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An Experimental Shield Test Facility for the Development of Minimum Weight Shields for Compact Reactor Power Systems

Description: Discussions are given of the characteristics of fission-source plate, graphite reactor, and pool-type reactor facilities applicable to development studies of minimum weight shielding materials. Advantages of a proposed SNAP dual-purpose shielding facility are described in terms of a disk-shaped fission-source plate, reactor, and building. A program for the study of advanced shielding materials is discussed for materials and configuations to be evaluted with the fission-source plate, the testing of the prototype at high-power levels, and full-power tests on the actual reactor.
Date: August 7, 1959
Creator: Tomlinson, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Summary Review of Mound Laboratory's Experience in D & D of Radioactive Facilities 1949-1973

Description: The objective of Mound Laboratory's Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) projects has been the effective termination of radioactive material processing facilities with no significant personnel exposures or environmental releases. This objective must be met with available resources and manpower. Mound has effectively decontaminated and/or decommissioned four major facilities in the 1949 through 1973 time period. Many minor areas were also decontaminated and/or decommissioned during this period. The major D & D projects involved the following isotopes: polonium-210, radium-226, actinium-227, and plutonium-238. To achieve a D & D status, Mound has employed several control and decontamination techniques such as: "Navy Cocooning", entombment, removal, foaming, bagging, tents, chutes, portable exhausters, dry ice, vents, bubble suits, three-zones, fire watches, painting and sealing, in-line cleaning, high pressure water blaster, and chemical cleaning.
Date: June 1, 1974
Creator: Garner, J. M. & Davis, W. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Isotopic Measurements by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Description: The nondestructive assay of plutonium is important as a safeguard tool in accounting for stategic nuclear material. Several nondestructive assay techniques, e.g., calorimetry and spontaneous fission assay detectors, require a knowledge of plutonium and americium isotopic ratios to convert their raw data to total grams of plutonium. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects have been minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios are dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities and measured peak areas. The data presented describes the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. The majority of the data analyzed was obtained from plutonium material containing 6% plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods have also been applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23% plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples.
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Haas, Francis X. & Lemming, John F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Artificial Heart Pump (Additional Endogenous Heat) Program

Description: Three plutonium-238 radioisotope-powered heat sources were developed and fabricated at Mound Laboratory for use by Thermo Electron Engineering Corporation (TEECO) in the Artificial Heart Pump (Additional Endogenous Heat) Program. These sources contained doubly encapsulated plutonum-238 metal; two had a thermal power of 15(+2-0) W and one had 25(+0-2) W. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing of the heat sources are given in this report. Two of the heat sources (one 15-W and one 25-W) were shipped to TEECO for use with special heat exchangers in implantation experiments on dogs at Boston City Hospital. These tests have been under way since July, 1967. The third heat source (15-W) was fabricated for in-house testing at Mound Laboratory.
Date: January 27, 1969
Creator: Davis, N. E.; Davenport, C. H. & Kelly, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mound Laboratory Plutonium-238 Study Off-Site Analytical Data May-December 1974

Description: Preliminary samples collected from off-site sediment in the Miami-Erie Canal Area near Mound Laboratory indicated that plutonium-238 concentrations are substantially above baseline levels. As a result an extensive sampling and analysis program was performed to determine the plutonium-238 concentrations as a function of depth and location in a drainage ditch, the canal, two ponds, a run-off hollow, a canal overflow creek and the Great Miami River. The plutonium-238 concentration data was used to estimate the total inventory of 238Pu deposited in these waterways, to determine the extent of the contamination, and to evaluate the potential health hazards to the general population of the area. The scope of this report is to present the data collected during this study. Detailed interpretation of the data will be presented in subsequent reports.
Date: March 1, 1975
Creator: Robinson, Bob; Rogers, D. R.; Westendorf, W. H. & Black, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

Description: The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.
Date: March 16, 1995
Creator: Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D. & Bohne, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absolute Glovebox Ventilation Filtration System with Unique Filter Replacement Feature

Description: A glovebox ventilation system was designed for a new plutonium-238 processing facility that provided 1) downdraft ventilation, 2) a leak tight seal around the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, and 3) a method for changing the filters internally without risk of contaminating the laboratory.
Date: December 31, 1975
Creator: Freeman, S. S. & Slusher, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) Design and Development, Part A-E. Original was presented at 1983 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)

Description: Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing 24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Detailed analysis indicates that the present generation of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There is a duplicate copy of this document. OSTI has a copy of this paper.
Date: April 29, 1983
Creator: Schock, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Possible Stratagems for Enhancing the EOM Power of RTGs for the CRAF Mission

Description: Paper presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. This paper describes the various stratagems investigated and discusses their drawbacks and their effectiveness. The analytical results indicated that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications that could be implemented in time for the mission could come very close to meeting the CRAF power demand goals specified by JPL. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use 3 RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power demand peaks. The purpose of this paper is to document the various power enhancement schemes analyzed and their computed effectiveness, for possible future applications. There are three copies in the file.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T & Noravian, Heros
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Exploration and the Benefits to Mankind

