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Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

Description: Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.
Date: May 31, 2000
Creator: Riley, M.F. & Ryan, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2nd Generation PFBC Systems R&D Phase 2 and Phase 3

Description: No work was performed; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95 percent sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group prepared preliminary plant heat and materials based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1700 and 1800 F and found the former to yield the higher plant efficiency. As a result, 1700 F has been selected as the preferred operating condition for the carbonizer. The previous first cut plant heat and material balance was refined and it predicts a 47.7% plant efficiency (HHV) with a net power output of 421.1 MWe. The latter includes a plant auxiliary load estimated to be 23.5 MWe or 5.26% of the gross plant power and a transformer loss of 1.5 MWe. Coal drying is through natural gas combustion, and the thermal energy input of the natural gas has also been included in the heat rate calculation. Figure 1 presents the plant preliminary full load heat and material balance. In this arrangement, evaporation and primary steam superheating tube surfaces are placed in both the pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB) and the gas turbine heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The superheated steam from these units is mixed and then heated to 1050 F in the PCFB finishing superheater. With regard to steam reheating, the primary stage is located ...
Date: March 17, 2000
Creator: Robertson, Archie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

Description: C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location ...
Date: October 27, 2000
Creator: Huffman, Gerald P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

Description: The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.
Date: September 30, 2000
Creator: Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development

Description: The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Shropshire, David Earl; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Berrett, Sharon; Cobb, D. A. & Worhach, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) Technical Readiness Testing and Pre-Commercial Demonstration

Description: The objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Specific performance targets have been set using natural gas as the primary fuel: {lg_bullet} System efficiency that will exceed 60%(lower heating value basis) on natural gas for large scale utility turbine systems; for industrial applications, systems that will result in a 15% improvement in heat rate compared to currently available gas turbine systems. {lg_bullet} An environmentally superior system that will not require the use of post combustion emissions controls under full load operating conditions. {lg_bullet} Busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems, while meeting the same environmental requirements. {lg_bullet} Fuel-flexible designs that will operate on natural gas but are capable of being adapted to operate on coal-derived or biomass fuels. {lg_bullet} Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to the current turbine systems. {lg_bullet} Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals. {lg_bullet} Commercial systems that will enter the market in the year 2000. In Phase I of the ATS program, Siemens Westinghouse found that efficiency significantly increases when the traditional combined-cycle power plant is reconfigured with closed-loop steam cooling of the hot gas path. Phase II activities involved the development of a 318MW natural gas fired turbine conceptual design with the flexibility to burn coal-derived and biomass fuels. Phases I and II of the ATS program have been completed. Phase III, the current phase, completes the research and development activities and develops hardware specifications from the Phase II conceptual design. This report summarizes Phase III extension activities for a three month period. Additional details may be found in monthly technical progress reports covering the period stated on the cover of this report. ...
Date: December 31, 2000
Creator: Westinghouse, Siemens
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and temporal behavior of radical intermediates formed during the combustion and pyrolysis of gaseous fuels: Kinetic pathways to soot formation. Final performance report, July 1, 1997 - September 30, 2000

Description: A shock tube coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been employed to analyze the dynamic behavior of reactants, products, and intermediates in those reaction systems which are most pertinent to understanding the chemistry attendant to the soot formation process. The measurement of the decay rates of the reactants, the rate of formation of intermediates and products have been used to determine rate constants over a wide temperature range. Recent examples include the pyrolyses of allene, propyne, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridine, acetylene, furan, cyclopentadiene, and methylcyclopentadiene.
Date: September 30, 2000
Creator: Kern, Ralph D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Produced Oil and Gas Waters With Surfactant-Modified Zeolite

Description: Whereas most water produced from onshore oil and gas operations is disposed via reinjection, some waters, such as those from offshore production platforms, coastal production, and some onshore wells, must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current methods for reducing residual free phases and dissolved organic carbon are not always fully effective in meeting regulatory limits. In addition, cost, space requirements, and ease of use are important factors in any treatment system. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. This research will use laboratory batch and column studies to design a field system that will be used to treat produced waters to reduce dissolved and free-phase organic constituents. The system will be designed to operate simply and to have low operating costs. Methods for regeneration of the spent zeolite will also be tested, as will the treatment system at a field production site in the final project task. Research over the past six months has focused on the selection and characterization of the surfactant modified zeolite and the produced waters. The zeolite to be used in this work has been obtained from St. Cloud Mine near Winston, New Mexico. The primary surfactant to be used to modify the zeolite is hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA).
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Katz, Lynn E.; Sullivan, E.J. & Bowman, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

Description: As part of Phase 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden & Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently processing the production and well data and developing our new Access/Excel based software that incorporates our identification methodologies. Upon completion we will generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: II, C.M. Boyer; N.,R. Fairchild, Jr. & P.G., R.J. MacDonald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for Predicting Flammable Gas Mixtures in Double Contained Receiver Tanks [SEC 1 THRU SEC 3]

