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Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

Description: This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.
Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Nash, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, Analysis, and Spacecraft Integration of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

Description: This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications.; The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. However, JPL subsequently raised both the power demand profile and the duration for both missions, to the point where two standard RTGs could no longer provide the desired power margin. Each mission can be satisfied by adding a third RTG, and in the case of the Cassini mission the use of three RTGs appears to be unavoidable. In the case of the CRAF mission, there appears to be a possibility that modest modifications of the RTGs' design and/or operating scheme and meet the missions' power demand without the addition of a third RTG. The potential saving in cost and schedule pressure prompted Fairchild to undertake a study of various obvious and not-so-obvious stratagems, either singly or in combination, to determine whether they would make it possible to meet the specified power demand with two RTSs.; The various stratagems investigated by Fairchild and their effect on performance are presented. The analytical results indicate that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications could come very close to meeting the JPL-specified CRAF power demand goals. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use three RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power ...
Date: April 2, 1991
Creator: Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T & Noravian, Heros
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, Analysis, and Spacecraft Integration of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

Description: This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications. The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. However, JPL subsequently raised both the power demand profile and the duration for both missions, to the point where two standard RTGs could no longer provide the desired power margin. Each mission can be satisfied by adding a third RTG, and in the case of the Cassini mission the use of three RTGs appears to be unavoidable. In the case of the CRAF mission, there appears to be a possibility that modest modifications of the RTGs' design and/or operating scheme and meet the missions' power demand without the addition of a third RTG. The potential saving in cost and schedule pressure prompted Fairchild to undertake a study of various obvious and not-so-obvious stratagems, either singly or in combination, to determine whether they would make it possible to meet the specified power demand with two RTSs. The various stratagems investigated by Fairchild and their effect on performance are presented. The analytical results indicate that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications could come very close to meeting the JPL-specified CRAF power demand goals. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use three RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power ...
Date: April 2, 1991
Creator: Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T & Noravian, Heros
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

Description: The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.
Date: April 2, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

Description: Hydrazine nitrate-nitric acid solutions are used in the ion exchange process for separating Pu-238 and Np-237 and have been found to dissolve plutonium metal in a manner advantageous to SRP metal recovery operations. Laboratory tests on the stability of hydrazine in nitric acid solutions were performed to obtain accurate data, and the results of these tests are reported here. These tests provide sufficient information to specify temperature control for hydrazine-nitric acid solutions in plant processes.
Date: July 2, 2001
Creator: Karraker, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford toll irradiation study

Description: This report presents details of the Hanford toll irradiation study. The objective of the study was to provide a basis for establishing charges for irradiation of neptunium for private parties on a toll basis.
Date: September 2, 1969
Creator: Woods, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test procedure for the ground demonstration system. 77-KIPS-63

Description: This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used during development, performance and endurance testing to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Development Ground Demonstration Systems, P/N's 722487 and 723829 and Ground Demonstration System (GDS), P/N 725100. The objectives of this testing are to demonstrate system performance in a controlled environment; to verify results of performance predictions; to verify results compiled by component testing performed per Sundstrand Test Procedures and Test Specifications; and to isolate full scale operational characteristics for evaluation.
Date: December 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the electric heat source assembly. 77-KIPS-108

Description: The purpose of the acceptance testing was to demonstrate that the electrical heat source assembly (EHSA) has completed sufficient testing to satisfy the requirements set forth within the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Component Test Procedure (No. KIPS1020304) for the electrical heat source assembly. The results of the acceptance testing/analysis on the EHSA are presented.
Date: February 2, 1978
Creator: Brainard, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed laser propulsion for low cost, high volume launch to orbit

Description: Pulsed laser propulsion offers the prospect of delivering high thrust at high specific impulse (500-1000 seconds) from a very simple thruster, using the energy of a remote ground-based laser to heat an inert propellant. Current analyses indicate that payloads of approximately 1 kg per megawatt of average laser power can be launched at a rate of one payload every 15 minutes and a marginal cost of $20 to $200 per kg. A 20 MW entry-level launch system could be built using current technology at a cost of $500 million or less; it would be capable of placing 600 tons per year into LEO. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program has been developing the technology for such a launch system since 1987. The program has conducted theoretical and experimental research on a particular class of laser-driven thruster, the planar double-pulse LSD-wave thruster, which could be used for a near-term launcher. The double-pulse thruster offers several advantages, including extreme simplicity, design flexibility, and the ability to guide a vehicle remotely by precise control of the laser beam. Small-scale experiments have demonstrated the operation of this thruster at a specific impulse of 600 seconds and 10% efficiency; larger experiments now under way are expected to increase this to at least 20% efficiency. Systems-level issues, from guidance and tracking to possible unique applications, have also been considered and will be briefly discussed. There appear to be no fundamental obstacles to creating, in the next five to ten years, a new low-cost ''pipe-line to space.'' 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: June 2, 1989
Creator: Kare, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

Description: Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.
Date: November 2, 1990
Creator: Goldman, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA)); Nelson, R.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Bollinger, L. (Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM (USA)); Hoover, M.D. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)) & Anspaugh, L. (Lawren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Milliwatt generator heat source. Progress report, July-December 1983

Description: All LANL hardware requirements were met during the reporting period as scheduled. Lot 12 of T-111 alloy sheet and Lot 8 of yttrium platelets were procured to meet future WR production needs. The GEND IP schedule requirements for 49 fueled MC2893 heat sources were met. Pressure burst surveillance activities continued to be conducted in accordance with SNLA document BB328965. Final results of evaluations of two pressure-burst capsules were normal, suggesting that the corresponding heat sources should be in good condition. The hardware production period ended with an overall hardware process yield of 98.4%.
Date: March 2, 1984
Creator: Mershad, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helios pulsed nuclear propulsion concept

Description: A Helios-propelled vehicle would make use of a containment vessel--perhaps 30 feet in diameter--in which small nuclear explosive charges would be placed, together with a few hundred pounds of hydrogen. Firing of a charge would result in bringing the mixture of charge residue and hydrogen to a high temperature--say 5000 or 6000/sup 0/K--and subsequent release through a nozzle would provide propulsive thrust. This process would be repeated several thousand times, at intervals likely to be 10 seconds or longer. High impulsive acceleration loads would be moderated by a system of shock absorbers between the engine and vehicle. The paper summarizes characteristic features of the concept, especially with reference to system optimization studies and analysis of heat transfer to the engine structure.
Date: June 2, 1965
Creator: Hadley, J.W.; Stubbs, T.F.; Janssen, M.A. & Simons, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An alternative strategy for low specific power reactors to power interplanetary spacecraft, based on exploiting lasers and lunar resources

Description: A key requirement setting the minimum electric propulsion performance (specific power ..cap alpha../sub e/ = kW/sub e//kg) for manned missions to Mars is the maximum allowable radiation dose to the crew during the long transits between Earth and Mars. Penetrating galactic cosmic rays and secondary neutron showers give about 0.1-rem/day dose, which only massive shielding (e.g., a meter of concrete) can reduce significantly. With a humane allowance for cabin space, the shielding mass becomes so large that it prohibitively escalates the propellant consumption required for reasonable trip times. This paper covers various proposed methods for using reactor power to propel spacecraft. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: February 2, 1989
Creator: Logan, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department