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Wear and sliding friction properties of nickel alloys suited for cages of high-temperature rolling-contact bearings 1: alloys retaining mechanical properties to 600 degrees F

Description: Report presenting a study of the wear and sliding friction properties of a number of nickel alloys operating against hardened SAE 52100 steel. The alloys included L nickel, wrought monel, cast monel, cast modified H monel, cast S monel, Invar, Ni-Resist 3, and Nichrome V.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Johnson, Robert L.; Swikert, Max A. & Bisson, Edmond E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wear and sliding friction properties of nickel alloys suited for cages of high-temperature rolling-contact bearings 2: alloys retaining mechanical properties above 600 degrees F

Description: Report presenting a study of wear and sliding friction properties of a number of nickel alloys operating against hardened SAE 52100 steel. The alloys were cast beryllium nickel, heat-treated beryllium nickel, cast Inconel, Nimonic 80, Inconel X, Refractalloy 26, and Discaloy. Results regarding the wear of unlubricated surfaces, friction of lubricated surfaces, x-ray diffraction study of wear debris, and the practical significance are provided.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Johnson, Robert L.; Swikert, Max A. & Bisson, Edmond E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final-part metrology for LIGA springs, Build Group 1.

Description: The LIGA spring is a recently designed part for defense program applications. The Sandia California LIGA team has produced an initial group build of these nickel alloy parts. These are distinctive in having a macroscopic lateral size of about 1 cm, while requiring microscopic dimensional precision on the order of a few micrometers. LIGA technology capabilities at Sandia are able to manufacture such precise structures. While certain aspects of the LIGA process and its production capabilities have been dimensionally characterized in the past, [1-6] the present work is exclusive in defining a set of methods and techniques to inspect and measure final LIGA nickel alloy parts in large prototype quantities. One hundred percent inspection, meaning that every single LIGA part produced needs to be measured, ensures quality control and customer satisfaction in this prototype production run. After a general visual inspection of the parts and an x-ray check for voids, high precision dimensional metrology tools are employed. The acquired data is analyzed using both in house and commercially available software. Examples of measurements illustrating these new metrology capabilities are presented throughout the report. These examples furthermore emphasize that thorough inspection of every final part is not only essential to characterize but also improve the LIGA manufacturing process.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Ceremuga, Joseph T. & Mills, Bernice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Ten experimental alloys of aluminum containing up to 4% nickel corroded uniformly, without intergranular attack, when exposed for 3 months to flowing deionized water at 260 deg C. The average penetration rates were between 1.4 and 1.9 mils per month. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Whatley, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NiAl

Description: Nanocrystalline NiAl was produced from pre-cast alloys using an electron beam inert gas condensation system. In-situ compaction was carried out at 100-300 C under vacuum conditions. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition and homogeneity. Average grain sizes in the range 4-10 nm were found from TEM dark field analyses. A compression-cage fixture was designed to perform disk bend tests. These tests revealed substantial room temperature ductility in nanocrystalline NiAl, while coarse grained NiAl showed no measurable room temperature ductility.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Choudry, M.; Eastman, J.A.; DiMelfi, R.J. & Dollar, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Tracer Study of the Transport of Chromium in Fluoride Fuel Systems

Description: The following report follows an experimental study that was made on the mass transport of chromium in polythermal inconel-fluoride fuel systems, followed by the technique of adding radioactive chromium-51 to the system as either CrF3 in the salt or as elemental chromium in the solid phase.
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Price, Robert B.; Sunderman, Duane Neuman; Pobereskin, Meyer & Calkins, George D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc-Nickel Alloys in Alkaline Solution for Increased Corrosion Resistance.

