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METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETICMICROORGANISMS

Description: The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.
Date: August 1, 1970
Creator: Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of stress on the microstructure of a graywacke sandstone from the site of the Rio Blanco gas-stimulation experiment

Description: Project Rio Blanco was designed to increase rock permeability in an existing gas reservoir by fracturing the rock with a vertical array of three simultaneous nuclear explosions. The project site was CER Geonuclear hole RB-E- 01, Section 14, T35, R98W, Rio Blanco County, in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwest Colorado. The most essential part of this project was to produce fracturing in, and thereby to increase the permeability of, the reservoir rock. This report contains the results of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies done on unstressed and laboratory-stressed samples of graywacke sandstone from the 6458-ft level of the emplacement hole. Laboratory-stressed samples were from uniaxial-stress and uniaxial-strain tests made as part of equation-of-state measurements used to provide input parameters for preshot code calculations. (auth)
Date: September 30, 1975
Creator: Dengler, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured-geothermal test of the EDNA Delcambre No. 1 well, Tigre Lagoon Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: Analysis of water and dissolved natural gas: Final report

Description: The presence of large volumes of hot water (250-425 F) containing dissolved natural gas in the Gulf of Mexico coastal areas at depths of 5,000 to 25,000 feet (the geopressured zone) has been known for several years. Because natural gas and oil from conventional production methods were relatively inexpensive prior to 1973, and because foreign oil was readily available, no economic incentive existed for developing this resource. With the oil embargo and the resulting rapid escalation in prices of oil and gas since 1973, a new urgency exists for examining the economic potential of the geopressured-geothermal resource. The main objective of the research reported here was to determine the volume of gas dissolved in the geopressured water, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the water and the dissolved gas. A further objective was to use an existing shut-in gas well so that drilling time and the attendant costs could be avoided.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Hankind, B.E. & Karkalits, O.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geopressured Energy Resource Evaluation

Description: The geopressured aquifers that extend along the northern Gulf of Mexico are a large, perhaps the largest, potential source of geothermal energy and natural gas in the US. Because of the high cost of completing wells into these formations and their relatively low temperatures (200 to 400 F), the utilization of the geothermal energy will be highly depend on, and of secondary importance to, the value of the methane. The economics of extracting either the geothermal energy or natural gas from these aquifers does not look promising. The combined requirements of high well flow rates (40,000 bbl/day), long life (20 years), and the necessity for close well spacing to minimize the cost of the collection system may be incompatible with the actual characteristics of the reservoirs. These factors place such stringent requirements on the reservoir size, permeability, and compressibility, or specific storage coefficient, that the number of promising production areas may be severely limited.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Samuels, Garland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Milestone Report No. 3 (Stretford Processes Units 1-12)

Description: Milestone Report No. 3 is a progress report. Rogers Engineering Co., Inc. has investigated what sites are best suited for consolidation of power generating units 1 through 12 for processing the noncondensable gases through the Stretford Process for H{sub 2}S abatement below 10% of the mass flow. The consolidation arrangement for the power generating units are Units 1 through 6 which produces 187 MWe power. Units 7-8 and 11 producing 212 MWe and Units 9-10 and 12 which also produces 212 MWe power. Site survey and selection for the Stretford units provided for a primary and alternative site for each consolidation. Each of these three groups of plants is associated with its Stretford Process Plant. The gas blowers located at each power plant to push the noncondensable gases through the stainless steel pipe network to the Stretford Process have been sized. When combining the new auxiliary load requirements of these blowers and the Stretford units it was determined that additional auxiliary transformer capacity is necessary. We are investigating additional alternatives with respect to the Stretford Process application. This data will be submitted in the Final Report, See Section 6.
Date: June 29, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Units 1-12 Condensed Final Report

Description: Geysers Power Plant Units 1-12 conceptual study of two H{sub 2}S abatement systems. The study is to provide a cost benefit and technical analysis of the existing (iron/caustic/peroxide) abatement system compared to retrofitting Units 1-12 with surface condensers and vent gases processing with the Stretford process. The study is based on the understanding that both H{sub 2}S abatement system compared meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements for H{sub 2}S emissions. The summary of this paper is that it is economical to convert from the existing abatement (iron/caustic/peroxide) to the alternative (surface condenser/Stretford) by a substantial amount. There is also a most economical timing sequence to accomplish the conversion to the surface condenser/Stretford abatement. The project if started immediately would be finished and operating by 1984. It is felt that the surface condenser/Stretford abatement system will ultimately meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements and improve the capacity factor of the Geysers power plant Units 1-12.
Date: August 24, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PGandE Geysers Retrofit Project, Milestone Report No. 2 (Units 5-12)

