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Problems Facing Coal Mining and Gas Production in the Hartshorne Coalbeds of the Western Arkoma Basin, Oklahoma

Description: This report provides pertinent geologic information for long-range planning of subsurface coal and gas production from the Hartshorne Coalbeds. Problems encountered include the complex distribution of minable and un-minable coal, high methane content and bed pressure, faulting, variations in degree of dip, presence of natural gas fields in associated sandstones, and legal problems.
Date: 1983
Creator: Iannacchione, Anthony T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Well Costs and their Sensitivities to Changes in Drilling and Completion Operations

Description: This paper presents a detailed analysis of the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. The basis for much of the analysis is a computer-simulation-based model which calculates and accrues operational costs involved in drilling and completing a well. Geothermal well costs are discussed in general, with special emphasis on variations among different geothermal areas in the United States, effects of escalation and inflation over the past few years, and comparisons of geothermal drilling costs with those for oil and gas wells. Cost differences between wells for direct use of geothermal energy and those for electric generation, are also indicated. In addition, a breakdown of total well cost into its components is presented. This provides an understanding of the relative contributions of different operations in drilling and completions. A major portion of the cost in many geothermal wells is from encountered troubles, such as lost circulation, cementing difficulties, and fishing. These trouble costs are considered through both specific examples and statistical treatment of drilling and completions problems. The sensitivities of well costs to variations in several drilling and completion parameters are presented. The mode1 makes it possible to easily vary parameters such as rates of penetration; bit lifetimes; bit rental, or rig costs; delay times; number of cement plugs; etc. are compared.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Carson, C. C. & Lin, Y.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass with Reactive and Non-Reactive Gases: Summary Report for Period July 1983 through September 1984

Description: The purpose of this program is to study the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feedstocks by a flash or rapid pyrolysis technique. During this period of study pine wood was flash pyrolyzed in atmospheres of methane and helium at a pressure of 50 psi and at temperatures up to 1050 C. The 1-inch I.D. entrained downflow tubular reactor was used in these experiments. Product yields of methane, ethane, ethylene, BTX, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined as a function of temperature and gas to wood ratio. Of particular interest were the ethylene and BTX yields. These represented as much as 29.6% and 24.6% of the carbon contained in the feed wood respectively when flash pyrolyzing in methane (flash methanolysls) and 14.7% and 9.7% when pyrolyzing in helium. In the case of flash methanolysis of wood the yields of ethylene and benzene increased with increasing methane to wood feed ratios. In the case of flash pyrolysis in helium the yields of ethylene and BTX decreased with increasing helium gas to wood feed ratios. These results indicate a mechanism by which a free radical reactive species originating from the wood interacts with the methane pyrolyzing gas to produce an enhanced yield of ethylene and benzene. The flash methanolysis of lignin extract from wood produced lower yields of ethylene, indicating the yields mainly originate from the cellulosic fractions of the wood. Some work was also performed on substituting wood ash for sillca flour (Cab-O-Sil) to allow free flow of wood particles through the entrained flow reactor. Preliminary process design and analysis indicates an economically competitive process for the flash methanolysis of wood for the production of methanol, benzene and ethylene. Future plans include completing the studies on obtaining the process chemistry of the flash methanolysis of ...
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: M., Steinberg; Fallon, P.T. & Sundaram, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of Geopressured Brines and Wells in the Gulf Coast and Opportunities for Industrial/Research Participation

