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Coastal Effects of Offshore Energy Systems: An Assessment of Oil and Gas Systems, Deepwater Ports, and Nuclear Powerplants Off the Coasts of New Jersey and Delaware

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) about the effects of coastal development in the United States, specifically New Jersey and Delaware. The study looks at "the likely consequences of three energy systems for the ocean environment, the coastal environment, and the economics and patterns of life in both States during the next two decades" (p. c.1).
Date: November 1976
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status Report on the Gas Potential From Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of "the potential for producing gas from the Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin" based on "plausible economic, geologic, and technological assumptions" (Foreward).
Date: November 1977
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment assessing the transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to be used "in consideration of major new projects for the importation of natural gas, and of the competing alternatives for transporting natural gas from Alaska through Canada...or through Alaska only and thence via LNG tankers to the lower 48 States" (p. v).
Date: September 1977
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Impacts of the Projected Natural Gas Curtailments for the Winter 1975-76

Description: A report prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) analyzing the potential impacts of the expected natural gas shortage of the winter of 1975-76. The study's objectives are to "determine the extent to which these projected curtailments reflect the actual situation and what the impacts and potential danger points might be as a result of the natural gas shortage" (p. ix).
Date: November 1975
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.
Date: August 1, 1970
Creator: Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dow Chemical USA Report - Appendix B

Description: The geopressured zone, assuming the presence of natural gas and high water productivity, may be used to produce economical electric power only if the water is at least 375 F or a means of conversion more efficient than flashing is found. The design and costing of a double-flash 25-megawatt plant using water at 325 F gave a capital cost of $678/kwh, a fuel cost of 63?/M Btu and a unit power cost of 46 mills/kwh. The conversion efficiency of the plant, including hydraulic turbine energy from the well head overpressure, was 10.3%. This low efficiency accounts for the high unit power cost. A one-well, 1.5-megawatt test facility will require a total capital cost of $6,661,000. Expansion of this site to a four-well, 10-megawatt pilot plant will require an additional capital expenditure of $27,843,000. The total capital cost for an independent 10-megawatt pilot plant was estimated at $31,777,000. It should be noted that the economics calculated in this report is based on industrial power plant experience. Maintenance, operating costs, and rate of return for industrial investment, as used in the calculations, do not reflect utility plant practices. The cost of power producing may compare more favorably with that of utility plants. Future power costs are projected to at least equal the costs expressed here.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of stress on the microstructure of a graywacke sandstone from the site of the Rio Blanco gas-stimulation experiment

Description: Project Rio Blanco was designed to increase rock permeability in an existing gas reservoir by fracturing the rock with a vertical array of three simultaneous nuclear explosions. The project site was CER Geonuclear hole RB-E- 01, Section 14, T35, R98W, Rio Blanco County, in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwest Colorado. The most essential part of this project was to produce fracturing in, and thereby to increase the permeability of, the reservoir rock. This report contains the results of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies done on unstressed and laboratory-stressed samples of graywacke sandstone from the 6458-ft level of the emplacement hole. Laboratory-stressed samples were from uniaxial-stress and uniaxial-strain tests made as part of equation-of-state measurements used to provide input parameters for preshot code calculations. (auth)
Date: September 30, 1975
Creator: Dengler, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Politics of Federal Regulation of Natural Gas Producers, 1938-1968

Description: This study attempts to show that judicial review of administrative decisions has provided the greatest degree of protection for consumers during the time that natural gas has been subject to regulation by the Federal Power Commission. The first part of the investigation deals with the activities of the regulatory agency since controls were established in 1938. It continues with a discussion of the influence of consumer and producer interests on the legislative process. The contributions of the courts to policy-making is discussed in the following section. The report concludes that more protection from the political environment could be realized by placing the major responsibility for the regulatory program in the hands of the Executive branch.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Perry, Frances J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons

Description: Energy International is a leader in catalyst and process development as it relates to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Through this activity, a concept evolved for a new technique for capturing the fuel value in the associated natural gas contained in crude oil. In the new concept, the dissolved natural gas would be processed via F-T technology to produce light hydrocarbons that would then, in one manifestation of this concept, be redissolved in the crude oil to produce a lighter crude than the original, containing all of the natural gas, but with the vapor pressure of the crude lowered to an acceptable level via the conversion process. This technique would be of particular interest in those instances where the alternative methods of collections and utilizing the associated natural gas were expensive. A study of the application of this technology was undertaken by EI with support from the DOE.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Singleton, A.H., Cooper, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured-geothermal test of the EDNA Delcambre No. 1 well, Tigre Lagoon Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: Analysis of water and dissolved natural gas: Final report

Description: The presence of large volumes of hot water (250-425 F) containing dissolved natural gas in the Gulf of Mexico coastal areas at depths of 5,000 to 25,000 feet (the geopressured zone) has been known for several years. Because natural gas and oil from conventional production methods were relatively inexpensive prior to 1973, and because foreign oil was readily available, no economic incentive existed for developing this resource. With the oil embargo and the resulting rapid escalation in prices of oil and gas since 1973, a new urgency exists for examining the economic potential of the geopressured-geothermal resource. The main objective of the research reported here was to determine the volume of gas dissolved in the geopressured water, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the water and the dissolved gas. A further objective was to use an existing shut-in gas well so that drilling time and the attendant costs could be avoided.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Hankind, B.E. & Karkalits, O.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured Energy Resource Evaluation

Description: The geopressured aquifers that extend along the northern Gulf of Mexico are a large, perhaps the largest, potential source of geothermal energy and natural gas in the US. Because of the high cost of completing wells into these formations and their relatively low temperatures (200 to 400 F), the utilization of the geothermal energy will be highly depend on, and of secondary importance to, the value of the methane. The economics of extracting either the geothermal energy or natural gas from these aquifers does not look promising. The combined requirements of high well flow rates (40,000 bbl/day), long life (20 years), and the necessity for close well spacing to minimize the cost of the collection system may be incompatible with the actual characteristics of the reservoirs. These factors place such stringent requirements on the reservoir size, permeability, and compressibility, or specific storage coefficient, that the number of promising production areas may be severely limited.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Samuels, Garland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economics of producing methane (exclusively) from geopressured aquifers along the Gulf Coast

Description: The purpose of this report was to estimate the cost of producing methane (natural gas) from geopressured aquifers inland from and along the coast of the Gulf of New Mexico. No other economic values of the geopressured brines were considered for exploitation. There were several component tasks of such an overall analysis which had to be completed in order to arrive at the final conclusion. (1) An estimate of the reservoir parameters of the geopressured aquifers; their areal extent, net thickness of productive sand, porosity, permeability, effective compressibility. It is these parameters which determine the production rates and the total recovery of the resource that may be expected within an economic time frame. (2) An estimate of the production rates and cumulative production of geopressured aquifers having reservoir properties falling into the range of values that may be anticipated from the results of the first task. (3) An estimate of the operating and capital costs of drilling wells and producing such geopressured aquifers, integral and significant part of the operating costs is the cost of disposing of the large quantities of produced brines following the desorption of the methane. (4) An estimate of the sales price of the recovered methane using appropriate discount rates.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Doscher, Todd M.; Osborne, R.N.; Wilson, T. & Rhee, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Milestone Report No. 3 (Stretford Processes Units 1-12)

Description: Milestone Report No. 3 is a progress report. Rogers Engineering Co., Inc. has investigated what sites are best suited for consolidation of power generating units 1 through 12 for processing the noncondensable gases through the Stretford Process for H{sub 2}S abatement below 10% of the mass flow. The consolidation arrangement for the power generating units are Units 1 through 6 which produces 187 MWe power. Units 7-8 and 11 producing 212 MWe and Units 9-10 and 12 which also produces 212 MWe power. Site survey and selection for the Stretford units provided for a primary and alternative site for each consolidation. Each of these three groups of plants is associated with its Stretford Process Plant. The gas blowers located at each power plant to push the noncondensable gases through the stainless steel pipe network to the Stretford Process have been sized. When combining the new auxiliary load requirements of these blowers and the Stretford units it was determined that additional auxiliary transformer capacity is necessary. We are investigating additional alternatives with respect to the Stretford Process application. This data will be submitted in the Final Report, See Section 6.
Date: June 29, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Units 1-12 Condensed Final Report

