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Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

Description: This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Raab, Bernard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERDA/NASA Advanced Thermionic Technology Program. Progress report No. 26

Description: Research is summarized on surface studies (work functions of different LaB/sub 6/ surfaces), plasma studies, converter development (tungsten emitter, nickel collector and tungsten emitter LaB/sub 6/ collector), and hot shell development for using thermionic converters in the topping cycle of fossil-fuel power plants. (WHK)
Date: August 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of fibrous insulation materials for the selenide isotope generator system

Description: Fibrous insulations for use in the converter and the heat source of the radioisotope-powered, selenide element, thermoelectric generator (selenide isotope generator) are assessed. The most recent system design and material selection basis is presented. Several fibrous insulation materials which have the potential for use as load-bearing or nonload-bearing thermal insulations are reviewed, and thermophysical properties supplied by manufacturers or published in the literature are presented. Potential problems with the application of fibrous insulations in the selenide isotope generator are as follows: compatibility with graphite, the thermoelectric elements, and the isolation hot frame; devitrification, grain growth, and sintering with an accompanying degradation of insulation quality; impurity diffusion from the insulation to adjoining structures; outgassing and storage of fibrous materials. Areas in which thermophysical data or quantitative information on the insulation and structural stability is lacking are identified.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Wei, G.C & Tennery, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

Description: The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code.
Date: March 30, 1977
Creator: Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J. & Cella, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat source component development program. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

Description: The impact-member work is directed to gaining needed knowledge and understanding of the response of materials and designs to heat-source impact conditions, and applying the technology gained to the selection or development and demonstration of preferred impact-member materials and designs that will insure fuel containment in the event of earth impact. During the past quarter, major effort has been directed to analyzing the impact-member problem in the light of knowledge and understanding gained in studies to date. These studies have concentrated on the requirements for and performance of materials in impact-member service. As a consequence of the analysis, new goals have been formulated for the impact-member task, and these have been set forth along with the rationale for them in a draft topical report submitted to ERDA/DNRA. The analysis is presented below. Experimental work during the quarter was conducted on three problems: (1) determining energy consumption by carbon composite impact shells through microscopic examination of debris; (2) determining the tensile constraint provided by MHW impact shells; and (3) determining surface strain of copper fuel mock-ups of GPHS fuel capsules. Findings in these experiments are reported.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Foster, E.L. Jr. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and characterization of an improved Ir--0. 3% W alloy for space radioisotopic heat sources

Description: An Ir--0.3% W alloy has been doped with minor alloying additions to develop an improved cladding material for space radioisotopic heat sources operating at temperatures to 1450/sup 0/C. Tensile tests of a series of doped alloys at slow strain rates indicated that the DOP-4 alloy containing 40 Al, 30 Th, 80 Fe, 10 Ni, and 75 Rh ppm was most resistant to the brittle fracture associated with grain-boundary separation. In addition, the DOP-4 dopants raise the recrystallization temperature, and retard grain growth at high temperatures. The impact properties of DOP-4 and undoped Ir--0.3 W alloys were determined as a function of grain size, test temperature, impact velocity and long-term heat treatment. All the results indicate that the impact properties of the DOP-4 alloy are far superior to those of the undoped alloy. The improvement results from the segregation of beneficial dopant(s) (such as thorium) to grain boundaries and precipitation of second-phase particles. The development of the DOP-4 alloy greatly improves the safety margin of the Multi-Hundred-Watt heat sources to be used in a space probe to Jupiter and Saturn in 1977.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Liu, C.T. & Inouye, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Milliwatt Generator Heat Source. Progress report. January 16, 1977--April 15, 1977

Description: Activities at MRC associated with the Milliwatt Generator Heat Source efforts over the period Jan. 16, 1977 to April 15, 1977 are presented. Topics include: pressure burst capsule capsule evaluations, Tantalum/ SPR {sup 2}PuO{sub 2} compatibility, moisture content of plutonia. capsule impact and evaluations, Pre-TMS activities.
Date: December 31, 1977
Creator: Amos, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NASA/DOE advanced thermionic technology program. Progress report No. 28

Description: Surface studies of thermionic emitters and collectors in the surface characterization chamber are described. Plasma studies including converter theory, experimental plasma analyses, and enhanced mode conversion experiments are discussed. Progress in thermionic converter development, the component hardware program, and the combustion-heated thermionic device program are outlined. (WHK)
Date: October 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control system dynamic analysis

Description: The modeling techniques used to simulate the dynamic performance of the KIPS Power Conversion System fluid loops as presented at the third design review in December 1976 are discussed. A companion topical report titled KIPS Control System Selection described the overall control system requirements, selection and function of components, and a recently completed trade-off of the present hydromechanical valve against an electromechanical approach to the control valve package. The KIPS utilizes two speed modes (1) essentially constant speed in orbital operation by utilization of parasitic loads to compensate for varying spacecraft loads and (2) Speed Wild for launch and other high vibration environments when a higher speed is desirable to provide added bearing load capability and the corresponding extra pump output pressure is available to provide higher jet velocity in the jet condenser. In this later mode the parasitic loads are non-operative and the speed will vary with the spacecraft load demand. The analysis presented here shows that the KIPS is dynamically stable under all operating conditions. Further analysis and refinement is planned for the Phase II program.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system jet condenser focusing

Description: This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Jet Condenser to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration Test Plan. The test objective is to focus the individual elements of the injector so that the total flow will pass through the throat and to characterize the hydraulic performance to assure adequacy for Ground Demonstration System (GDS) Testing.
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Phase II plan. Volume III. Addendum evaluation criteria