Description: Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft. Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of U.S. locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. The assumed ranges in resource characteristics include: depth from -12,000 to > -20,000 feet, brine flow rate from 20,000 to 40,000 bpd, temperature from 300 to 400 F, bottomhole pressure from 12,000 to 18,500 psi; salinity from 20,000 to 200,000 mg/L, gas-water ratio from 40 to 80 scf/bbl., and condensate from a trace to production. Energy in the geopressured resource includes gas, thermal, and hydraulic energy. It has been estimated that there are 6,000 quads of methane and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the Gulf Coast area geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Estimates run as high as 50,000 quad for the thermal energy (Wallace et al, 1978). Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells includes: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. Outside agency interest includes the U.S.G.S., N.S.F., G.R.I., and possibly other areas within DOE. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of ...
Date: March 21, 1989
Creator: Wys, J. Nequs- de
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured -- Geothermal Drilling and Testing Plan: Volume 1 Drilling and Completion, Technadril/Fenix and Scisson -- Department of Energy T/F&S -- DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 Well, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

Description: The principal objectives of the geopressured-geothermal reservoir resource assessment program are to obtain data related to the following: 1.2.1--Reservoir parameters and characteristics, including permeability, porosity, areal extent, net thickness of productive sands, methane content, and formation compressibilities; 1.2.2--Ability of a geopressured well to flow at the high rates, i.e., 40,000 bbls/day, expected to achieve the resource recovery required for economic commercial operations; 1.2.3--Reservoir production drive mechanisms and physical and chemical changes that may occur with various production rates and conditions; 1.2.4--Aquifer fluid properties, including chemical composition, dissolved and suspended solids, hydrocarbon content, in situ temperature, and pressure; 1.2.5--Techniques and strategies for completion and production of geopressured wells for methane, thermal, and hydraulic energy production, including examination of producibility using computer simulators employing parameters determined by well testing; 1.2.6--Disposal well parameters, such as optimum injection rate and pressures (transient and pseudo steady state), chemical compatibility of fluids, temperature-solubility relationships, and the economic considerations of injection, including evaluation of filtering and inhibition techniques in the process steam; and 1.2.7--The long-term environmental effects of an extensive commercial application of geopressured-geothermal energy, i.e., subsidence, induced seismicity, and fluid disposal.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressure/Geothermal Prospects

Description: The Department of Energy is actively exploring the use of geopressured, geothermal resources as an alternative source of natural gas and energy for power generation. Bands of this resource are located along the Texas-Louisiana gulf coast. A resource assessment of these ''fairways'' has been made and reveals that only some of them show potential promise. The major unknowns are the number, size and properties of the reservoirs, and how they are faulted (i.e. how much continuous medium there is between faults). This GP/GT resource is located at depths in excess of 12,000 ft under extremely high pressure. The water may contain as much as 50 standard cubic feet of dissolved gas per barrel of fluid and have a temperature of 300-350 F. The proposed method to use this resource is to reduce the pressure through a turbine-generating power, strip off the gas as it comes out of solution, and flash the hot water into steam for further power generation. These three sources of energy--pressure, gas and heat--are about equal in energy content. If the water were pure, we could then use it for irrigation. Unfortunately, it is saltier than sea water. Disposal becomes a problem. There are two possible methods of disposal--injection into a shallow reservoir and injection into the same reservoir. The first requires less energy, the second helps maintain reservoir pressure and increases overall total product.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Ridgeway, J.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrography, Mineralogy, and Reservoir Characteristics of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the East-Central Piceance Basin, Colorado

Description: From abstract: Three closely spaced wells drilled through the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and were extensively cored and logged in order to identify the factors controlling the occurrence and distribution of gas in low-permeability rocks and to improve recovery technology.
Date: 1989
Creator: Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M. & Spencer, Charles Winthrop
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Space Heating Applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the Vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Phase I Report, August 20, 1979--December 31, 1979

