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Effect of Nitrite/Nitrate concentrations on Corrosivity of Washed Precipitate

Description: Cyclic polarization scans were performed using A-537 carbon steel in simulated washed precipitate solutions of various nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The results of this study indicate that nitrate is an aggressive anion in washed precipitate. Furthermore, a quantitative linear log-log relationship between the minimum effective nitrite concentration and the nitrate concentration was established for washed precipitate with other ions at their average compositions.
Date: March 28, 2001
Creator: Congdon, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Hemoxidants, Particularly Nitrite, on Selected Aquatic Animals

Description: A research program was developed to investigate basic and applied aspects of toxicity, both lethal and sublethal, of hemoxidants, particularly nitrite, on fish, non-fish aquatic vertebrates, and crayfish. The major objectives of this research were to determine A) acute and sublethal toxicity of nitrite to selected aquatic organisms: 1. aquatic salamander larvae, Ambystoma texanum, 2. swamp crayfish, Procambarus simulans, 3. bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, 4. bullfrog, tadpoles, Rana catesbiana, 5. channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, B) the influence of environmental chloride on acute and sublethal exposures to hemoxidants: 1. on acute nitrite toxicity to salamander larvae, crayfish, and bluegill, 2. on nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in bullfrog tadpoles, Rana catesbian, C) the effect of environmental hydrogen ion concentrations (pH) on acute nitrite toxicity 1. to the crayfish, Procambarus simulans, 2. to the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, D) the effect of temperature in sublethal exposures to nitrite 1. methemoglobin formation in channel catfish exposed at different acclimation temperatures, 2. recovery from methemoglobinemia at different acclimation temperatures, E) the effect of the fish anesthetic TMS-222 on nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish 1. supression of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia, 2. dose-response curve for TMS-222 induced methemoglobinemia, and F) if a methemoglobin reductase system is present in channel catfish.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Huey, David W. (David Worley)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

Description: Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.
Date: September 21, 2007
Creator: Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Stability of Purex Solvent to Radiation and Chemical Attack

Description: The effects of variables on the rate of Purex solvent deterioration were investigated with the emphasis on those deterioration products which cannot be removed by carbonate washing. The deterioration rate was found to be directly proportional to the acid and nitrate ion concentrations, and proportional to the square root of the concentration of nitrite ion. Other observations on the effects of temperature, relative merits of brand name solvents, and the effects of radiation are included. A method of calculating the equilibrium level of the solvent deterioration products based on study conclusions and various estimates is outlined. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 24, 1955
Creator: Swanson, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dry-out and low temperature calcination of DST/SST waste blend high temperature melter feed

Description: The FY1994 DST/SST blend was prepared in accordance with the DST/SST blend feed specification. The laboratory preparation steps and observations were compared with an existing experience base to verify the acceptability of the feed specification for simulant make-up. The most significant test results included a variety of features. Ferrocyanide breaks down to NH{sub 3} plus formate, during the low-temperature calcining phase of the tests. Ferrocyanide displayed no redox reactivity with the nitrates and nitrites contained in the slurry in the absence of sugar. Sugar displays a redox reaction with the nitrates and nitrites in the blend similar to the redox. reaction observed in the LLW feed simulant. Boiling of a free flowing slurry occurs at temperatures below about 120{degrees}C. When about 45% of the total water loss has occurred, the feed slurry congeals and continues to lose water, shrinking and developing shrinkage cracks. Water stops coming off between 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C. Slurry shear strength and viscosity strongly increase as the weight percent solids increases from 20 wt% to 45 wt%. The 45 wt% solids corresponds to approximately a 40 % water loss. The principle beat sensitivity for this material is the exothermic reaction which is activated when the temperature exceeds about 250{degrees}C. The breakdown of ferrocyanide to ammonia and formate under strongly basic conditions may begin at temperatures less than 100{degrees}C, but the rate increased strongly with increasing temperature and appeared to be completed in the time of our tests. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) results on feed slurry without and with ferrocyanide showed only endothermic behavior. This is consistent with the dry out and low temperature calcine studies which did not indicate any exothermic behavior for the feed slurry with and without ferrocyanide.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, H.D. & Tracey, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Treatment of Liquid Wastes

