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Interaction of $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments

Description: Radioisotope thermoelectric generators used in space missions are designed with a great factor of safety to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth, and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs, utilizing $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ fuel, have proved more than adequately safe. More data about the interaction of this material with terrestrial and aquatic environments is continually being sought to predict the behavior of these heat sources in the extremely unlikely contact of these materials with the land or ocean. Terrestrial environments are simulated with large environmental chambers that permit control of temperature, humidity, and rainfall using different kinds of soils. Rain falling on thermally hot chunks of $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ causes the spallation of the surface of the fuel into extremely fine particles, as small as 50 nm, that are later transported downward through the soil. Some of the plutonia particles become agglomerated with soil particles. Plutonium transport is more significant during winter than during summer because evaporation losses from the soil are less in winter. Aquatic environments are simulated with large aquaria that provide temperature and aeration control. Earlier fuel designs that employed a plutonia-molybdenum cermet showed plutonium release rates of about 10 $mu$Ci/m$sup 2$ - s, referred to the total surface area of the cermet. Present advanced fuels, employing pure plutonium oxide, show release rates of about 20 nCi/m$sup 2$ - s in seawater and about 150 nCi/m$sup 2$ - s in freshwater. The temperature of these more advanced heat sources does not seem to affect the release rate in seawater. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Patterson, J.H.; Nelson, G.B.; Matlack, G.M. & Waterbury, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct conversion of nuclear radiation energy

Description: This book presents a comprehensive study of methods for converting nuclear radiationi directly without resorting to a heat cycle. The concepts discussed primarily involve direct collection of charged particles released by radioisotopes and by nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. Areas considered include basic energy conversion, charged-particle transport theory, secondary-electron emission, and leakage currents and associated problems. Applications to both nuclear instrumentaion and power sources are discussed. Problems are also included as an aid to the reader or for classroom use.
Date: January 1, 1970
Creator: Miley, George H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear heat sources for cryogenic refrigerator applications

Description: Spacecraft cryogenic refrigerators require thermal inputs on the order of 1000 W. First, the characteristics of solar-electric and radioisotope heat source systems for supplying this thermal input are compared. Then the design of a $sup 238$Pu heat source for this application is described, and equipment for shipping and handling the heat source is discussed. (LCL)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Raab, B.; Schock, A.; King, W.G.; Kline, T. & Russo, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department