Description: This engineering and economic study is concerned with the question of using the natural heat of the earth, or geothermal energy, as an alternative to other energy sources such as oil and natural gas which are increasing in cost. This document represents a quarterly progress report on the effort directed to determine the availability of geothermal energy within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana (Figure 1), and the feasibility of beneficial use of this resource including engineering, economic and environmental considerations. The project is being carried out by the Tribal Research office, Assinboine and Sioux Tribes, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Poplar, Montana under a contract to the United States Department of Energy. PRC TOUPS, the major subcontractor, is responsible for engineering and economic studies and the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) is providing support in the areas of environment and finance, the results of which will appear in the Final Report. The existence of potentially valuable geothermal resource within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation was first detected from an analysis of temperatures encountered in oil wells drilled in the area. This data, produced by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, pointed to a possible moderate to high temperature source near the town of Poplar, Montana, which is the location of the Tribal Headquarters for the Fort Peck Reservation. During the first phase of this project, additional data was collected to better characterize the nature of this geothermal resource and to analyze means of gaining access to it. As a result of this investigation, it has been learned that not only is there a potential geothermal resource in the region but that the producing oil wells north of the town of Poplar bring to the surface nearly 20,000 barrels a day (589 gal/min) of geothermal fluid in a temperature ...
Date: January 4, 1980
Creator: Spencer, Glenn J. & Cohen, M. Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of the Available Energy Potential of the Gulf Coast Geopressured Zones

Description: The geopressured zones presently under serious study in the U.S. are tertiary sediments in the Gulf Coastal basin which are water saturated and exhibit pressures significantly greater than hydrostatic. These sediments are primarily shale, interbedded with sandstone. The top of the geopressured zone is frequently near 10,000 ft. or so, and extends to indeterminate depths. The water contained in these zones is at a moderately elevated temperature and, more significantly, appears to contain dissolved methane at near-saturation values. Conceptually, wells drilled into the geopressured zone might be expected to produce water without pumping, due to the high pressures. The dissolved methane could then be separated at the surface and used conventionally as natural gas. The water may contain sufficient heat to provide a useful source of geothermal energy, and the hydraulic energy might also provide useful work. Development of the geopressured/geothermal resource is largely dependent upon production characteristics of geopressured reservoirs. These in turn are intimately related to properties of the formations, and can be defined within reasonable limits.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Swanson, R.K.; Osoba, J. S. & Hankin, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

Description: This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection ...
Date: December 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program: An Overview

Description: The geopressured-geothermal resource consists of deeply buried reservoirs of hot brine, under abnormally high pressures, that contain dissolved methane. Geopressured brine reservoirs with pressures approaching the lithostatic load are known to occur both onshore and offshore beneath the Gulf of Mexico coast, along the Pacific west coast, in Appalachia, as well as in deep sedimentary basins elsewhere in the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) has concentrated its research on the northern Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin (Figure 1) which consists largely of Tertiary interbedded sandstones and shales deposited in alternating deltaic, fluvial, and marine environments. Thorsen (1964) and Norwood and Holland (1974) describe three generalized depositional facies in sedimentary beds of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline (Figure 2 ): (1) a massive sandstone facies in which sandstone constitutes 50 percent o r more of the sedimentary volume; (2) an alternating sandstone and shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 to 35 percent of the sedimentary volume. (3) a massive shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 percent or less of the sedimentary volume. In general, at any given location the volume of sandstone decreases with increasing depth. The datum of higher-than-normal fluid pressures is associated with the alternating sandstone and shale facies and the massive shale facies. Faulting and salt tectonics have complicated the depositional patterns and influenced the distribution of geopressured reservoirs (Wallace et a1 1978). The sandstones in the alternating sandstone and shale facies have the greatest potential for geopressured-geothermal energy development. Due to the insulating effect of surrounding shales, temperatures of the geopressured-geothermal brines typically range from 250 F to over 350 F, and under prevailing temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions, the brine contains 20 or more cubic feet of methane per barrel. Wallace et al (1978) estimated the geopressured-geothermal energy in Gulf Coast sandstone pore ...
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Fortuna, Raymond & Jelacic, Allan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct use of Geothermal Energy at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant

Description: This report provides a chronological and technical evaluation of the successful use of geothermal energy in San Bernardino, California to provide heating for wastewater treatment facilities. The annual cost savings for the currently tested system is more than $29,425 for the single anaerobic digester now being heated. Expansion of the wastewater facility, resulting in two additional digesters, could result in three geothermal heated digesters on line--a minimum of two. This expanded usage, together with expected natural gas price increases, should result in recovery of all investment costs in less than ten years.
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, July-September 1980

