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Interfacial Tension Measurement on A1(NO₃)₃ - H₂O - HNO₃ - Dibutyl Cellosolve System

Description: This report discusses two methods used for experimental determination of the interfacial tension of an immisible aqueous-organic system where the density of the organic phase is less than that of the aqueous phase. The methods discussed are the falling drop method and the Donnan modification/rising drop method.
Date: January 28, 1947
Creator: Turk, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction of NO<sub>x</sub>

Description: Many studies suggest that lean-NO<sub>x</sub> SCR proceeds via oxidation of NO to NO¬ by oxygen, followed by the reaction of the NO¬ with hydrocarbons. On catalysts that are not very effective in catalyzing the equilibration of NO+O¬ and NO¬, the rate of N¬ formation is substantially higher when the input NO<sub>x</sub> is NO¬ instead of NO. The apparent bifunctional mechanism in the SCR of NO<sub>x</sub> has prompted the use of mechanically mixed catalyst components, in which one component is used to accelerate the oxidation of NO to NO¬, and another component catalyzes the reaction between NO¬ and the hydrocarbon. Catalysts that previously were regarded as inactive for NO<sub>x</sub> reduction could therefore become efficient when mixed with an oxidation catalyst. Preconverting NO to NO¬ opens the opportunity for a wider range of SCR catalysts and perhaps improves the durability of these catalysts. This paper describes the use of a non-thermal plasma as an efficient means for selective partial oxidation of NO to NO¬. When combined with some types of SCR catalyst, the plasma can greatly enhance the NO<sub>x</sub> reduction and eliminate some of the deficiencies encountered in an entirely catalyst-based approach. efficiency for reduction of NO<sub>x</su
Date: August 24, 1998
Creator: Voss, K; Brusasco, R M; Kung, H H; Kung, M C; Merritt, B T; Penetrante, B M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass reburning - Modeling/engineering studies

Description: This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the eleventh reporting period (April 1--June 30, 2000), EER and NETL R&amp;D group continued to work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5. This report includes results from Task 3 physical modeling of the introduction of biomass reburning in a working coal-fired utility boiler.
Date: July 27, 2000
Creator: Sheldon, M.; Marquez, A. & Zamansky, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Experimental and Kinetic Calculation of the Promotion Effect of Hydrocarbons on the NO-NO<sup>2</sup> Conversion in a Flow Reacto

Description: The main route to nitrogen dioxide (NOz) formation in combustion systems is through the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO). This process was originally invcstigafed in order to explain the high proportion of NOz found in NOx emissions from the exhaust of gas turbine engines [l]. Moreover, the understanding of the NO-NO2 conversion mechanism is relevant to a number of issues including NOz emission from unflued space heaters, development of NOx control technologies, behavior of NO/N02 in the atmosphere, formation and reduction chemistry of NOx, and the probe sampling techniques for NOx concentration measurements. Originally, the NO-NO2 conversion was thought to proceed through the rapid oxidation of NO by oxidative radicals without much attention to the effect of fuels on the conversion [2-41. Although, in later studies, it was revealed that the conversion was greatly promoted by small quantities of fuels such as hydrocarbons, Hz, CO, and methanol [S-9]. In our former experiment and model calculation of the NO-NO2 conversion in the mixing of hot combustion gas with cold air and nine different fuels [6], the results indicated that NO-NO2 conversion appeared only in the low temperature range, and showed a strong dependence on fuel type. Thus, the interaction between the NO-NO2 reactions and the oxidation reactions of the fuel in the low temperature range must be .understood in order to explain the effect of fuel type on the NO-NO2 conversion and consequently to predict the NO/NO2 emission levels from combustion systems.
Date: January 6, 1998
Creator: Hori, M; Marinov, N; Matsunaga, N; Pitz, W & Westbrook, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CASTNET: Eye on Air Quality

Description: A news briefing discussing CASTNET: Eye on Air Quality for Spring 2013. Discusses workshops, staff changes, and sequestration.
Date: 2013
Creator: Clean Air Status and Trends Network
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Combined S02/N0x Removal by Ceria Sorbents

Description: Simultaneous removal of S02 and NOX using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual S02 and NOX removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CUO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on ihe sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeOa sorbents. In the past quarter the effect of cerium content of the sorbent on its performance through four sulfation-regeneration cycles were investigated and the analysis of the economics of a commercial scale ceria process wcs sub-contracted to TECOGEN. It was found that all ceria sorbents did not show any capacity loss after the first cycle and, in fact, their performance improved slightly after the third cycle. Increasing cerium loading appears to reduce the S/Cc ratio to about 2 as monolayer coverage is approached. It was found that the sulfation rate for the sorbents containing 9.28% and 7.64% cerium were first order with respect to cerium oxide up to 90% conversion. The sorbents containing 4.39% and 1.59 showed first order kinetics up to only about 40% conversion. The effects of product layer diffusion and gas phase diffusion are currently being considered for these sorbents.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Akyurtlu, Ates & Akyurtlu, Jale F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