Description: Milestone Report No. 1 was delivered on June 1, 1979 and related to the conversion of Units 1-4. Milestone Report No. 2 describes the conversion of Units 5-12 from direct contact condensers which use the iron-catalyst/peroxide/caustic systems to surface condensers and H{sub 2}S abatement with the Stretford Process Unit. This Report is a 10 week progress report that specifically addresses itself to the differences that are encountered between Units 5-6, 7-10 and 11-12. The task schedule shown in the Summary Section was originally presented to PG and E at the Project Kick-Off Meeting on Monday, April 23. Units 11 and 12 retrofit concept which appears in this report was evaluated with a two pass surface condenser running parallel to the turbine shaft. This concept requires the relocation of the turbine lube oil tank, instrument air compressor and battery storage rack facilities. On Wednesday, June 27, the condenser supplier notified Rogers Engineering that it was feasible to design and install a four pass, two tube bundle condenser at right angle condenser to the turbine-generator shaft. The four pass condenser concept will eliminate the need of relocating equipment sensitive to turbine operation. However, schedule requirements for Milestone Report No. 2 left no time to incorporate the benefits of the concept they believe will be recommended by Rogers. It will appear in the Final Milestone Report No. 4.
Date: June 29, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Environmental Assessment of Proposed Geothermal Well Testing in the Tigre Lagoon Oil Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

Description: This report is an environmental assessment of the proposed testing of two geopressured, geothermal aquifers in central coastal Louisiana. On the basis of an analysis of the environmental setting, subsurface characteristics, and the proposed action, potential environmental impacts are determined and evaluated together with potential conflicts with federal, state, and local programs. Oil and gas wells in coastal Louisiana have penetrated a potentially productive geothermal zone of abnormally high-pressured aquifers that also yield large volumes of natural gas. To evaluate the extent to which the geothermal-geopressured water can be used as an alternative energy source and to what extent withdrawal of geopressured water can enhance gas production, it is necessary that flow rates, composition and temperature of fluids and gases, recharge characteristics, pressures, compressibilities, and other hydrodynamic and boundary conditions of the reservoir be determined by means of production tests. Tests are further necessary to evaluate and seek solutions to technological problems.
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and definition of parameters associated with testing geopressure water: An Interim Report, June 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

Description: Prior to the initiation of this project, considerable literature had appeared in technical journals, particularly geological journals, describing the potential value of the energy contained in hot geopressured waters along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The geographic region of interest was identified as the area between Brownsville and Pensacola, approximately 200 miles wide and 750 miles long and therefore containing about 150,000 square miles of surface area. The resource was estimated as lying at depths between 5,000 and 25,000 feet. Although many descriptions of this resource had been written, not much experimental data were available regarding the actual analyses of these waters, especially the methane content. ERDA Geothermal division sponsored the current project to find out the precise analysis of the waters in the geopressured zone in a specific South Louisiana shut in gas well. This information was desired as a prelude to additional resource development projects. If the experimental results of this project were negative, doubts would be raised that there should be serious attempts at other development projects. If the results were positive (i.e., the waters were saturated with methane suggested by hydrogeological theory of this region) then ERDA would feel encouraged to proceed with larger scale projects, especially the drilling and completion of an on-purpose geopressured geothermal well. The project was funded for the purpose of dynamic testing two aquifers tapped by an existing gas well in the Tigre Lagoon field in Vermilion Parish. Some information about the characteristics of the reservoir fluid and the behavior of the reservoir under varying flow conditions was to be obtained. The analyses of the water would be run concurrently with the flow tests.
Date: August 31, 1976
Creator: Karkalits, O.C.; Hodges, Jimmie & Jones, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and Evaluation of Geopressured-Geothermal Wells; Detailed Reentry Prognosis for Geopressure-Geothermal Testing of Gladys McCall No. 1 Well