Description: Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Hobbs, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current distributions and dissolution mechanisms during localized corrosion of steels in alkaline environments

Description: In situ corrosion investigations of iron were carried out in alkaline environments to determine the stages of corrosion that may be encountered with steels in concrete. The electrochemical and chemical processes taking place on Fe have been studied using x-ray absorption, current density mapping of the iron surface and artificial pits. The x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy was used to observe the conversion of Fe to oxide in hydroxide solutions. The oxide formed was electrochemically active and changes in valence states between 2+ and 3+ were observed during electrochemical cycling between the passive state and hydrogen evolution. The oxide continued to thicken during the cycling with very little dissolution or any conversion back to the metallic state. Current density mapping in chloride/hydroxide solution showed that corrosion took place in highly localized areas confined by the formation of a corrosion product shell. The activity within the shell decayed on removing a supporting cathodic area limiting but reactivated on its replacement. Artificial pits were used to study the anodic processes taking place within the region confined by the corrosion product shell. The local pH and anodic behavior were similar to that observed in neutral or slightly acid bulk solutions. The dissolution within the artificial pits in alkaline bulk solutions was found to be sensitive to the presence of small-quantities of nitrite.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Isaacs, H.S.; Ryan, M.P.; Virtanen, S. & Schmuki, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Anti-Caking Surfactants Found to be Cause of Apparent Effect of High Nitrite Concentration on Cesium Stripping

Description: Experiments conducted in FY01 previously indicated a potential cesium stripping problem in the CSSX process due to the presence of nitrite in the waste simulant. The stripping issue seemed all the more important as the nitrite concentration increased. Experiments presented in this work have demonstrated that the true reason for the cesium stripping problem was in fact the presence of an anti-caking agent in the,sodium nitrite. used for the preparation of the simulants. The anti-caking agent is actually a mixture of well-known surfactants, sodium mono- and di-methyl naphthalene sulfonate that can partition into the organic-phase on extraction, then retain cesium upon stripping. The effect was demonstrated by adding known amounts of the anti-caking agent to clean systems. Data suggest that rejuvenation of the solvent can be obtained by a caustic wash following the stripping stage.
Date: June 13, 2002
Creator: Delmau, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of the Sulfuric Acid-Sodium Nitrite Etch for Zircaloy-2

Description: Preliminary experiments indicate that there are no significant differences in the corrosion rates of zirconium or Zircaloy-2 after etching with the nitric--hydrofluoric solution or the sulfuric--nitrite solution, provided proper etching and washing techniques are followed. Incomplete removal of the residual etchant is deleterious to the corrosion resistance; however, this effect in the case of the sulfuric--nitrite solution is not as pronounced as in the case of the nitric--hydrofluoric acid solution. The anticipated advantages in the new etch were not completely realized. Additional development aimed at modifying the sulfuric--nitrite etch would have to be performed in order to overcome the disadvantages before recommendation for the adoption of the etch could be made. (auth)
Date: February 17, 1954
Creator: Kass, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS: INTERIM REPORT

Description: Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in high level waste (HLW) tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed on carbon steel coupons in simulated waste solutions. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting. A statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall, when exposed to various dilute solutions, is being developed. Electrochemical and coupon testing are being performed within the framework of the statistical test matrix to determine the minimum necessary inhibitor concentrations and develop a quantitative model to predict pitting propensity. A subset of the original statistical test matrix was used to develop an applied understanding of the corrosion response of the carbon steel in the various environments. The interim results suggest that there exists some critical nitrite concentration that sufficiently inhibits against localized corrosion mechanisms due to nitrates/chlorides/sulfates, beyond which further nitrite additions are unnecessary. The combination of visual observation and the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans indicate the potential for significant inhibitor reductions without consequence specifically at nitrate concentrations near 1 M. The complete data sets will be used to determine the statistical basis to confidently inhibit against pitting using nitrite inhibition with the current pH controls. Once complete, a revised chemistry control program will be devised based upon the probability of pitting specifically for dilute solutions which will allow for tank specific chemistry control implementation.
Date: April 23, 2008
Creator: Hoffman, E & Karthik Subramanian, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, January 26, 2009.

