
Creator: Dickens, J. K. & McConnell, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quad fourfold (4 X 4) logic unit (LBL No. 21X6421 P-1)

Description: A quad fourfold (4 x 4) logic unit has been designed and packaged in a single-width NIM module for use in nuclear and atomic physics experiments. The four inputs of each unit are combined internally to perform logical AND, OR, and VETO functions. A set of eight DIP switches on the front panel select either the input signal or its complement, trigger slope, output pulse duration, and positive or negative logic on the overlap signal. A one-shot multivibrator may be triggered on either the positive or negative-going slope of the overlap signal to form the shaped output. The output width can be adjusted between approx.50 ns and 50 ..mu..sec with two coarse ranges and a twenty-turn potentiometer. An LED attached to the one-shot gives a visual indication of the output rate. 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: R.J., Mcdonald; Landis, D.A.; Maier, R.M.; Rude, B.S. & Wozniak, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quad time-to-amplitude converter (LBL No. 21X9191 P-1)

Description: Four Time-to-Amplitude Converters (TACs) have been designed and packaged in a single-width NIM module. These moderate-resolution units (/approximately/0.1/percent/ full scale) are ideal for applications where large numbers of TACs are required because of the high packing density provided by the quad configuration. Full-scale ranges of 100 ns, 300 ns, 1 ..mu..s, and 3 ..mu..s are switch selectable. Read out of each unit may be either internally or externally controlled. All units may be read out at the same time via a common /open quotes/group readout/close quotes/. The readout time is adjustable between 2 and 20 ..mu..s. An LED indicates a valid event. 4 figs.
Date: February 1988
Creator: McDonald, R. J.; Landis, D. A. & Wozniak, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computerized CAMAC and NIM module library

Description: The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory owns a large number of CAMAC and NIM modules which can be connected together to form data acquisition systems used in experiments. Many of these modules are contained in pools'' for common usage. This paper describes a system of storage and inventory control that allows easy check-out and check-in of the modules utilizing networked Macintosh computers, FoxBase+/Mac software, and bar-code technology. It also provides search capability for the user and tracking capability for the pool administrator. This inventory system has applications to any pool of items that are routinely loaned. 8 figs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Pope, G.F. & McDonald, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of neural network and pattern recognition software to the automated analysis of continuous nuclear monitoring of on-load reactors

Description: Automated analysis using pattern recognition and neural network software can help interpret data, call attention to potential anomalies, and improve safeguards effectiveness. Automated software analysis, based on pattern recognition and neural networks, was applied to data collected from a radiation core discharge monitor system located adjacent to an on-load reactor core. Unattended radiation sensors continuously collect data to monitor on-line refueling operations in the reactor. The huge volume of data collected from a number of radiation channels makes it difficult for a safeguards inspector to review it all, check for consistency among the measurement channels, and find anomalies. Pattern recognition and neural network software can analyze large volumes of data from continuous, unattended measurements, thereby improving and automating the detection of anomalies. The authors developed a prototype pattern recognition program that determines the reactor power level and identifies the times when fuel bundles are pushed through the core during on-line refueling. Neural network models were also developed to predict fuel bundle burnup to calculate the region on the on-load reactor face from which fuel bundles were discharged based on the radiation signals. In the preliminary data set, which was limited and consisted of four distinct burnup regions, the neural network model correctly predicted the burnup region with an accuracy of 92%.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Howell, J. A.; Eccleston, G. W.; Halbig, J. K.; Klosterbuer, S. F. & Larson, T. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Four Channel 250 MHz Visual Counter

Description: A visual counter rated at 250 mhz. with a pulse-pair resolution of 2.6 nanoseconds for nuclear instrument module (NIM) signals has been designed. Pulse widths for NIM signals must be equal to or greater than 2 ns. The counter has a separate input for transistor-transistor logic (TTL) signals and for this logic level it operates at rates equal to or less than 190 mhz. TTL pulses must be greater than 4 ns. The design was implemented on a printed circuit card. Four of these cards were packaged into a single unit resulting in a four channel device that can be mounted into a 19 inch rack. Seven units were built; they are presently used in the experimental area and in the Main Control Room of the Bevalac. The counter accepts well defined NIM or TTL signals internally terminated with 50 ohms. All the controls and the signal input connectors are located on the front panel. An Overflow output, Gate, and Reset inputs are located on the back panel. The counters have 8 Light Emitting Diode digit displays which are 20.3 mm high with a viewing distance rating of 10 meters. Light filters are used for the LED displays greatly enhancing their visibility.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Flores, I.; Blando, P.; Crawford, H.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Ko, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department