Description: This Gruy Federal Type III-A geopressured-geothermal (Geo) prospect was drilled as the Getty Oil Company and Buttes Gas and Oil Company, No.1 Gladys McCall. It is located in Section 27, Township 15S, Range 5W, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The well is accessible by way of the original canal levee road, approximately 2 1/2 miles south of Louisiana State Route 82; one bridge must be replaced and a board road must be laid on the levee. Buttes completed this well in january, 1970, as a shut-in gas well through perforations from 11,924 to 11,928 feet. it was plugged and abandoned in April, 1970, without having produced. The location is shown on the north central area of the USGS topographic sheet ''Hog Bayou''. A portion of this sheet is included, which shows this well location as well as the State Lease 4183 Nos. 1 and 2 wells on the adjacent Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge and Game Preserve.
Date: June 16, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and Evaluation of Geopressured-Geothermal Wells; Detailed Completion Prognosis for Geopressured-Geothermal Well of Opportunity Prospect No.6; Beulah Simon No. 2 Well

Description: This well of opportunity (WOO) geopressured-geothermal prospect has been drilled to 15,265 feet by Southport Exploration, Inc. (Southport) as the Beulah Simon No. 2 Well. The well is located in Section 26, T11S, R2E, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, approximately four miles northeast of the town of Kaplan. The wellsite is shown on the enclosed section of USGS topographic sheet, ''Lafayette, La.'', and is accessible by State Highway 13 from Interstate Highway 10. The well was drilled approximately one mile east of the Southport et al. Beulah Simon No. 1 Well in the Cossinade Field. The Beulah Simon No. 1 Well is producing natural gas from a zone which is separate and distinct from the target reservoir in the No. 2 Well.
Date: April 6, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal commercialization baseline for state of Wyoming

Description: Wyoming does have numerous hot springs; but there has been little development effort in geothermal energy, since the state's primary interests are in coal, gas and oil. The hot springs of Thermopolis are among the largest in the world. Recent data from the central portion of the state indicate the potential for electric power generation from geothermal energy. Oil and gas wells (about 70,000) have been drilled in the state and some have geothermal waters that can be utilized for direct applications. The Madison Aquifer extends into the northeastern quadrant of the state and offers considerable potential for geothermal energy. Leasing activity is very limited. Geothermal legislation is basically non-existent, but the State Engineer has the responsibility for protecting the thermal springs. This handbook provides a synopsis of various aspects of the geothermal program in Wyoming. The section on Basic State Data (Section 2) lists government personnel (both legislative and executive branches) who are most directly involved with geothermal development. Some basic demographic data are also included. The various hydrothermal resources and the pertinent geology are summarized in Section 3. Activities (ranging from leases to operational systems) that lead to commercialization are described in Section 4. Plans for various developments are summarized in Section 5, while government assistance to Wyoming projects is list4ed in Section 6. The section on energy use patterns (Section 7) summarizes existing energy use and identifies counties and industries likely to be impacted most by geothermal energy. The section on leasing and permitting policies (Section 8) deals with legal and institutional considerations and includes a time table of institutional procedures for a typical resource to show the interrelationships among various organizations involved in development and regulation of the resource.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Hanny, J.A. & Lunis, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report, Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations Research Program: First project year, June 1977-August 1978

Description: The overall objectives of the first year project were as follows: (1) to develop realistic but aggressive scenarios with certainty factors for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah; (2) to delineate the public actions, together with their schedules, required for the scenarios to materialize; and (3) to develop a computer-based data storage and retrieval system (i.e. a Regional Program Progress Monitor) of the level of a preliminary working model, which is capable of displaying program approach but is not loaded with all available data. In addition, each sponsor had supplementary objectives aligned to its own programmatic goals. DOE sought to develop expertise and programs within the appropriate state agencies upon which future DOE development and commercialization activities could be structured. FCRC sought to promote the utilization of geothermal energy throughout the five-state region for purposes of expanded economic development, increased employment, and higher citizen incomes. The goals of the five states varied from state to state, but generally included the following: development of alternative energy sources to replace dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas; economic and industrial development in rural areas; encouragement of industry and utility development of geothermal energy for electrical power generation; demonstration of the practical applications of energy research and development; and close interaction with business and industry for the commercialization of both electric and direct thermal applications.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Meyer, Richard T. & Davidson, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural gas content of geopressured aquifers