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 September 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), reports on neotectonic investigations of the Manhattan Prong. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR&D funds. The second concerns OTEC pilot plant performance calculations, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The third, describing a study of landfill methane recovery, is supported by the National Park Service.
Date: September 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, January-March 1981

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1981. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Siting of Critical Facilities, supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and in-house funds, contains reports on geologic investigations in western Connecticut and areas in adjacent New York, development of seismotectonic domains, and fracture permeability in siting hazardous waste repositories. The third section, Energy Conservation and Storage Techniques, supported by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), reports on institutional barriers to landfill methane recovery and the need for state legislation.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, April-June 1980

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 30 June 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is on data analysis of OTEC core unit condenser tests, and is supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The second is on the current status of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va., and is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division. The third is on utilization of landfill methane and is supported by Argonne National Laboratory.
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, October-December 1980

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains a report on institutional problems for small-scale hydroelectric power development in the southeastern states and a list of documents published by APL in the hydroelectric program and in the geothermal program, above. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, contains an article on work on the geologic structure of the Danbury Quadrangle that is supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an in-house supported study on a new method for assessing earthquakes in intraplate regions. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains four articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR and D funds. The second concerns fly-wheel technology development at APL supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Storage (DOE/STOR). The third is a report on APL energy conservation efforts at its own buildings, and the fourth is an article on liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety evaluation, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The fifth section explores the value of establishing an Energy Research Institute at The Johns Hopkins University.
Date: December 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

Description: On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes ...
Date: May 29, 1987
Creator: Hayden, C.G. & Randolph, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A thermal resistance method for computing surface heat flow and subsurface temperatures with application to the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah

Description: The thermal resistance method has been modified to test the utility of oil and gas well bottom-hole temperature data in determining heat flow and subsurface temperature patterns. Thermal resistance, defined as the quotient of a depth parameter '{Delta}{sub z}' and thermal conductivity 'k'', governs subsurface temperatures as follows: T{sub B} = T{sub 0} + q{sub 0} B {summation} z=0 ({Delta}z/k){sub i} where T{sub B} is the temperature at depth z = B, T{sub 0} is the surface temperature, q{sub 0} is surface heat flow and the thermal resistance ({Delta}z/k) is summed for all lithological units between the surface and depth B. In practice, bottom-hole temperatures are combined with a measured or estimated thermal conductivity profile to determine the surface heat flow q{sub 0}, which in turn is used for all consequent subsurface temperature computations. The method has been tested in the Tertiary Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah, a region of intermediate geologic complexity (structurally simple yet lithologically complex) where numerous oil and gas well data are available. Thermal conductivity values, determined for 852 samples from five representative wells varying in depth from 670 to 5180 meters, were used to assign average conductivities to geologic formations and to investigate the effect of facies changes on intra-formation conductivities. In situ conductivities were corrected for porosity and temperature effects. Formation thicknesses needed for the thermal resistance summation were obtained by utilizing approximately 2000 wells in the WEXPRO Petroleum Information file, the computations being expedited by describing all formation contacts as fourth order polynomial surfaces. Bottom-hole temperatures were used from 97 selected wells where multiple well logs permitted correcting temperatures for drilling effects.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Chapman, David S. & Keho, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Evolution of Sedimentary Basins--Uinta and Piceance Basins: Chapters H and I]

Description: From abstract: Analysis of vitrinite reflectance profiles and surfaces of equal vitrinite reflectance in the southeastern part of the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado, indicates that burial histories for the Divide Creek anticline and the Grand Hogback are different from those for adjacent synclines. These two positive structures probably reached their present-day thermal maturity before late Eocene folding and before the end of the Laramide orogeny. In contrast, adjacent synclines did not reach their present-day thermal maturity until the end of the Laramide orogeny, or possibly later.
Date: 1989
Creator: Nuccio, Vito F.; Johnson, Ronald Carl & Johnson, Samuel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic History and Hydrocarbon Potential of Late Cretaceous-Age, Low-Permeability Reservoirs, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

