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Nitrous Oxide Supercharging of an Aircraft-Engine Cylinder

Description: Report discussing tests to determine the performance of an aircraft engine cylinder using nitrous oxide to provide additional supercharging. The test results of injecting it as a gas and calculated results of injecting it as a liquid are described.
Date: June 26, 1945
Creator: Tauschek, Max J.; Corrington, Lester C. & Huppert, Merle C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Group-Transfer Reactions of Nickel-Carbene and -Nitrene Complexes with Organoazides and Nitrous Oxide that Form New C=N, C=O, and N=N Bonds

Description: This article discusses group-transfer reactions of nickel-carbene and -nitrene complexes with organoazides and nitrous oxide that form new C=N, C=O, and N=N bonds.
Date: August 19, 2009
Creator: Harrold, Nicole D.; Waterman, Rory; Hillhouse, Gregory L. & Cundari, Thomas R., 1964-
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Tank 241-U-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 16, 1996

Description: This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-104 (Tank U-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. None of the flammable constituents were present at concentrations above the analytical instrument detection limits. Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.108% of the lower flammability limit. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in a table. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Pool, K. H.; Evans, J. C.; Hayes, J. C.; Mitroshkov, A. V.; Edwards, J. A.; Julya, J. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of oxygen cover gas and NaOH dilution on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101 waste

Description: Laboratory studies are reported of gas generation in heated waste from tank 241-SY-101. The rates of gas generation and the compositions of product gas were measured. Three types of tests are compared. The tests use: undiluted waste, waste diluted by a 54% addition of 2.5 M NaOH, and undiluted waste with a reactive cover gas of 30% Oxygen in He. The gas generation rate is reduced by dilution, increased by higher temperatures (which determines activation energies), and increased by reactions of Oxygen (these primarily produce H{sub 2}). Gases are generated as reduction products oxidation of organic carbon species by nitrite and oxygen.
Date: May 30, 1996
Creator: Person, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiolytic and Radiolytically Induced Generation of Gases from Synthetic Wastes : Final Report

Description: To better understand the processes leading to the generation and release of gases from waste tanks, the authors studied the radiolytic and thermal generation of H2, N2O, N2, O2, and NH3 in nonradioactive waste simulant solutions and slurries. The radiolytic sources for H2 are e(sub aq)⁻ and its predecessors and H atoms. Radiolysis of the water generates some H2 and an additional amount comes from the hydrogen abstraction reaction H + RH(yields) H2+R(center_dot). Nitrate scavenges e(sub aq)(sup (minus) and its predecessors whereas nitrite is the major H-atom scavenger. Computer modeling shows that if [NO3⁻] is above 0.5 M, and [NO2⁻] is above 2M, the addition of other scavengers will have little effect on the yield of H2. In the presence of organic molecules O2 is efficiently destroyed. Small yields of ammonia were measured and the yields increase linearly with dose. The nitrogen in NH3 comes from organic chelators. The yields of gases in solution depend only weakly on temperature. The rate of thermal generation of gases increases upon preirradiation, reaches a maximum, and then declines. The known radiolytic degradation products of chelators, NTA, IDA, glycolate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde, formate, oxalate, and hydroxylainine were examined for their roles in the thermal generation of H2 and N2O at 60 C. In solution or slurry only radiolytically produced Pd intermediate strongly retains H2. Radiolytic yields of N2O are strongly reduced by Cr(III). In irradiated slurry, loose and tight gas were found. The loose gas could be removed by bubbling from the slurry, but the tight gas could be released only by dissolution of the slurry.
Date: October 1993
Creator: Meisel, Dan; Jonah, Charles D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, Max S. & Sauer, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Generation from Hanford Grout Samples : Final Report

Description: The radiolytic yields of hydrogen nitrogen, oxygen, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been (gamma) irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for hydrogen and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled "virgin" waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of hydrogen and nitrogen are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(oxygen) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(nitrous oxide) = 0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90 C similar amounts of hydrogen were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of nitrogen and nitrous oxide were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from the grout samples.
Date: March 1994
Creator: Jonah, Charles D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, Max S.; Mulac, W. A. & Meisel, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rohm and Haas: Company Uses Knoxville Plant Assessment Results to Develop Best Practices Guidelines and Benchmark for Its Other Sites (Revised)

Description: Rohm and Haas conducted a plant-wide energy assessment at its Knoxville, Tennessee, chemicals manufacturing facility. The assessment identified potential annual energy savings of nearly 47,000 MMBtu in steam and fuel and 11,000 MWh in electricity. Annual cost savings were estimated at almost$1.5 million. After the assessment was replicated in California and Kentucky plants, the companys additional estimated cost savings were$500,000 annually. Additional annual energy savings were about 23,000 MMBtu and 6,000 MWh. The assessments also indicated the plants would reduce nitrous oxide emissions.
Date: July 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

Description: This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Bryan, S.A. & Pederson, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas characterization system 241-AW-101 field acceptance test procedure