Description: Geysers Power Plant Units 1-12 conceptual study of two H{sub 2}S abatement systems. The study is to provide a cost benefit and technical analysis of the existing (iron/caustic/peroxide) abatement system compared to retrofitting Units 1-12 with surface condensers and vent gases processing with the Stretford process. The study is based on the understanding that both H{sub 2}S abatement system compared meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements for H{sub 2}S emissions. The summary of this paper is that it is economical to convert from the existing abatement (iron/caustic/peroxide) to the alternative (surface condenser/Stretford) by a substantial amount. There is also a most economical timing sequence to accomplish the conversion to the surface condenser/Stretford abatement. The project if started immediately would be finished and operating by 1984. It is felt that the surface condenser/Stretford abatement system will ultimately meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements and improve the capacity factor of the Geysers power plant Units 1-12.
Date: August 24, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Milestone Report No. 2 (Units 5-12)

Description: Milestone Report No. 1 was delivered on June 1, 1979 and related to the conversion of Units 1-4. Milestone Report No. 2 describes the conversion of Units 5-12 from direct contact condensers which use the iron-catalyst/peroxide/caustic systems to surface condensers and H{sub 2}S abatement with the Stretford Process Unit. This Report is a 10 week progress report that specifically addresses itself to the differences that are encountered between Units 5-6, 7-10 and 11-12. The task schedule shown in the Summary Section was originally presented to PG and E at the Project Kick-Off Meeting on Monday, April 23. Units 11 and 12 retrofit concept which appears in this report was evaluated with a two pass surface condenser running parallel to the turbine shaft. This concept requires the relocation of the turbine lube oil tank, instrument air compressor and battery storage rack facilities. On Wednesday, June 27, the condenser supplier notified Rogers Engineering that it was feasible to design and install a four pass, two tube bundle condenser at right angle condenser to the turbine-generator shaft. The four pass condenser concept will eliminate the need of relocating equipment sensitive to turbine operation. However, schedule requirements for Milestone Report No. 2 left no time to incorporate the benefits of the concept they believe will be recommended by Rogers. It will appear in the Final Milestone Report No. 4.
Date: June 29, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Environmental Assessment of Proposed Geothermal Well Testing in the Tigre Lagoon Oil Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

Description: This report is an environmental assessment of the proposed testing of two geopressured, geothermal aquifers in central coastal Louisiana. On the basis of an analysis of the environmental setting, subsurface characteristics, and the proposed action, potential environmental impacts are determined and evaluated together with potential conflicts with federal, state, and local programs. Oil and gas wells in coastal Louisiana have penetrated a potentially productive geothermal zone of abnormally high-pressured aquifers that also yield large volumes of natural gas. To evaluate the extent to which the geothermal-geopressured water can be used as an alternative energy source and to what extent withdrawal of geopressured water can enhance gas production, it is necessary that flow rates, composition and temperature of fluids and gases, recharge characteristics, pressures, compressibilities, and other hydrodynamic and boundary conditions of the reservoir be determined by means of production tests. Tests are further necessary to evaluate and seek solutions to technological problems.
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and definition of parameters associated with testing geopressure water: An Interim Report, June 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

Description: Prior to the initiation of this project, considerable literature had appeared in technical journals, particularly geological journals, describing the potential value of the energy contained in hot geopressured waters along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The geographic region of interest was identified as the area between Brownsville and Pensacola, approximately 200 miles wide and 750 miles long and therefore containing about 150,000 square miles of surface area. The resource was estimated as lying at depths between 5,000 and 25,000 feet. Although many descriptions of this resource had been written, not much experimental data were available regarding the actual analyses of these waters, especially the methane content. ERDA Geothermal division sponsored the current project to find out the precise analysis of the waters in the geopressured zone in a specific South Louisiana shut in gas well. This information was desired as a prelude to additional resource development projects. If the experimental results of this project were negative, doubts would be raised that there should be serious attempts at other development projects. If the results were positive (i.e., the waters were saturated with methane suggested by hydrogeological theory of this region) then ERDA would feel encouraged to proceed with larger scale projects, especially the drilling and completion of an on-purpose geopressured geothermal well. The project was funded for the purpose of dynamic testing two aquifers tapped by an existing gas well in the Tigre Lagoon field in Vermilion Parish. Some information about the characteristics of the reservoir fluid and the behavior of the reservoir under varying flow conditions was to be obtained. The analyses of the water would be run concurrently with the flow tests.
Date: August 31, 1976
Creator: Karkalits, O.C.; Hodges, Jimmie & Jones, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and Evaluation of Geopressured-Geothermal Wells; Detailed Reentry Prognosis for Geopressure-Geothermal Testing of Gladys McCall No. 1 Well