Description: Print Out No.1 presents a listing of the initial data. The variables included were: SITE, REP, NH4, NO2{_}3, SRP, TDP, TN, TP, and JULIAN , representing site code, replication number, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and Julian date, respectively. All values for nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon variables are recorded as {micro}g/L. The 2007 water quality data received by SCS required considerable manipulation and data management prior to analysis. If it is anticipated that water quality data received by SCS in the future will be of the same format, the time to carry out the necessary reformatting of the data should be taken into consideration. The levels of SRP from water quality data of previous years were often below detection limits. The data from 2007 showed elevated levels for this and other responses. This pattern was seemingly unrelated to nutrient addition treatments, however, as they appeared consistently across the study area. The river fertilization program was begun in 2005. Because the procedures for detection of nutrients and metals are quite sensitive, SCS recommends that any future water quality samples taken on, or close to, the dates of fertilizer application be carried out with the utmost care to avoid contamination issues. Doing so will ensure consistency and reliability in the resulting data.
Date: February 10, 2009
Creator: Holderman, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

Description: This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch ...
Date: December 31, 2004
Creator: Koopman, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

Description: As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans indicates ...
Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Hoffman, E. & Edwards, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NITRITE INGROWTH AND STRESS CORROSION CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 11H SUPERNATE

Description: Waste supernate stored in Tank 11H was analyzed periodically from May 1973-August 1975 to determine the rate of nitrite ingrowth by radiolytic decomposition of nitrate. This waste was transferred to tank 33F in accordance with TA 2-892, Rev. 1, 'Use of Cracked Tank for Fresh High Level Waste,' during the week of November 10, 1975. This letter summarizes analytical and corrosion characterization which indicate that this transfer should not increase the risk of stress corrosion cracking in F Area non-stress-relieved tanks. An interpretation of the nitrite ingrowth data is presented and used as a basis for cokncluding that the crack in Tank 11H occurred early in 1974. The formation of nitrite in waste supernate was followed for 2 1/4 years during the last filling and storage cycle in 11H. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the 1 1/2 year period after filling was 4.9 x 10{sup -11} mol NO{sub 2}{sup -}/{ell} BTU of fission product heat. The energy released during the period was 1.15 x 10{sup 10} BTU with a corresponding increase in nitrite of 0.56 mol/{ell}. The crack that was first observed in Tank 11H in April 1974 probably made its final penetration through the wall in March 1974 based on nitrite in-growth calculations and analyses of supernate for the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} ratio. Analyses for {sup 137}Cs/{sup 134}Cs in the dried salt crust did not yield a definite estimate of the time of penetration because waste from high-burnup, off-site fuel made up the last 20% of the present fill. Laboratory tests indicate that the OH{sup -} (1.5M) and NO{sub 2}{sup -}(1.2M) concentrations present in Tank 11H prior to transfer to F Area should sufficient for efficient inhibition of nitrate stress corrosion cracking. Electrochemically controlled tensile tests of A285-B steel specimens in synthetic 11H supernate at ...
Date: November 25, 1975
Creator: Ondrejoin, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF PROCESSING DATA FROM THE RH RU HG MATRIX STUDY

Description: An evaluation of the statistical significance of Rh, Ru, and Hg on DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle catalytic hydrogen generation and process chemistry was conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a full-factorial experimental design. This test design can identify significant interactions between these three species in addition to individual effects. Statistical modeling of data from the Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study has been completed. Preliminary data and conclusions were given in an earlier report. This final report concludes the work on the Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study. Modeling results are summarized below. Rhodium was found to: Promote increased total hydrogen mass; Promote an increase in the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Promote an increase in the hydrogen generation rate shortly after acid addition; Shorten the elapsed time between acid addition and the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Increase formate loss; Inhibit NO{sub 2} and total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation; and Reduce nitrite-to-nitrate conversion. Ruthenium was found to: Promote increased total hydrogen mass; Promote an increase in the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Promote an increase in the hydrogen generation rate in the second half of the SRAT cycle; Promote an increase in total CO{sub 2} generated; Increase formate loss; Promote NO{sub 2} and total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation; and Reduce nitrite-to-nitrate conversion. Mercury was found to: Inhibit total hydrogen mass produced; Promote an increase in total CO{sub 2} generated; Promote NO{sub 2} off-gas species formation; and Inhibit total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation. Results confirmed qualitative observations that Rh was activating before Ru for hydrogen generation. An interaction between Rh and Ru was present in the model for the total hydrogen generated during the SRAT, perhaps because the total combined contributions from two separate episodes of hydrogen generation. The first episode was dominated by Rh and the second by ...
Date: April 17, 2009
Creator: Koopman, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