Description: Preliminary evaluation criteria for the following aspects of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) are discussed: thermal environment of the heat source and the equipment and materials in this thermal environment; start-up requirements; power degradation; micrometeorite protection; control system; reliability and failure made analysis; quality control; cost; and re-entry survivability. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test procedure for the EHSA multifoil insulation. 77-KIPS-109

Description: The procedure is described for conducting the multifoil insulation meltdown test on the electrical heat source assembly (EHSA). The results of the tests will be used to verify the predicted sequence of events during multifoil insulation meltdown and to determine the ultimate steady-state temperatures of the various EHSA components.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test procedure for the ground demonstration system. 77-KIPS-63

Description: This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used during development, performance and endurance testing to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Development Ground Demonstration Systems, P/N's 722487 and 723829 and Ground Demonstration System (GDS), P/N 725100. The objectives of this testing are to demonstrate system performance in a controlled environment; to verify results of performance predictions; to verify results compiled by component testing performed per Sundstrand Test Procedures and Test Specifications; and to isolate full scale operational characteristics for evaluation.
Date: December 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test procedure for the radiator. 78-KIPS-4

Description: The procedure for conducting performance tests of the full size KIPS (GDS) radiator is outlined. The main emphasis of this test is to evaluate the radiator total pressure drop characteristics, with a secondary objective of evaluating the in-air heat rejection characteristics for comparison with predicted pressure drop and heat transfer values. This procedure is applicable to the in-air test planned on the KIPS GDS radiator (KIPS1010000). The test data to be obtained include the inlet-to-outlet pressure drop as a function of fluid flow rate and the corresponding radiator surface temperature profiles, together with inlet and outlet fluid temperatures.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test procedure for the radiator long and short panels. 77-KIPS-111

Description: The objective of this document is to outline the procedure for conducting development tests of sections of the KIPS space radiator. The results of these tests will be utilized to determine the final design and anticipated performance characteristics of the full size ground demonstration system (GDS) radiator. This procedure is applicable to the tests planned for the short panel radiator test assembly (KIPS104000-009) and for the long panel radiator test assembly (KIPS104000-019). The test data to be obtained include the pressure drop across the header and individual radiator tube, the temperature profile on the panel and an estimation of the heat rejection capability. The short panel test will be performed under vacuum and -200 +- 10/sup 0/F environment. Tests on the long panel will be conducted under room conditions.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KIPS kilowatt isotope power system

Description: This Control System topical report covers basic control requirements, selection of control system and a recent review of an electromechanical approach to the flow control valve. Section I covers the basic control requirements for Organic Rankine cycle systems, particular requirements for an isotope fueled space power system, and special requirements imposed by launch, Shuttle deployment and spacecraft requirements. Various control devices which can be used to meet system requirements are discussed. In Section II, various combinations of control functions and devices are presented with comments as to the suitability of each for the intended application. This is essentially a review of the selection process used to pick the present KIPS control system. The formal trade-off matrix, component description, and system selection, as prepared for Design Reviews 2 and 3, is included as Appendix A to the report. Section 3 covers the recently completed design of an electronic-electromechanical flow control valve and compares this approach to the thermal bulb-hydro-mechanical flow control valve baseline. The results of this comparative study indicate that the present configuration is preferable to an electrical valve.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test procedure for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 77-KIPS-83

Description: The verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Jet Condenser to verify adequate orifice thermal performance are described. The purpose of the test procedure is to determine which orifice elements achieve satisfactory thermal performance to assure adequacy for Ground Demonstration System (GDS) Testing.
Date: August 10, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test procedure for the ground demonstration system multi-power level combined rotating unit. 77-KIPS-61

Description: This test procedure (No. 402) provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the developmental program to be conducted on the Combined Rotating Unit-(CRU) of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System KIPS, to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration Test Plan. The test objectives were to: establish operating conditions, overspeed conditions and to measure basic performance; measure output power; record spin-down data and calculate bearing losses; calculate turbine efficiency at steady state using spin down data and previously determined pump and alternator performance data; test 500 W(e) and 2000 W(e) units by replacing necessary hardware in one of the units and measuring basic performance; and test one of the units in the horizontal axis to demonstrate zero g operation.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt isotope power system. Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system radiator bypass valve

Description: This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the developmental program to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Radiator Bypass Valve, to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System Design Criteria. The test objective is to demonstrate the bypass flow characteristics of the valve as a function of the Jet Condensor Inlet Temperature. To accomplish the test objective the pump discharge temperature (TPO) will be varied by adjusting the temperature control (T/C) on the rig heaters. Heat will be rejected by adjusting the cooling rate through the heat exchanger. As the Jet Condenser inlet temperature changes, the bypass flow rate and the radiator flow rate will change.
Date: April 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the ground demonstration system alternator stator. 78-KIPS-17

Description: The purpose of this test was to demonstrate that the alternator stator has satisfactorily completed sufficient testing to safisfy the requirements set forth within the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Component Test Specification for the GDS Alternator Stator (TS 2538). The results of the acceptance tests conducted on the alternator stator, S/N 003, are presented, and show that the stator did meet specified requirements.
Date: December 14, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt isotope power system. Component test report for the ground demonstration system pump

Description: The purpose of this test was to demonstrate that the System Pump utilized for the developmental program to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) fulfilled the requirements of Test Procedure 398, Component Test Procedure for the GDS System Pump. Results of the testing performed on the System Pump are presented.
Date: November 7, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department