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AEC Hot Cells and Related Facilities

Description: Foreward: The primary purpose of this report is to present as an accumulation of basic information on the hot cells constructed to date by the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
Date: May 1958
Creator: Fosdick, Ellery R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cost of NEPA Alternatives

Description: "The objective of this study is to provide an up-to-date documentation of the costs of nuclear electrical generating plants as they relate to site characteristics, in the following areas and systems: Main condenser cooling systems, Transmission, Site access, Food Protection, Plant site earthwork."
Date: August 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improving the Safeguardability of Nuclear Facilities

Description: The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to reduce security risks and proliferation hazards while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency, in a world where significant expansion of nuclear energy use may occur. Correspondingly, the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) includes objectives to contribute to international efforts to develop SBD, and to apply SBD in the development of new U.S. nuclear infrastructure. Here, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical protection, and safety objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility, from initial planning through design, construction and operation. The SBD process, in its simplest form, may be applied usefully today within most national regulatory environments. Development of a mature approach to implementing SBD requires work in the areas of requirements definition, design processes, technology and methodology, and institutionalization. The U.S. efforts described in this paper are supportive of SBD work for international safeguards that has recently been initiated by the IAEA with the participation of many stakeholders including member States, the IAEA, nuclear technology suppliers, nuclear utilities, and the broader international nonproliferation community.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Bjornard, T.; Bari, R.; Hebditch, D.; Peterson, P. & Schanfein, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Treatment of Plutonium-Bearing Solutions: a Brief Survey of the DOE Complex

Description: With the abrupt shutdown of some DOE facilities, a significant volume of in-process material was left in place and still requires treatment for interim storage. Because the systems containing these process streams have deteriorated since shutdown, a portable system for treating the solutions may be useful. A brief survey was made of the DOE complex on the need for a portable treatment system to treat plutonium-bearing solutions. A survey was completed to determine (1) the compositions and volumes of solutions and heels present, (2) the methods that have been used to treat these solutions and heels in the past, and (3) the potential problems that exist in removing and treating these solutions. Based on the surveys and on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1, design criteria for a portable treatment system were generated.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Chen, L. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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River Corridor Buildings 324 & 327 Cleanup

Description: A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.
Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Bazzell, K. D. & Smith, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS

Description: The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Zull, Lawrence M.; Meservey, Richard H. & Boing, Lawrence E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR PLANNING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENGINEERING AND DESIGN ACTIVITIES TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF DOE ORDER 413.3A, PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR THE ACQUISITION OF CAPITAL ASSETS

Description: This paper provides guidance in applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3A to Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) projects. A list of 41 engineering and design activities relevant to D&D projects was generated. For several activities in this list, examples of the level of development and/or types of deliverables that might be expected at the completion of the conceptual, preliminary and final project design phases described in the Order are provided.
Date: November 6, 2007
Creator: Santos, J & John Gladden, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of DOE complex wide authorized release protocols for radioactive scrap metals.

Description: Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under the current DOE policy. The provisions for supporting this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. The objective of this study is to develop readily usable computer-based release protocols to facilitate implementation of the Handbook in evaluating the scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The protocols provide DOE with an effective oversight tool for managing release activities.
Date: November 23, 1998
Creator: Chen, S. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

Description: During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay & Senglaub, Michael E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Final deactivation project report on the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility, Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility (Building 3019B) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities. This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This document provides a history and description of the facility prior to the commencement of deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous materials inventory, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3019B will require access to perform required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3019B was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 Program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M until decommissioning activities begin.
Date: September 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of possible damage/degradation of the Sandia National Laboratories Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD).

Description: This report describes the results of an inspection performed on the existing stock of SNL Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeters (PNADs). The current stock is approximately 20 years old, and has not been examined since their initial acceptance. A small random sample of PNADs were opened (a destructive process) and the contents visually examined. Sample contents were not degraded and indicate that the existing stock of SNL PNADs is acceptable for continued use.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Potter, Charles Augustus & Ward, Dann C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

Description: For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.
Date: November 2003
Creator: Stockton, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

Description: This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104.
Date: August 26, 1994
Creator: Sathyanarayana, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

Description: These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: JOHNSON, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Waste management aspects of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) projects

Description: History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D&D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively now concept) but are also facing the prospect of not beinq able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that tho waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. This paper attempts to provide some guidance to D&D managers to help then avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Becker, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

325 Facility Special Case Waste Disposition Alternatives Analysis

Description: This report addresses the disposition strategy relating to special-case waste (SCW) managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. All of PNNL’s SCW currently resides in the 325 Facility of Hanford’s 300 Area. This facility is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), by PNNL. Due to the high activity levels of the waste and difficulties in characterizing, classifying, and packaging it to meet the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE 1998a), the materials were listed as SCW under the Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et.al.). The Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.
Date: August 30, 1999
Creator: Mccoy, Michael W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Waste Management at SRS - Making It Happen

Description: The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M&O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Heenan, T. F. & Kelly, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interface control document between PFP Transition Project and Solid Waste Disposal Division

Description: This interface control document between Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Transition Project and Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) establishes the functional responsibilities of each division where interface exist between the two divisions. The document includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities.
Date: January 13, 1995
Creator: Venetz, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Groundwater Pathway Scoping Analysis for Disposal of APT and TEF Wastes

Description: The methods used to analyze the long-term performance of APT and TEF waste, with respect to the groundwater pathway, disposed in Intermediate Level vaults are described in this report. The purpose of this work is to reduce the number of radionuclides that need to be considered in a detailed analysis of performance. A methodology was selected that is more rigorous than the screening analysis described earlier1, but still conservative enough that radionuclides shown to have minimal dose impact using the methodology can be neglected with assurance that they would not have produced significant results if included in a detailed computer model.
Date: September 16, 1998
Creator: Cook, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Task 21 - Development of Systems Engineering Applications for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

Description: The objectives of this task are to: Develop a model (paper) to estimate the cost and waste generation of cleanup within the Environmental Management (EM) complex; Identify technologies applicable to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations within the EM complex; Develop a database of facility information as linked to project baseline summaries (PBSs). The above objectives are carried out through the following four subtasks: Subtask 1--D and D Model Development, Subtask 2--Technology List; Subtask 3--Facility Database, and Subtask 4--Incorporation into a User Model.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Erickson, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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