Description: This methodology document provides an estimate of the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) from the simultaneous saltwell pumping of one or more single-shell tanks (SSTs). This document expands Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) and removes some of the conservatism from it, especially in vapor phase ammonia predictions. The methodologies of Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) are essentially identical for predicting flammable gas mixtures in DCRTs from saltwell pumping for low DCRT ventilation rates, 1e, < 1 cfm. The hydrogen generation model has also been updated in the methodology of this document.
Date: January 31, 2000
Creator: HEDENGREN, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1999 Through March 2000

Description: The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOx and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses ...
Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

Description: During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.
Date: May 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

Description: The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.
Date: November 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

Description: A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dodge B2500 dedicated CNG van

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. The authors tested a 1999 B2500 dedicated CNG Ram Wagon with a 5.2L V8 engine. The vehicle was run through a series of tests explained briefly in this fact sheet.
Date: April 19, 2000
Creator: Eudy, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the next generation medium-duty natural gas engine

Description: This report summarizes the work done under this subcontract in the areas of System Design, System Fabrication, and Experimental Program. The report contains the details of the engine development process for achieving throttleless stratified charge spark ignition (SI) engine operation as well as advanced turbocharging strategies. Engine test results showing the potential of the direct-injection stratified charge combustion strategy for increasing part-load engine efficiency on a John Deere 8.1-liter natural gas engine are also included in this report. In addition, steady state and step transient engine data are presented that quantify the performance of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) as well as a modified waste-gated turbocharger on the engine. The benefits of the technologies investigated during this project will be realized in the form of increased drive-cycle efficiency to diesel-like levels, while retaining the low emissions characteristics of a lean-burn natural gas engine.
Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: Podnar, D.J. & Kubesh, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the mixed-conducting SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} system

Description: Mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co oxides have potential applications in dense ceramic membranes for high-purity oxygen separation and/or methane conversion to produce syngas (CO + H{sub 2}), because of their combined high electronic/ionic conductivity and significant oxygen permeability. SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} has been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Conductivities were measured at elevated temperatures in various gas environments and rose with increasing temperature and increasing oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) in the surrounding environment. Neutron powder diffraction experiments revealed that in a high pO{sub 2} environment the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} material consists of three different phases. The relative concentration of each component phase is dependent on temperature and pO{sub 2} in the surrounding environment. In air, Sr{sub 2}(Fe,Co){sub 3}O{sub y} (236 phase) is the majority phase and consists of >75wt.% of the total, while the perovskite and rocksalt phases account for {approx}20wt.% and <5 wt.%, respectively. However, in a reducing environment, the 236 phase decomposes and converts to perovskite and rocksalt phase at high temperature. In an environment of pO{sub 2} < 10{sup {minus}12.2} atm, the 236 phase is completely converted into perovskite (brownmillerite) and rocksalt phases.
Date: May 18, 2000
Creator: Ma, B.; Victory, N. I.; Balachandran, U.; Mitchell, B. J. & Richardson, J. W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mack LNG vehicle development

Description: The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.
Date: January 5, 2000
Creator: Southwest Research Institute
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beneficial Use of Drilling Waste - A Wetland Restoration Technology

Description: This project demonstrated that treated drill cuttings derived from oil and gas operations could be used as source material for rebuilding eroding wetlands in Louisiana. Planning to supply a restoration site, drill a source well, and provide part of the funding. Scientists from southeastern Louisiana University's (SLU) Wetland Biology Department were contracted to conduct the proposed field research and to perform mesocosm studies on the SLU campus. Plans were to use and abandoned open water drill slip as a restoration site. Dredged material was to be used to create berms to form an isolated cell that would then be filled with a blend of dredged material and drill cuttings. Three elevations were used to test the substrates ability to support various alternative types of marsh vegetation, i.e., submergent, emergent, and upland. The drill cuttings were not raw cuttings, but were treated by either a dewatering process (performed by Cameron, Inc.) or by a stabilization process to encapsulate undesirable constituents (performed by SWACO, Division of Smith International).
Date: August 14, 2000
Creator: Resources, Pioneer Natural
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

Description: The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.
Date: March 2, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

Description: The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.
Date: April 12, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Columbia-Willamette, Oregon/Washington award winning coalition (Clean Cities award winning coalition alternative fuel information series fact sheet)

Description: In November 1994, the Portland Clean Cities Coalition became the 28th Clean City. And Number 28 took off and quickly picked up speed. By the end of 1999, the group had grown so much that it sought re-designation under a new name, the Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition, to better reflect the much larger geographical area it had come to represent. The coalition now represents two states, encompassing much of southwest Washington and most of Oregon. Several municipal agencies, along with many private companies, are participating in Vancouver, Washington; and in Portland, Eugene, and Salem, Oregon. With this geographical expansion came an increase in stakeholders, and in 1999 the coalition added a record number of 65 stakeholders, including three local transit districts, two utility districts, three cities, two counties, five alternative fuel original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and numerous other local businesses.
Date: April 27, 2000
Creator: Howard, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels

Description: In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.
Date: March 14, 2000
Creator: Pope, C. J. & Miller, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department