Description: This Gruy Federal Type III-A geopressured-geothermal (Geo) prospect was drilled as the Getty Oil Company and Buttes Gas and Oil Company, No.1 Gladys McCall. It is located in Section 27, Township 15S, Range 5W, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The well is accessible by way of the original canal levee road, approximately 2 1/2 miles south of Louisiana State Route 82; one bridge must be replaced and a board road must be laid on the levee. Buttes completed this well in january, 1970, as a shut-in gas well through perforations from 11,924 to 11,928 feet. it was plugged and abandoned in April, 1970, without having produced. The location is shown on the north central area of the USGS topographic sheet ''Hog Bayou''. A portion of this sheet is included, which shows this well location as well as the State Lease 4183 Nos. 1 and 2 wells on the adjacent Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge and Game Preserve.
Date: June 16, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and Evaluation of Geopressured-Geothermal Wells; Detailed Completion Prognosis for Geopressured-Geothermal Well of Opportunity Prospect No.6; Beulah Simon No. 2 Well

Description: This well of opportunity (WOO) geopressured-geothermal prospect has been drilled to 15,265 feet by Southport Exploration, Inc. (Southport) as the Beulah Simon No. 2 Well. The well is located in Section 26, T11S, R2E, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, approximately four miles northeast of the town of Kaplan. The wellsite is shown on the enclosed section of USGS topographic sheet, ''Lafayette, La.'', and is accessible by State Highway 13 from Interstate Highway 10. The well was drilled approximately one mile east of the Southport et al. Beulah Simon No. 1 Well in the Cossinade Field. The Beulah Simon No. 1 Well is producing natural gas from a zone which is separate and distinct from the target reservoir in the No. 2 Well.
Date: April 6, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal commercialization baseline for state of Wyoming

Description: Wyoming does have numerous hot springs; but there has been little development effort in geothermal energy, since the state's primary interests are in coal, gas and oil. The hot springs of Thermopolis are among the largest in the world. Recent data from the central portion of the state indicate the potential for electric power generation from geothermal energy. Oil and gas wells (about 70,000) have been drilled in the state and some have geothermal waters that can be utilized for direct applications. The Madison Aquifer extends into the northeastern quadrant of the state and offers considerable potential for geothermal energy. Leasing activity is very limited. Geothermal legislation is basically non-existent, but the State Engineer has the responsibility for protecting the thermal springs. This handbook provides a synopsis of various aspects of the geothermal program in Wyoming. The section on Basic State Data (Section 2) lists government personnel (both legislative and executive branches) who are most directly involved with geothermal development. Some basic demographic data are also included. The various hydrothermal resources and the pertinent geology are summarized in Section 3. Activities (ranging from leases to operational systems) that lead to commercialization are described in Section 4. Plans for various developments are summarized in Section 5, while government assistance to Wyoming projects is list4ed in Section 6. The section on energy use patterns (Section 7) summarizes existing energy use and identifies counties and industries likely to be impacted most by geothermal energy. The section on leasing and permitting policies (Section 8) deals with legal and institutional considerations and includes a time table of institutional procedures for a typical resource to show the interrelationships among various organizations involved in development and regulation of the resource.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Hanny, J.A. & Lunis, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supply and Demand for Energy in the United States by States and Regions, 1960 and 1965: Integrated Energy Balances and Energy Flows (Prepared from Four Parts)

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing state and regional supply and demand data. Integrated energy balances and energy flows are presented and used "to produce, transform, and transport energy to the point of consumption" (p. 1). This report includes maps, tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1970
Creator: Zaffarano, R. F.; Yasnowsky, P. N.; Crump, L. H. & Mo, W. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department