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Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Environmental information volume

Description: The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a $5 billion technology demonstration program that was legislated by Congress to be funded jointly by the federal government and industrial or other sector participants. The goal of the Program is to make available to the U.S. energy marketplace a number of advanced, more efficient, reliable, and environmentally responsive coal utilization and environmental control technologies. These technologies are intended to reduce or eliminate the economic and environmental impediments that limit the full consideration of coal as a future energy resource. Over the next decade, the Program will advance the technical, environmental and economic performance of these advanced technologies to the point where the private sector will be able to introduce them into the commercial marketplace. Each of these demonstrations is in a scale large enough to generate sufficient design, construction and operation data for the private sector to judge the technology`s commercial potential and to make informed confident decisions on its commercial readiness. The strategy being implemented to achieve the goal of the CCT Demonstration Program is to conduct a multi-phase effort consisting of at least five separate solicitations for projects, each with individual objectives that, when integrated, will make technology options available on a schedule consistent with the demands of the energy market and responsive to the relevant environmental considerations. This paper describes a commercial demonstration project to be fielded in support of this program.
Date: December 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

Description: All the tests planed were completed. NO{sub 2} injection tests showed higher NO{sub x} reduction than that of NO injection at similar testing conditions. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency for the NO/NO{sub 2} mixture injection is higher than that for NO injection and lower than that for NO{sub 2} injection separately. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency is independent on the amount of injected gas (NO, NO{sub 2}, or NO/NO{sub 2}), but affected by the exit O{sub 2}. The optimum injection location which gives higher NO{sub x} reduction efficiency is the primary air duct. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency increases with the percentage of total NO injected into the primary air duct when injecting NO into both primary air duct and secondary air duct simultaneous.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 31, 1992

Description: NO{sub x} recycle is one part of the NOXSO process. In this process, 90% of the acid pollutants (NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}) can be removed simultaneously by adsorption on the surface of a sorbent material. The sorbent is subsequently regenerated by heating and contacting the hot sorbent with a reducing gas followed by steam. The NO{sub x} is removed in the heating process, and the SO{sub 2} is removed by the chemical reaction of the reducing gas and steam. The NO{sub x} stream produced is returned to the combustion process with combustion air, which is called the NO{sub x} recycle. The NO{sub x} is reduced in the flame to N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}. The tests of NO injection with combustion have demonstrated very promising results. The test data showed quite consistent NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies, which is similar to the previous test results on the pulverized coal combustor at DOE-PETC. An average of about 70 % NO. destruction efficiency was achieved for the NO injection into the primary air duct independent of injected NO flow rates and exit 02 concentrations. About 58%, 50%, and 46% average destruction efficiencies were obtained for the NO injection into the secondary air duct corresponding to the exit O{sub 2}concentrations of 2%, 3%, and 4% respectively.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1989--July 1989

Description: This project is being performed by MK-Ferguson Company for the U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The project is a pilot plant scale up from laboratory testing of the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. The process simultaneously removes both sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gas. The objective of this project is to prove the NOXSO Process can achieve the same SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies under field conditions as achieved in laboratory tests. The project is a scale-up of previous laboratory tests. The project will be built at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Station a coal fired power plant located in Toronto Ohio. The pilot plant will process a 12000 SCFM slip stream of flue gas from the power plant. The project is divided into 6 tasks. The purpose of Task 1 is to establish a work plan that covers in detail all the activities related to the successful completion of the project. Task 2 consists of the design and construction of the pilot Plant. Task 3 consists of an experimental program to define both operating conditions and performance data to support Task 4. Task 4 primary activities to conduct a long duration test which attains continuous 90% sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal rates. Task 5 will be the conceptual design of a 500MW including an economic evaluation of the conceptual design. Task 6 will be the demolition of the pilot plant and restoration of the site.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gilbert, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 14, June 1, 1994--August 31, 1994

Description: The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} ...
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, March 1--May 31, 1993

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, September 1--November 30, 1991

Description: The NOXSO Process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO Process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit 1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit 1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

Description: The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

Description: The NOXSO Process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO Process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by- product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. The objective of the NOXSO Clean Coal Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} from the flue gas from the 150-MW equivalent, unit 2 boiler. The by-product to be generated by the project is liquid SO{sub 2}. Sufficient construction cost and operating data will be obtained during the project to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is in the Front End Engineering/Environmental Evaluation Phase. Engineering activities are approximately 20% complete and activities to update the project estimate based on completed engineering and equipment bids have been initiated. Process study activities include laboratory fluid-bed adsorber studies, regenerator computer model development and studies, fluid-flow modelling in fluid-bed vessels, and evaluations of SO{sub 2} production processes. The laboratory- scale, fluid-bed adsorber studies are being conducted to improve the accuracy of the removal efficiency predictions and study the impact of adding a third adsorber stage. The construction of the steel, multi-stage reactor is currently underway. The regenerator computer model was revised and is being used to study design options for improving the regenerator performance. Fluid-flow modelling has been conducted to study the effect of grid supports on the gas flow inside the fluid bed vessels.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, March 1--May 31, 1992

Description: The NOXSO Process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. This project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, June 1--August 31, 1993