Description: This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x}control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the eighth reporting period (July 1--September 26, 1999), Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. This report includes summary of the findings; complete information will be submitted in the next Quarterly Report.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: Zamansky, Vladimir & Lindsey, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIOMASS REBURNING - MEDELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

Description: This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the seventh reporting period (April 1--June 30, 1999), no information was received at EER on scheduled FETC R&amp;D group's project activities. EER activities were on hold due to the pending purchase of the Niagara Mohawk's Dunkirk Station, a target demonstration site in this program, and then by the actual purchase of the Station by NRG. This report includes information about the current project status, recently submitted to NRG for soliciting their interest to proceed with biomass reburn demonstration, and notes on alternative demonstrative partners.
Date: July 30, 1999
Creator: Zamansky, Vladimir & Booth, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

Description: This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. The sixth reporting period (January 1--March 31, 1999) included CFD modeling and assessment of available experimental and modeling data on biomass reburning. Experimental and modeling data obtained within scope of this and Phase II SBIR USDA projects were reviewed and analyzed. This work was necessary to summarize available data and to make decision about additional efforts that are necessary for successful completion of the DOE FETC project. These efforts resulted in preparation of the paper entitled ''Kinetic Study of Biomass Reburning'' which was presented at the 1999 Joint Meeting of the United States Sections of the Combustion Institute. The paper is included in Attachment A.
Date: April 29, 1999
Creator: Lissianski, Vitali V. & Zamansky, Vladimir M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Combined S02/N0x Removal by Ceria Sorbents

Description: Simultaneous removal of S02 and NOx using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual S02 and NOx removal operations. Recent studies at PHC considered cerium oxide as an alternate adsorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeOz sorbents. In the past quarter the effect of fly-ash, ammonia, and water on the sulfation of the sorbent was investigated. The analysis of the economics of a commercial scale ceria process has been sub-contracted to TECOGEN. This work has been completed and the report has been received.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Akyurtlu, Ates & Akyurtlu, Jale F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Infrared Study of Catalytic Decomposition of NO

Description: The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emmissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccesful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. Research is proposed to study the reactivity of adsorbates for the direct NO decomposition and to investigate the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. An innovative infrared reactor system will be used to observe and determine the dynamic behavior and the reactivity of adsorbates during NO decomposition, oxygen spillover, and silanation. A series of experiments including X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to characterized the catalysts. The information obtained from this study will provide a scientific basis for developing an effective catalyst for the NO decomposition under practical flue gas conditions.
Date: July 17, 1997
Creator: Tan, Cher-Dip & Chuang, Steven S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of combined S02/N0x Removal by Ceria Sorbents

Description: This final report describes the work done under the sponsorship of the U.S. DOE for the support of advanced fossil resource utilization research at historically black colleges and universities, Grant No. DE-Ps22-92MT920 on "Investigation of Combined S02/NOx Removal by Ceria Sorbents". The work was conducted at the Department of Chemical Engineering of Hampton University. The industrial partner was Malcolm Pirnie,Inc. Environmental Engineers, Scientists and Planners, who handled the metal analysis and XRD measurements on the solid sorbents; they have also supplied the flyash used in the experimental program. The development of a commercial process concept, economic analysis, and evaluation of process alternatives were undertaken by TECOGEN of Waltham, MA.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Akyurtlu, Ates & Akyurtlu, Jale F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive measurement of nitrogen oxides to assess traffic-related pollutant exposure for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

Description: This paper provides an overview of software interoperability as it relates to the energy simulation of buildings. The paper begins with a discussion of the difficulties in using sophisticated analysis tools like energy simulation at various stages in the building life cycle, and the potential for interoperability to help overcome these difficulties. An overview of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a common data model for supporting interoperability under continuing development by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) is then given. The process of creating interoperable software is described next, followed by specific details for energy simulation tools. The paper closes with the current status of, and future plans for, the ongoing efforts to achieve software interoperability.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi & Kim, Janice J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SYNTHESIS OF MONO-, DI-, AND POLYNITROXIDES. CLASSIFICATION OF ESRSPECTRA OF FLEXIBLE DINITROXIDES DISSOLVED IN LIQUIDS AND GLASSES

Description: The synthesis of flexible biradical strain-gauges which could be anchored onto two sites of a deformable biological structure had been attempted. Qualitative relationships between the possible conformations of the biradicals and the observed ESR spectra provide guidelines for further synthetic work. Some of the nitroxides synthesized and characterized are: R-CO-R{sub 1}-N-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}-R{sub 2}-N-CO-R, where R is 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl pyrroline bonded at the 3-position, n = 2,3 and R{sub 1,2} = -H; -C{sub 18}{sub 37}; -CH{sub 2}COOH; -CH{sub 2}COOC{sub 2}H{sub 5}; -CH{sub 2}CONH(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}; -CH{sub 2}CONH(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}) -CH{sub 2}CO-imidazolide.
Date: November 1, 1969
Creator: Ferruti, P.; Gill, D.; Klein, M.P.; Wang, H.H.; Entine, G. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department