Description: From abstract: The Piceance basin of western Colorado contains large reserves of natural gas in low-permeability reservoirs of the Late Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Formation or Mesaverde Group. The gas accumulation can be divided into three general zones: a zone of surface-water invasion that extends inward a few miles from present outcrops, a gas-and-waterbearing zone that extends 10-20 miles inward from the water-bearing zone, and a central, predominantly gasbearing zone.
Date: 1989
Creator: Johnson, Ronald Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic assessment of geothermal direct heat technology: A review of five DOE demonstration projects

Description: In this report the cost of using low temperature geothermal energy resources for direct heating applications is compared to the costs associated with conventional heating fuels. The projects compared all involved replacing conventional fuels (e.g., natural gas and fuel oils) with geothermal energy in existing heating systems. The cost of using geothermal energy in existing systems was also compared with the cost of new coal-fired equipment.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Hederman, William F. Jr. & Cohen, Laura A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Commercial Densimeters for LNG Service

Description: Abstract: Densimeters for liquefied natural gas (LNG) from four manufacturers were tested in liquid methane and an LNG-like mixture of methane, propane, and nitrogen in the density reference system (DRS). The calibration and performance of one type tested for the first time are reported. The stability of the calibrations and performances of three densimeters of a type previously tested have been examined and are also reported here.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Siegwarth, J. D. & LaBrecque, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

Description: Abstract: The symposium on Oil and Gas Supply Modeling, held at the Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (June 18-20, 1980), was funded by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy and co-sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards' Operations Research Division. The symposium was organized to be a forum in which the theoretical and applied state-of-the-art of oil and gas supply models could be presented and discussed. Speakers addressed the following areas: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply. This volume documents the proceedings (papers and discussion) of the symposium.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Gass, Saul I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Broadening of Single Vibrational-Rotational Transitions of Acetylene AT v = 5

Description: To understand the mechanism of pressure broadening one must have accurate values of the pressure broadening coefficients as a function of vibrational quantum number. Unfortunately, such data for polyatomic molecules are scarce. The coefficient for self-broadening of methane has been found to be the same for the R(0) and R(1) lines of the 2{nu}{sub 3} and 3{nu}{sub 3} bands and for an unidentified line of the 5{nu}{sub 1} + {nu}{sub 3} band at 6190 {angstrom} (1). Measurements have also been performed on the {nu}{sub 2} (2) and {nu}{sub 1} + {nu}{sub 3} (3) bands of acetylene. In the work described here, high resolution spectra of single vibrational-rotational lines of the 5{nu}{sub 3} band of acetylene at 15,600 cm{sup -1} have been taken to determine the coefficients for self-broadening at a much higher level of vibrational excitation. A single frequency cw dye laser (Spectra-Physics 580A) with Rhodamine B as the lasing medium is used as a narrow bandwidth light source. The laser is continuously scannable over a 10 GHz region with 30 MHz linewidth. The unfocused beam is chopped and directed through a small, nonresonant optoacoustic cell. The pressure of the acetylene (> 99.99% purity) in the cell is measured with a capacitance manometer. The optoacoustic signal is detected by a miniature electret microphone placed within the cell and is processed by a lock-in amplifier. The high resolution scans are calibrated ({+-} 5%) by monitoring the dye laser output with a spectrum analyzer equipped with 2 GHz FSR mirrors. All spectra were taken at room temperature (293 {+-} 2 K). At the relatively low pressures used in these experiments, the experimental linewidths are not more than three times the Doppler width (1.1 GHz FWHM). The method of Gronwall was used to calculate values of the Voigt lineshape. With these data, the ...
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Wong, James S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department