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

Description: NO{sub x} recycle represents one part of the NOXSO process. This process can remove 90% of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously from flue gas by using a fluidized bed of sorbent. Spent sorbent is regenerated by treatment at high temperatures with a reducing gas. Adsorbed NO{sub x} is evolved on heating the sorbent to a regeneration temperature. The concentrated stream of NO{sub x} produced is returned to the boiler with the combustion air and reduced in the flame, which is called NO{sub x} recycle. The concept of NO{sub x} recycle has been experimentally evaluated at the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). NO{sub x} destruction has been demonstrated on a 500 lb/hr pulverized coal combustor and a 1.7 MMBtu/hr tunnel furnace combustor firing both natural gas and coal-water slurry. The NO{sub x} recycle experimental study discussed in this report and performed on Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)`s six MMBtu/hr Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) is a pilot-scale test. The objective is to provide further fundamental understanding and necessary information for the NOXSO full-scale demonstration at Ohio Edison`s Niles Power Plant which uses the same type of cyclone burners. The experimental testing included injection of NO, NO{sub x} and different combinations of NO/NO{sub 2} with tile primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) to the combustor. Results are consistent with earlier test data obtained on PETC`s facility and will be used for the design of the NOXSO commercial demonstration plant at Niles.
Date: March 1993
Creator: Zhou, Q.; Haslbeck, J. L. & Neal, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the integrated environmental control model: Performance and cost models for the NOXSO process. Quarterly progress report

Description: This Quarterly Report documents research efforts carried out under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC91346 from the US Department of Energy. lie purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) under contract Numbers DE-FG2283PC60271 and DE-AC22-87PC79864. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. This report presents additional details on the new performance models of the NOXSO process. For convenience, the complete description of the NOXSO performance model is presented here, including information previously presented in the Quarterly Report submitted in April 1995. Also included in this report is a newly developed cost model for the NOXSO process. Illustrative results are presented using the new performance and cost models as implemented in the IECM.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Kalagnanam, J.R. & Rubin, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 31, 1992

Description: NO{sup x} recycle represents one part of the NOXSO process. This process can remove 90% of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously from flue gas by using a fluidized bed of sorbent. Spent sorbent is regenerated by treatment at high temperatures with a reducing gas. Adsorbed NO{sub X} is evolved on heating the sorbent to a regeneration temperature. The concentrated stream of NO{sub x} produced is returned to the boiler with the combustion air and reduced in the flame, which is called NO{sub x} recycle. In the previous reporting period (from April to June), NO injection series of tests have been completed. Part of NO simultaneous injection and NO{sub 2} injection tests were conducted. All the test results showed consistent trends. About 70% average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency has been achieved when NO is injected into the primary air duct, which was not affected by the NO injection flow rate, the furnace load and exit O{sub 2} concentration. When NO is injected into the secondary air duct, the NO{sub x} reduction efficiency ranges from 46% to 60 % with dependence on the exit O{sub 2} concentration. The NO simultaneous injection tests showed that the NO{sub x} reduction efficiency increases with the percentage of total NO injected into the primary air duct. About 67% average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency was demonstrated with injection of NO{sub 2} into the secondary air duct, which is higher than that with injection of NO at the same test conditions.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the integrated environmental control model: Performance model for the NOXSO process. Quarterly progress report

Description: In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The most recent version of the IECM, implemented on a MacIntosh II computer, was delivered to DOE/PETC at the end of the last contract in May 1991. The current contract will continue the model development effort to provide DOE/PETC with improved model capabilities, including new software developments to facilitate model use and new technical capabilities for analysis of environmental control technologies. Integrated environmental control systems involving pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion control methods will be considered. Phase I involves developing the existing modules of the IECM. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the use of the updated models. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period January 1 - March 31, 1995. A preliminary summary is given of the new performance model developed for the NOXSO process. The performance model is developed from first principles and parametrized based on experimental data from pilot plants.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Kalagnanam, J.R. & Rubin, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

Description: The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.
Date: April 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, September 1--November 30, 1993

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering studies provided information to decide on the basic plant arrangement. A scaled up POC design was selected as the general arrangement of choice based on a cost versus technical risk assessment. The first step in developing an adsorber computer simulation was completed. Several processes for producing liquid SO{sub 2} from the regenerator offgas were developed and evaluated. It was concluded that the Claus and burn process which involves making elemental sulfur as an intermediate product was the best choice. The NOXSO process computer simulation was updated to include semi-plug solids flow through the fluidized beds ...
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

Description: The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative flue gas treatment technologies for integrated SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control

Description: Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue gas cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Markussen, J.M. & Livengood, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Life cycle test of the NOXSO process

Description: This paper summarizes the data generated by the NOXSO Life Cycle Test Unit (LCTU). The NOXSO process is a dry flue gas treatment system that employs a reusable sorbent. The sorbent consists of sodium carbonate impregnated on a high-surface-area gamma alumina. A fluidized bed of sorbent simultaneously removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas at a temperature of 250{degrees}F. The spent sorbent is regenerated for reuse by treatment at high temperature with a reducing gas. This regeneration reduces sorbed sulfur compounds to SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and elemental sulfur. The SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are then converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus-type reactor. The sulfur produced is a marketable by-product of the process. Absorbed nitrogen oxides are decomposed and evolved on heating the sorbent to regeneration temperature.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Ma, W. T.; Haslbeck, J. L. & Neal, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 18--December 31, 1991

Description: This current project is pilot-scale testing of NO{sub x} recycle. The objective is to provide further fundamental understanding and useful information for its implementation at the Niles station. A Babcock & Wilcox`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) has been chosen to perform the tests. The SBS is the same type of cyclone furnace as that at Niles and simulates a large cyclone unit very well. The project involves conducting a series of tests which include injecting NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and simulated NO{sub x} recycle stream respectively. The work performed during this reporting period focused on the site preparation, shakedown tests, and baseline tests. The shakedown testing of NO injection into the primary air stream alone and the secondary air stream alone showed promising results. A large amount of NO injected into furnace was destroyed, especially when the NO was injected into the primary air duct. However, the measuring instrumentation needs to be improved to give accurate data.
Date: February 19, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emerging flue-gas cleanup technologies for combined control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}

Description: Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Livengood, C. D. & Markussen, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department