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National Monarchy and Norway, 1898-1905: a Study of the Establishment of the Modern Norwegian Monarchy

Description: The study then focuses on the Bernadotte candidacy as the practical expression of a Norwegian desire for a national monarchy. Reaction to the candidacy is analyzed and, although it proved unsuccessful, the strength of the idea is again evident when the government shifted its focus to the secondary candidacy of Denmark's Prince Carl. During the debate over the candidates for the throne, the underlying theme which developed was the question of Norway's form of government-- monarchy or republic.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Leiren, Terje Ivan
Partner: UNT Libraries


Description: Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A three-week trip to Statoil Research Centre in Trondheim, Norway, was made in the summer of 2003. This visit consisted of gathering data and collaborating with scientists working on the Sleipner project. The trip ended with a presentation of the seafloor gravity results to date at a SACS2 (Saline Aquifer CO{sub 2} Storage 2) meeting. This meeting provided the perfect opportunity to meet and gather information from the world's experts on the Sleipner project.
Date: November 17, 2003
Creator: Zuberge, Mark; Nooner, Scott & Sasagawa, Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study

Description: The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally ...
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T. & Marnay, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An open letter to the unconquerable Norwegians.

Description: A poem praising the Norwegians for defying the Nazis in World War II. The text of the poem is framed by a painting depicting a blond-haired man, woman and child. The man wears overalls and the woman and child wear kerchiefs on their heads. The man is holding a pitchfork. In the background are a haystack and a traditional Norwegian loft house.
Date: unknown
Creator: Dohanos, Stevan, 1907-1994. & Auslander, Joseph, 1897-1965.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superresolution with Seismic Arrays using Empirical Matched Field Processing

Description: Scattering and refraction of seismic waves can be exploited with empirical matched field processing of array observations to distinguish sources separated by much less than the classical resolution limit. To describe this effect, we use the term 'superresolution', a term widely used in the optics and signal processing literature to denote systems that break the diffraction limit. We illustrate superresolution with Pn signals recorded by the ARCES array in northern Norway, using them to identify the origins with 98.2% accuracy of 549 explosions conducted by closely-spaced mines in northwest Russia. The mines are observed at 340-410 kilometers range and are separated by as little as 3 kilometers. When viewed from ARCES many are separated by just tenths of a degree in azimuth. This classification performance results from an adaptation to transient seismic signals of techniques developed in underwater acoustics for localization of continuous sound sources. Matched field processing is a potential competitor to frequency-wavenumber and waveform correlation methods currently used for event detection, classification and location. It operates by capturing the spatial structure of wavefields incident from a particular source in a series of narrow frequency bands. In the rich seismic scattering environment, closely-spaced sources far from the observing array nonetheless produce distinct wavefield amplitude and phase patterns across the small array aperture. With observations of repeating events, these patterns can be calibrated over a wide band of frequencies (e.g. 2.5-12.5 Hertz) for use in a power estimation technique similar to frequency-wavenumber analysis. The calibrations enable coherent processing at high frequencies at which wavefields normally are considered incoherent under a plane wave model.
Date: March 24, 2010
Creator: Harris, D B & Kvaerna, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report includes technical progress made during the period October 2001 to October 2002. At the end of the first technical progress report the project was moving from feasibility of equipment design work to application of this equipment to the actual site for potential demonstration. The effort focuses on reservoir analysis cost estimations of not only the sub-sea processing unit but also the wells, pipelines, installation costs, operating procedures and economic modeling of the development scheme associated with these items. Geologic risk analysis was also part of the overall evaluation, which is factored into the probabilistic economic analysis. During this period two different potential sites in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed and one site in Norway was initiated but not completed during the period. A summary of these activities and results are included here.
Date: April 24, 2003
Creator: Cousins, E. (Eddie) T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applying the LANL Statistical Pattern Recognition Paradigm for Structural Health Monitoring to Data from a Surface-Effect Fast Patrol Boat

Description: This report summarizes the analysis of fiber-optic strain gauge data obtained from a surface-effect fast patrol boat being studied by the staff at the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (NDRE) in Norway and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. Data from two different structural conditions were provided to the staff at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The problem was then approached from a statistical pattern recognition paradigm. This paradigm can be described as a four-part process: (1) operational evaluation, (2) data acquisition & cleansing, (3) feature extraction and data reduction, and (4) statistical model development for feature discrimination. Given that the first two portions of this paradigm were mostly completed by the NDRE and NRL staff, this study focused on data normalization, feature extraction, and statistical modeling for feature discrimination. The feature extraction process began by looking at relatively simple statistics of the signals and progressed to using the residual errors from auto-regressive (AR) models fit to the measured data as the damage-sensitive features. Data normalization proved to be the most challenging portion of this investigation. A novel approach to data normalization, where the residual errors in the AR model are considered to be an unmeasured input and an auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is then fit to portions of the data exhibiting similar waveforms, was successfully applied to this problem. With this normalization procedure, a clear distinction between the two different structural conditions was obtained. A false-positive study was also run, and the procedure developed herein did not yield any false-positive indications of damage. Finally, the results must be qualified by the fact that this procedure has only been applied to very limited data samples. A more complete analysis of additional data taken under various operational and environmental conditions as well as other structural conditions is necessary before ...
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Sohn, Hoon; Farrar, Charles; Hunter, Norman & Worden, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