Description: This document details the field Acceptance Testing of a gas characterization system being installed on waste tank 241-AW-101. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Schneider, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

Description: This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas characterization system 241-AN-105 field acceptance test procedure

Description: This document details the field Acceptance Testing of a gas characterization system being installed on waste tank 241-AN-105. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Schneider, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments

Description: The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y. & Gauglitz, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drill string gas data

Description: Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.
Date: May 12, 1998
Creator: Siciliano, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

Description: TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Holloway, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

Description: Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M. & Mendoza, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

Description: The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V. & Tingey, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and Mechanisms of NO(x) - Char Reduction

Description: The emission of nitrogen oxides from combustion of coal remains a problem of considerable interest, whether the concern is with acid rain, stratospheric ozone chemistry, or greenhouse gases. Whereas earlier the concern was focused mainly on NO (as a primary combustion product) and to a lesser extent N0{sub 2} (since it is mainly a secondary product of combustion, e.g. see ref. 1), in recent years the emissions of N{sub 2}0 have also captured considerable attention, particularly in the context of fluidized bed combustion, in which the problem appears to be most acute. The research community has only recently begun to take solid hold on the N{sub 2}0 problem. This is in part because earlier estimates of the importance of N{sub 2}0 in combustion processes were clouded by artifacts in sampling which have now been resolved. This project is concerned with the mechanism of reduction of both NO and N{sub 2}0 by carbons. It was recognized some years ago that NO formed during fluidized bed coal combustion can be heterogeneously reduced in-situ by the carbonaceous solid intermediates of combustion. This has been recently supplemented by the knowledge that heterogeneous reaction with carbon can also play an important role in reducing emissions of N{sub 2}0{sub 2}, but that the NO-carbon reactions might also contribute to formation of N{sub 2}0{sub 2}. The precise role of carbon in N{sub 2}0 reduction and formation has yet to be established, since in one case the authors of a recent study were compelled to comment that the basic knowledge of N{sub 2}0 formation and reduction still has to be improved. The same can be said of the NO-carbon system. Interest in the NO- and N{sub 2}0-char reactions has been significant in connection with both combustor modeling, as well as in design of post-combustion NO{sub x} control strategies.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Suuberg, E.M.; Lilly, W.D. & Aarna, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flammable gas tank safety program: Data requirements for core sample analysis developed through the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Revision 1

Description: This document represents the application of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. The product of this effort is a list of data required from tank core sample analysis to support resolution of this issue.
Date: April 28, 1995
Creator: McDuffie, N.G. & LeClair, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and mechanisms of NO{sub x} - char reduction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

Description: The emission of nitrogen oxides from combustion of coal remains a problem of considerable interest, whether the concern is with acid rain, stratospheric ozone chemistry, or {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases. Whereas earlier the concern was focused mainly on NO (as a primary combustion product) and to a lesser extent NO{sub 2} (since it is mainly a secondary product of combustion), in recent years the emissions of N{sub 2}O have also captured considerable attention, particularly in the context of fluidized bed combustion, in which the problem appears to be most acute. The research community has only recently begun to take solid hold on the N{sub 2}O problem. This is in part because earlier estimates of the importance of N{sub 2}O in combustion processes were clouded by artifacts in sampling which have now been resolved. This project is concerned with the mechanism of reduction of both NO and N{sub 2}O by carbons.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Suuberg, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and mechanisms of NO{sub x}: Char reduction. Quarterly technical progress report, 31 January 1995--30 April 1995

Description: This project is concerned with the mechanism of reduction of both NO and N{sub 2}O by carbons. It was recognized some years ago that NO formed during fluidized bed coal combustion can be heterogeneously reduced in-situ by the carbonaceous solid intermediates of combustion. This has been recently supplemented by the knowledge that heterogeneous reaction with carbon can also play an important role in reducing emissions of N{sub 2}, but that the NO-carbon reactions might also contribute to formation of N{sub 2}. The precise role of carbon in N{sub 2} reduction and formation has yet to be established. Interest in the N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O-char reactions has been significant in connection with both combustor modeling, as well as in design of post-combustion NO{sub x} control strategies. In our studies, a DuPont thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) is used for the char reactivity studies. The temperature and mass are recorded as function of time, using a Macintosh computer and software for simultaneous apparatus control and data acquisition. Specific surface areas of char samples were determined by the N{sub 2} BET method at 77 K. A standard flow-type adsorption device (Quantasorb) was used for the measurements. Prior to surface area analysis, all samples were outgassed in a flow of nitrogen at 573 K for 3 hours. The carbonaceous solids used were resin char, graphite, coconut char and a Wyodak coal char. As was noted in the last report, carbons derived from different original materials show quite similar behaviors, in terms of the trends, but there are significant differences in actual reaction rates. It was shown that the spread of the reaction rate data from different studies, when expressed on a mass of carbon reactant- or surface area-basis, was almost the same.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Suuberg, E.M.; Lilly, W.D. & Aarna, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2]

Description: Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis ...
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Hu, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department