Description: Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Dresden, GDR in October 1990. This paper analyzes the past challenges of the space program's multi-national cooperative agreements and examines the challenges of the future as we quickly become a global society. Cross Reference ESD-T1.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Moser, T.L.; Freitag, R. & Schneider, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stirling Engine Nodal Analysis Program

Description: A general-purpose program for the nodal analysis of Stirling-cycle devices or other cyclic, regenerative machines is described. It employs finite-difference, explicit-forward solutions, and is readily adaptable to various machine topologies. The machine is divided into specifiable numbers of fluid and solid nodes. The program solves three coupled gas-dynamic differential equations (mass, momentum, and energy balances) for each fluid node, and an energy balance for each solid nod. Interactions between these are represented by heat transfer and fluid friction terms. The kinetic energy of the fluid and the inertial resistance to flow acceleration are accounted for. Leakages through seals and ports are included in the analysis. Special schemes for enhanced mathematical stability and for accelerated convergence to a steady-state cycle are described. The program is applicable to both disciplined-piston and free-piston engines. It can automatically generate very detailed outputs, both tabular and graphic (Eulerian, LaGrangian, and 3-dimensional) to help provide insight and understanding. Extensive illustrations and discussions are presented.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Schock, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Nature of the Distortion of a GPHS Fueled Capsule Impacted on Various Media at Various Velocities and Under Various Boundary Conditions; Appendix F: Response of the GPHS Module to LH(Sub-2)-LO(Sub-2) Overpressure in Various Shielded and Unshielded Geometries

Description: This body of work represents the parametric investigation of conditions of impact for a GPHS fueled capsule.
Date: August 25, 1987
Creator: Eck, Marshall B & Mukunda, Meera
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology

Description: An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely. The TEG is comprised of 72 TE modules, which are capable of producing 1kW of electrical power at 30 V DC during nominal engine operation. Currently the upgraded generator has completed testing in a test cell and starting from August 2001 will be tested on a Diesel truck under typical road and environmental conditions. It is expected that the TEG will be able to supplement the existing shaft driven alternator, resulting in significant fuel saving, generating additional power required by the truckļæ½s accessories. The electronic and thermal properties of bulk materials are altered when they are incorporated into quantum wells. Two-dimensional quantum wells have been synthesized by alternating layers of B4C and B9C in one system and alternating layers of Si and Si0.8Ge0.2 in another system. Such nanostructures are being investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials with high figures of merit (Z). The predicted enhancement is attributed to the confined motion of charge carriers and phonons in the two dimensions and separating them from the ion scattering centers. Multilayer quantum well materials development continues with the fabrication of thicker films, evaluation of various substrates to minimize bypass heat loss, and bonding techniques to minimize high contact resistance. Quantum well thermoelectric devices with N-type Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 and P-type B4C/B9C have been fabricated from these films. The test results generated continue to indicate that much higher thermoelectric efficiencies can be achieved in the quantum wells compared to the bulk materials.
Date: August 5, 2001
Creator: Kushch, Aleksandr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT--SNAP 1A RADIOISOTOPE FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

Description: The safety aspects involved in utilizing the Task 2 radioisotope-powered thermoelectric generator in a terrestrial satellite are described. It is based upon a generalized satellite mission having a 600-day orbital lifetime. A description of the basic design of the generator is presented in order to establish the analytical model. This includes the generator design, radiocerium fuel properties, and the fuel core. The transport of the generator to the launch site is examined, including the shipping cask, shipping procedures, and shipping hazards. A description of ground handling and vehicle integration is presented including preparation for fuel transfer, transfer, mating of generators to final stage, mating final stage to booster, and auxiliary support equipment. The flight vehicle is presented to complete the analytical model. Contained in this chapter are descriptions of the booster-sustainer, final stage, propellants, and built-in safety systems. The typical missile range is examined with respect to the launch complex and range safety characteristics. The shielding of the fuel is discussed and includes both dose rates and shield thicknesses required. The bare core, shielded generator, fuel transfer operation and dose rates for accidental conditions are treated. mechanism of re-entry from the successful mission is covered. Radiocerium inventories with respect to time and the chronology of re-entry are specifically treated. The multiplicity of conditions for aborted missions is set forth. The definition of aborted missions is treated first in order to present the initial conditions. Following this, a definition of the forces imposed upon the generator is presented. The aborted missions is presented. A large number of initial vehicle failure cases is narrowed down into categories of consequences. Since stratospheric injection of fuel results in cases where the fuel is not contained after re-entry, an extensive discussion of the fall-out mechanism is presented. (auth)
Date: June 30, 1960
Creator: Dix, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.
Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: Doyle, G. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting thermoelectric generator

Description: Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Metzger, J.D. & El-Genk, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department