Description: On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be successfully designed to largely avoid zooplankton mortality. Sub-lethal and ecosystem effects ...
Date: June 30, 2007
Creator: Israelsson, Peter H. & Adams, E. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this project we have addressed the problem of energy partitioning at distances ranging from very local to regional for various kinds of seismic sources. On the local and regional scale (20-220 km) we have targeted events from the region offshore Western Norway where we have both natural earthquake activity as well as frequent occurrence of underwater explosions carried out by the Norwegian Navy. On the small scale we have focused on analysis of observations from an in-mine network of 16-18 sensors in the Pyhasalmi mine in central Finland. This analysis has been supplemented with 3-D finite difference wave propagation simulations in a realistic mine model to investigate the physical mechanisms that partition seismic energy in the near source region in and around the underground mine. The results from modeling and analysis of local and regional data show that mean S/P amplitude ratios for explosions and natural events differ at individual stations and are in general higher for natural events and frequency bands above 3 Hz. However, the distributions of S/P ratios for explosions and natural events overlap in all analyzed frequency bands. Thus, for individual events in our study area, S/P amplitude ratios can only assist the discrimination between an explosion or a natural event. This observation is supported by synthetic seismograms calculated for simple 1-D models which demonstrate that explosions also generate shear-wave energy if they are fired close to an interface with a strong material contrast (as is the case for most explosions), e.g., free surface or the ocean bottom. The larger difference in S/P ratios between earthquakes and explosions for higher frequencies can be explained by the fact that at low frequencies (larger wavelengths), discontinuities and structural heterogeneities in the explosion source region are stronger generators of converted S energy. The S*-phase, for example, is most ...
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Bungum, H.; Kvaerna, T. & Larsen, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

Description: The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, D; Pybus, O; Magiorkinis, G & Hatzakis, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

Description: Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Dyer, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D. & Czajkowski, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)

Description: Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.
Date: November 9, 1990
Creator: Gray, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Tennis fems]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about local tennis athletes coming to Fort Worth's Casa MaƱana to see "The Song of Norway".
Date: June 5, 1963
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Validation of Hybrid2 with the Froya Island data set

Description: To validate the simulation model Hybrid2, the authors simulated the performance of the Froeya system and compared it to measured data. The hybrid system, located on the Norwegian island of Froeya, is a wind/diesel with short-term battery storage and a dump load. Almost 17 days of system operation data are available from EFI, the Norwegian Electrical Research Institute of Norway. The same data set has been used to validate the European Wind Diesel Logistic Modeling Package (WDL) (Infield 1993, 1994). The authors input the measured time series of primary load and wind speed for this validation. As was the case for the validation of WDL, they modified the primary load to account for a gap in the measured energy balance. The wind speed was also corrected to account for the temporary unavailability of the wind turbine. When the Hybrid2 simulation is performed using the EFI input parameters for these components, the simulated energy production of the wind turbine and diesel is within 2% of the measured values. The simulated battery efficiency is much lower than was indicated in the measurements (which may be the case because the Alcad battery that was used in the simulation is not the same as the battery used in the Froeya system). Even so, the role of this short-term storage and the dispatch strategy is well represented, as shown by the good correspondence of 31% between the measured and simulated number of diesel starts. In addition, simulated fuel consumption was within 2% of the measured value, an accuracy sufficient for most design studies.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Dijk, V. van & Baring-Gould, E.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

Description: Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Singh, B. K.; Gillette, J. & Jackson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A seismic event analyzer for nuclear test ban treaty verification

Description: This paper presents an expert system that interprets seismic data from Norway's regional seismic array, NORESS, for underground nuclear weapons test ban treaty verification. Three important aspects of the expert system are (1) it emulates the problem solving behavior of the human seismic analyst using an Assumption Based Truth Maintenance System, (2) it acts as an assistant to the human analyst by automatically interpreting and presenting events for review, and (3) it enables the analyst to interactively query the system's chain of reasoning and manually perform and interpretation. The general problem of seismic treaty verification is described. The expert system is presented in terms of knowledge representation structures, assumption based reasoning system, user interface elements, and initial performance results. 8 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Mason, C.L.; Johnson, R.R. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Searfus, R.M.; Lager, D. & Canales, T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Monitoring at FGUP Atomflot and the Polyarninski Shipyard

Description: The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between military establishments of the Russian Federation, United States and Norway to reduce potential environmental threats from military installations and activities in the Arctic and enhancing the environmental security of all three countries. The goal of this project is to enhance the ability to effectively and safely perform radiological monitoring of objects at selected facilities for dismantlement of nuclear submarines and handling and disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological monitoring is needed to protect workers at the sites engaged in dismantlement of nuclear submarines, the local public and the environment. This is to be accomplished by supply of radiation monitoring equipment and the installation of centralized radiological surveillance, the PICASSO Environmental Monitoring system developed by Institute for Energy Technology, Halden, Norway. The first site selected for th e installation of PICASSO will be at the FGUP Atomflot spent nuclear fuel pad site and liquid radioactive waste treatment facility. This will be followed by an installation of PICASSO at the Mobile Processing Facility at Polyarninski Shipyard. The implementation of the PICASSO system will be integrated with the other AMEC projects at both sites. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most Russian Navy sites handling spent nuclear fuel. Dosimeters have been supplied by the US and with funds from Norway. This equipment will be used at the Polyarninski Shipyard.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Pomerville, J.; Griffith, A. G.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Endregard, M.; Sidhu, R. S.; Sundling, C-V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department