Description: It is hypothesized that free, but immobile, natural gas is trapped in pores in geopressured aquifers and that this gas becomes mobile as aquifer pressure is reduced by water production. Computer simulation reveals this hypothesis is a plausible explanation for the high gas/water ratio observed from the No. 1 sand in the Edna Delcambre No. 1 well. In this Delcambre well test, the gas/water ratio increased from the solution gas value of less than 20 SCF/bbl to more than 50 SCF/bbl during production of 32,000 barrels of water in 10 days. Bottom hole pressure was reduced from 10,846 to 9,905 psia. The computer simulation reveals that such increased gas production requires relative permeability to gas(k{sub rg}) increase from less than 10{sup -4} to about 10{sup -3} due to a decrease in fractional water saturation of pores (S{sub w}) of only about 0.001. Further, assuming drainage relative permeabilities are as calculated by the method of A.T. Corey{sup 1}, initial gas saturation of pores must be greater than 0.065. Means for achieving these initial conditions during geological time will be qualitatively discussed, and the effect of trapped gas upon long-term production will be described.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Randolph, Philip L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Rio Blanco definition plan. Additional formation evaluation and production testing

Description: Since the multiple Rio Blanco detonation three reentry wells have been drilled for test purposes: RB-E-01 (Emplacement Well); RB-AR-2 (Alternate Reentry Well); and RB-U-4 (Formation Evaluation Well). Additional testing in all these wells is now required to resolve some remaining technical questions. A plan describing the procedures, methods, responsibilities, and scheduling of the field operations is presented. (TFD)
Date: September 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

Description: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1979. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on the progress of those geothermal-related tasks where effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, also supported by DOE/RA, contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Studies, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, reports on neotectonic investigations in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on recovery of landfill methane, supported by the Argonne National Laboratory. The fifth section, New Energy Technologies, reports on Laboratory studies of an unconventional gas source--Eastern Devonian shales.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A Review of Recent Energy Price Projections for Traditional Space Heating Fuel 1985-2000

Description: In order to develop an initial estimate of the potential competitiveness of low temperature (45 degrees C to 100 degrees C) geothermal resources on the Eastern Coastal Plain, the Center for Metropolitant Planning and Research of The Johns Hopkins University reviewed and compared available energy price projections. Series of projections covering the post-1985 period have been made by the Energy Information Administration, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and by private research firms. Since low temperature geothermal energy will compete primarily for the space and process heating markets currently held by petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, projected trends in the real prices for these fuels were examined. The spread in the current and in projected future prices for these fuels, which often serve identical end uses, underscores the influence of specific attributes for each type of fuel, such as cleanliness, security of supply, and governmental regulation. Geothermal energy possesses several important attributes in common with electricity (e.g., ease of maintenance and perceived security of supply), and thus the price of electric space heating is likely to be an upper bound on a competitive price for geothermal energy. Competitiveness would, of course, be increased if geothermal heat could be delivered for prices closer to those for oil and natural gas. The projections reviewed suggest that oil and gas prices will rise significantly in real terms over the next few decades, while electricity prices are projected to be more stable. Electricity prices will, however, remain above those for the other two fuels. The significance of this work rests on the fact that, in market economies, prices provide the fundamental signals needed for efficient resource allocation. Although market prices often fail to fully account for factors such as environmental impacts and long-term scarcity value, they nevertheless embody a considerable amount of information and are the primary ...
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Weissbrod, Richard & Barron, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completion Techniques for Geothermal-Geopressured Wells. Final report

Description: Geological studies have established that geothermal-geopressured formations can be found at depths of 10,000 to 18,000 feet in the Gulf Coast area of Texas and Louisiana. Bottom hole pressures are in the range of 9,000 to 15,000 psig and temperatures 250-350 F. Test wells to tap these reservoirs can be drilled routinely, utilizing available equipment and methods. Electric logs, surveys, cores and production tests can be used to assess these resources and to evaluate their economic viability as primary sources of energy. But it will be necessary to complete the wells in such fashion that production of the high-pressured fluid can be obtained to deliver heat, mechanical energy and methane gas in economic quantities. This will require carefully considered completion techniques, involving pipe sizes and accessory equipment suitable for high volumes of fluid. Completion operations may include formation stimulation treatments and/or sand control measures to obtain optimum rates of flow with minimum sand influx. It appears that gravel-packed completions will be more feasible at this time than chemical consolidation treatments to control sand production because of high temperatures, thick producing intervals, and high-velocity flow rates. Flow rates up to 100 barrels per day per foot of perforations should be possible from consolidated formations without sand control treatments.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Boyd, W.E.; Dorfman, M.H. & Podio, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department