Description: The optimal conditions for deposition of zinc-nickel alloys onto stainless steel discs in alkaline solutions have been examined. In the past cadmium has been used because it shows good corrosion protection, but other methods are being examined due to the high toxicity and environmental threats posed by its use. Zinc has been found to provide good corrosion resistance, but the corrosion resistance is greatly increased when alloyed with nickel. The concentration of nickel in the deposit has long been a debated issue, but for basic solutions a nickel concentration of 8-15% appears optimal. However, deposition of zinc-nickel alloys from acidic solutions has average nickel concentrations of 12-15%. Alkaline conditions give a more uniform deposition layer, or better metal distribution, thereby a better corrosion resistance. Although TEA (triethanolamine) is most commonly used to complex the metals in solution, in this work I examined TEA along with other complexing agents. Although alkaline solutions have been examined, most research has been done in pH ≥ 12 solutions. However, there has been some work performed in the pH 9.3-9.5 range. This work examines different ligands in a pH 9.3-9.4 range. Direct potential plating and pulse potential plating methods are examined for optimal platings. The deposits were examined and characterized by XRD.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Conrad, Heidi A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrodeposition of Nickel and Nickel Alloy Coatings with Layered Silicates for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties

Description: The new nickel/layered silicate nanocomposites were electrodeposited from different pHs to study the influence on the metal ions/layered silicate plating solution and on the properties of the deposited films. Nickel/layered silicate nanocomposites were fabricated from citrate bath atacidic pHs (1.6−3.0), from Watts’ type solution (pH ~4-5), and from citrate bath at basic pH (~9). Additionally, the new nickel/molybdenum/layered silicate nanocomposites were electrodeposited from citrate bath at pH 9.5. The silicate, montmorillonite (MMT), was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The preferred crystalline orientation and the crystalline size of nickel, nickel/layered silicate, nickel/molybdenum, and nickel/molybdenum/layered silicate films were examined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure of the coatings and the surface roughness was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Nickel/molybdenum/layered silicate nanocomposites containing low content of layered silicate (1.0 g/L) had increase 32 % hardness and 22 % Young’s modulus values over the pure nickel/molybdenum alloy films. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the nickel/molybdenum/layered silicate nanocomposite layers have higher corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl compared to the pure alloy films. The corrosion current density of the nickel/molybdenum/layered silicate nanocomposite composed of 0.5 g/L MMT is 0.63 µA·cm-2 as compare to a nickel/molybdenum alloy which is 2.00 µA·cm-2.
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Date: August 2014
Creator: Tientong, Jeerapan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Corrosion behavior of experimental and commercial nickel-base alloys in HCl and HCl containing Fe3+

Description: The effects of ferric ions on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of a series of Ni-based alloys in 20% HCl at 30ºC were investigated. The alloys studied were those prepared by the Albany Research Center (ARC), alloys J5, J12, J13, and those sold commercially, alloys 22, 242, 276, and 2000. Tests included mass loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and linear polarization.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.; Covino, B. S., Jr.; Bullard, S. J. & Ziomek-Moroz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

Description: Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate controlling sub process (e.g., cation diffusion, oxygen ingress).
Date: April 18, 2007
Creator: Morton D, Lewis N, Hanson M, Rice S, Sanders P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTIR-TC Compensating Extension Wire Evaluations

Description: In an effort to reduce production costs for the doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs) recently developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, a series of evaluations were completed to identify an optimum compensating extension cable. As documented in this report, results indicate that of those combinations tested, two inexpensive, commercially-available copper nickel alloy wires approximate the low temperature (0 to 500 °C) thermoelectric output of KW-Mo (molybdenum doped with tungsten and potassium silicate) versus Nb-1%Zr in HTIR-TCs. For lower temperatures (0 to 150 °C), which is the region where soft extension cable is most often located, results indicate that the thermocouple emf is best replicated by the Cu-3.5%Ni versus Cu-5%Ni combination (measured emfs were within 4% at 100 and 150 °C). At higher temperatures (300 to 500 °C), data suggest that the Cu-5%Ni versus Cu-10%Ni combination may yield data closer to that obtained with KWMo versus Nb-1%Zr wires (measured emfs were within 8%).
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Daw, J. E.; Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Wilkins, S. C. & Crepeau, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems

Description: Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines systems that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine systems by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic systems and advanced in-process statistical measurement systems.
Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Escola, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of metal/ceramic interface formation.