Description: Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.
Date: July 15, 2010
Creator: He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flowsheet for coprocessing uranium and plutonium

Description: A coprocessing solvent extraction flowsheet for recovering and purifying LWR fuels has been altered to achieve partial partioning of uranium and plutonium to eliminate streams with pure plutonium. Partial partitioning has been demonstrated in the laboratory with simulated feeds and irradiated LWR fuel solutions. Hydroxylamine nitrate was the reductant in these tests. Plutonium was concentrated by factors of 6 to 27.4. Tests have shown that 1 to 2 plutonium atoms are reduced for each hydroxylamine molecule consumed. Nitrite interferes with the reduction of plutonium, unless the hydroxylamine concentration is increased. 12 tables, 11 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Statton, M. A. & Thompson, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Comparison of actual and simulated ferrocyanide waste properties

Description: In the 1950s, additional high-level radioactive waste storage capacity was needed to accommodate the wastes that would result from the production of recovery of additional nuclear defense materials. To provide this additional waste storage capacity, the Hanford Site operating contractor developed a process to decontaminate aqueous wastes by precipitating radiocesium as an alkali nickel ferrocyanide; this process allowed disposal of the aqueous waste. The radiocesium scavenging process as developed was used to decontaminate (1) first-cycle bismuth phosphate (BiPO{sub 4}) wastes, (2) acidic wastes resulting from uranium recovery operations, and (3) the supernate from neutralized uranium recovery wastes. The radiocesium scavenging process was often coupled with other scavenging processes to remove radiostrontium and radiocobalt. Because all defense materials recovery processes used nitric acid solutions, all of the wastes contained nitrate, which is a strong oxidizer. The variety of wastes treated, and the occasional coupling of radiostrontium and radiocobalt scavenging processes with the radiocesium scavenging process, resulted in ferrocyanide-bearing wastes having many different compositions. In this report, we compare selected physical, chemical, and radiochemical properties measured for Tanks C-109 and C-112 wastes and selected physical and chemical properties of simulated ferrocyanide wastes to assess the representativeness of stimulants prepared by WHC.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.; Bredt, P.R. & Barrington, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

Description: Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R. & Sell, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C.; Reid, J.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization report for the ferrocyanide safety issue

Description: Recently PNNL was tasked by DOE to develop and demonstrate a risk-based strategic approach to characterizing Hanford`s Nuclear Waste Tanks. This strategic approach was documented in a report entitled ``A Risk-Based Focused Decision-Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste``. In support of the general approach, a specific strategy for addressing each of the several safety issues associated with the tanks was developed. This report documents the approach for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue. The purpose of this report is to describe a structured logic diagram (SLD) for determining the risk associated with the ferrocyanide tank safety issue and provide the supporting information for the SLD. The SLD addresses the resolution of risks resulting from the presence of ferrocyanide layers within the Hanford tanks. The informational requirements for determining risk from any reaction stemming from ferrocyanide are outlined in the SLD. This report will describe the potential paths to a successful resolution of the ferrocyanide safety issue. Complete development of the intervention pathway is outside the scope of this current activity. General descriptions of the approach, key components of the SLD, and conclusions are provided in the body of this report. The complete SLD, descriptions of each box shown in the SLD, a discussion on how to fill data needs, and a list of contributors is provided in the appendices.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Pulsipher, B.A.; Burger, L.L.; Liebetrau, A.M. & Scheele, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department