Description: We summarize the work of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 'Dynamics of Metal/Ceramic Interface Formation.' Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) was used to monitor in real time how the metal/ceramic interface between the alloy NiAl and its oxide formed. The interfaces were synthesized by exposing the clean alloy to oxygen at either low or high temperature. During low-temperature exposure, an initially amorphous oxide formed. With annealing, this oxide crystallizes into one type of alumina that has two orientational domains. While the oxide is relatively uniform, it contained pinholes, which coarsened with annealing. In marked contrast, high-temperature exposure directly produced rod-shaped islands of crystalline oxide. These rods were all aligned along the substrate's [001] direction and could be many microns in length. Real-time observations showed that the rods can both grow and shrink by addition and subtraction, respectively, at their ends.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: McCarty, Kevin F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Enhanced Enrichment of Sulfur and Implications for Alloy 22

Description: The uniform corrosion rate of Alloy 22 will define the lifetime of a component such as a waste container if all other degradation modes are not operative. This represents the best-case scenario because the experimentally determined uniform corrosion rates from multi-year tests is 0.01 {micro}m/yr or 0.1 mm in 10,000 years. This lifetime depends on the stability of the passive film over the lifetime of the container; however, this stability is unknown. One potential breakdown mechanism is corrosion-enhanced enrichment of sulfur to the surface leading to sulfur induced breakdown of the passive film. There are numerous studies that confirm that sulfur causes passive film breakdown in nickel based alloys and evidence exists for corrosion enhanced enrichment of sulfur in nickel and nickel alloys. However, neither sulfur enrichment nor sulfur induced breakdown of the passive film on Alloy 22 has been demonstrated. The results of preliminary studies suggest sulfur enrichment does occur at the alloy surface and that sulfur shifts the corrosion potential to more active potentials. No clear affect of sulfur was noted on the corrosion rate but the sulfur concentrations were about only 2-3% of a monolayer, well below the concentrations that are possible.
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Jones, R H; Baer, D R; Windisch Jr., C F & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural development and control in YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub y]

Description: A study of some defect structures in Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Y-123)coated conductors based on ion-beam -assisted-deposition (IBAD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on nickel alloy substrates is presented. Defect structures can originate anywhere in the coated conductor architecture. Defects can be additive and propagate through the entire film structure to affect the growth, orientation, arid properties of the superconducting film. Interfacial Ieactions between Y- 123 and the underlying buffer layer and the corresponding effects on the transport properticis of the films can be controlled with the thickness of the underlying buffer layer. With a 9Ow ceria buffer layer on an IBAD YSZ coated metal substrate, a J, value of 1.7 MA/cm{sup 2} (self-field, 75K) was obtained in a 1.5{micro}m thick Y-123 film.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Holesinger, T. G. (Terry G.); Gibbons, B. J. (Brady J.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Arendt, P. N. (Paul N.); Groves, J. R. (James R.) & Coulter, J. Y. (James Y.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Calculations are presented of the amount of mass transfer to be expected in liquid alkali metal-Ni alloy systems for two assumed diffusion mechanisms. In one, the boundary layer is assumed saturated and the transfer rate is limited by the rate of diffusion of solute into the liquid. In the other, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be limited by the diffusion rate of a component of the solid alloy to the solid surface. It is concluded tbat a more general hypothesis is needed. (T.R.H.)
Date: July 22, 1957
Creator: Keyes, J.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The diffusion zones formed during the bonding of nickel-plated uranium cores to aluminum sheaths were identified by correlating the appearance of these zones with those identified in diffusion couples. A relationship between the structure and the strength of the bend was observed. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1957
Creator: Angerman, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department